Keres (Greek mythology)

Keres (Greek mythology)

In Greek mythology, the Ceres (Κῆρες; singular: Cer Κήρ) were female death-spirits. The Keres were daughters of Nyx, and as such the sisters of Fate (Moirae), Doom (Moros), Death and Sleep (Thanatos and Hypnos), Strife (Eris), Old Age (Geras), Divine Retribution (Nemesis), Charon, and other personifications. Some, such as Cicero who calls them by a Latin name, Tenebrae, or the Darknesses, name them daughters of Erebus and Nyx.


:"And Nyx (Night) bare hateful Moros (Doom) and black Ker (Violent Death) and Thanatos (Death), and she bare Hypnos (Sleep) and the tribe of Oneiroi (Dreams). And again the goddess murky Nyx, though she lay with none, bare Momos (Blame) and painful Oizys (Misery), and the Hesperides ... Also she bare the Moirai (Fates) and the ruthless avenging Keres (Death-Fates) ... Also deadly Nyx bare Nemesis (Envy) to afflict mortal men, and after her, Apate (Deceit) and Philotes (Friendship) and hateful Geras (Old Age) and hard-hearted Eris (Strife)." (Hesiod, "Theogony" 211, translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White).

They were described as dark beings with gnashing teeth and claws and with a thirst for human blood. They would hover over the battlefield and search for dying and wounded men. A description of the Keres can be found in the "Shield of Heracles" (248-57):

:"The black Dooms gnashing their white teeth, grim-eyed, fierce, bloody, terrifying fought over the men who were dying for they were all longing to drink dark blood. As soon as they caught a man who had fallen or one newly wounded, one of them clasped her great claws around him and his soul went down to Hades, to chilly Tartarus. And when they had satisfied their hearts with human blood, they would throw that one behind them and rush back again into the battle and the tumult."

As death daimons, they were also associated with Cerberus, whose name can be read as the Ker of Erebus.Fact|date=November 2007

A parallel, and equally unusual personification of "the baleful Ker" is in Homer's depiction of the Shield of Achilles ("Iliad",ix.410ff), which is the model for the "Shield of Heracles". These are works of art that are being described.

In the fifth century Keres were imaged as small winged sprites in vase-paintings adduced by J.E. Harrison (Harrison, 1903), who described apotropaic rites and rites of purification that were intended to keep the Keres at bay.

According to a statement of Stesichorus noted by Eustathius, Stesichorus "called the Keres by the name Telchines", whom Eustathius identified with the Kuretes of Crete, who could call up squalls of wind and would brew potions from herbs (noted in Harrison, p 171).

The term "Keres" has also been cautiously used to describe a person’s fate. [In the second century AD Pausaniuas equated the two (x.28.4). "Here and elsewhere to translate 'Keres' by fates is to make a premature abstraction," Jane Ellen Harrison warned ("Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion", "The Ker as Evil Sprite" p 170. See also Harrison's section "The Ker as Fate" pp 183-87).] An example of this can be found in the "Iliad" where Achilles was given the choice (or "Keres") between either a long and obscure life and home, or death at Troy and everlasting glory. Also, when Achilles and Hector were about to engage in a fight to the death, the god Zeus weighed both warrior's "keres" to determine who shall die. [This "Kerostasia", or weighing of "keres" may be paralleled by the "Psychostasia" or weighing of souls; a lost play with that title was written by Aeschylus and the Egyptian parallel is familiar.] As Hector’s "ker" was deemed heavier, he was the one destined to die. [The subject appears in vase-paintings, where little men are in the scales: "it is the "lives" rather than the fates that are weighed", Harrison remarks ("Prolegomena" p 184).] During the festival known as Anthesteria, the Keres were driven away. Their Roman equivalents were Letum (“death”) or the Tenebrae (“shadows”).

:"Hunger, pestilence, madness,. nightmare have each a sprite behind them; "are" all sprites," J.E. Harrison observed (Harrison 1903, p 169), but two Keres might not be averted, and these, which emerged from the swarm of lesser ills, were Old Age and Death. Odysseus says, "Death and the Ker avoiding, we escape" ("Odyssey" xii.158), where the two are not quite identical: Harrison (p. 175) found the Christian parallel "death and the angel of death".

Among destructive personifications are (not all called "Keres);
*Anaplekte (Quick,Painful Death),
*Akhlys ("mist", that is, of death),
*Nosos ("disease"),
*Ker ("destruction"),
*Stygere ("hateful").

Keres and Valkyries

It is possible that a connection exists between Keres and the Valkyries of Norse myth. Both deities are war spirits that fly over battlefields during conflicts and choose those to be slain. The difference is that Valkyries are benevolent deities in contrast to the malevolence of the Keres, perhaps due to the different outlook of the two cultures towards war.Also the Greek word "keres" (choice) and the Old Norse word "kyrja" (to choose) from "valkyrja" seem to have a common root.Fact|date=June 2007

In Popular Culture

Ceres spelt as Keres appear as a type of female demons in the Hades Act in the game Titan Quest (Expansion Immortal Throne).



* March, J., Cassell's Dictionary Of Classical Mythology, London, 1999. ISBN 0-304-35161-X
*Harrison, Jane Ellen, "Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion" 1903. Chapter V: "The demonology of ghosts and spites and bogeys"
* [ Theoi Project, Keres] references in classical literature

ee also


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