- Heteropatric speciation
Heteropatric speciation is a special case of
sympatric speciationthat occurs when different ecotypesor races of the same species geographically coexist but exploit different niches in the same patchy or heterogeneous environment. Thus heteropatric speciation is a refinement of our notion of sympatric speciationin that it represents a behavioral rather than geographic barrier to the flow of genes among diverging groups within a population. The importance of behavioral separation as a mechanism for promoting sympatric speciation in a heterogeneousor patchwork landscape is highlighted in John Maynard Smith's seminal paper on sympatric speciation[J. Maynard Smith, 1966. Sympatric speciation. "The American Naturalist" 110:637-650.] . In recognition of the importance of this behavioral versus geographic distinction, Wayne Getz and Veijo Kaitala introduced the term heteropatryin their extension of Maynard Smiths' analysis [W. M. Getz and V. Kaitala, 1989. Ecogenetic models, competition, and heteropatry. "Theoretical Population Biology" 36:34-58.] of conditions that facilitate sympatric speciation.
Although some evolutionary biologist still regard sympatric speciation as a highly contentious issue, both theoretical [ D. I. Bolnick, 2006. Multispecies outcomes in a common model of sympatric speciation. "Journal of Theoretical Biology" 241:734-744. ] and empirical [ A. A. Forbes, J. Fisher and J. L. Feder, 2005. Habitat avoidance: overlooking an important aspect of host-specific mating and sympatric speciation. "Evolution" 59:1552-1559.] studies increasingly support sympatric speciation as a likely process in explaining the diversity of life in particular ecosystems. Arguments either implicitly or explicitly implicate competition and niche separation of sympatrically co-occurring ecologically variants that through
assortative matingultimately evolve into separate races and then species. Assortative mating most easily occurs if mating is linked to niche preference, as occurs in the apple maggot"Rhagoletis pomonella" where individual flies from different races use volatile odors to discriminate between hawthorn and apple and look for mates on natal fruit.
In essence, the term heteropatry semantically resolves the issue of sympatric speciation by reducing it to a scaling issue in terms of the way the landscape is used by individuals versus populations. Specifically, from a population perspective, the process looks sympatric, but from an individual’s perspective, the process looks allopatric, once the time spent flying over or moving quickly through intervening non-preferred niches is taken into account.
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