name = Bedbug
image_width = 250px
image_caption = "Cimex lectularius"
familia = Cimicidae
familia_authority = Kirkaldy, 1909
subdivision_ranks = Genera &
subdivision = Genus "
* "Cimex lectularius"
* "Cimex hemipterus" ("C. rotundatus")
* "Cimex pipistrella"Genus "Leptocimex"
* "Leptocimex boueti"Genus "Haematosiphon"
* "Haematosiphon inodora"Genus "Oeciacus"
* "Oeciacus hirudinis"
* "Oeciacus vicarius"Genus "Afrocimex"
*"Afrocimex constrictus"A bedbug (or bed bug) is a small nocturnal
insectof the family Cimicidae that lives by hematophagy, or by feeding on the bloodof humans and other warm-blooded hosts.
The common bedbug ("Cimex lectularius") is the best adapted to human environments. It is found in
temperateclimates throughout the world and lives off the blood of humans. Other species include "Cimex hemipterus", found in tropical regions, which also infests poultryand bats, and "Leptocimex boueti", found in the tropics of West Africaand South America, which infests bats and humans. " Cimex pilosellus" and "Cimex pipistrella" primarily infest bats, while "Haematosiphon inodora", a species of North America, primarily infests poultry. [Cranshaw. W.S. F.B. Peairs. "Bat Bugs and Bed Bugs." http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/INSECT/05574.html.2005.]
"Oeciacus", while not strictly a bedbug, is a closely related genus primarily affecting
Adult bedbugs are a reddish-brown, flattened, oval, and wingless, with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. A common misconception is that they are not visible to the naked eye. Adults grow to 4-5 mm (1/8th - 3/16th of an inch) in length and do not move quickly enough to escape the notice of an attentive observer. Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color and continue to become browner as they moult and reach
maturity. In size, they are often compared to lentils or appleseeds.
A recent paper by Professor
Brian J. Fordand Dr Debbie Stokes gives views of a bedbug [http://www.rms.org.uk/downloads/1_-_Ford-Stokes.pdf under various microscopes] .
Bedbugs are generally active only at dawn, with a peak feeding period about an hour before sunrise. They may attempt to feed at other times, however, given the opportunity, and have been observed to feed at any time of the day. Attracted by warmth and the presence of
carbon dioxide, the bug pierces the skin of its host with two hollow tubes. With one tube it injects its saliva, which contains anticoagulants and anesthetics, while with the other it withdraws the bloodof its host. After feeding for about five minutes, the bug returns to its hiding place. The bites cannot usually be felt until some minutes or hours later, as a dermatological reaction to the injected agents, and the first indication of a bite usually comes from the desire to scratch the bite site. Because of their dislike for sunlight, bedbugs come out at night.
Although bedbugs can live for a year or as much as eighteen months without feeding, they typically seek blood every five to ten days. Bedbugs that go dormant for lack of food often live longer than a year, well-fed specimens typically live six to nine months. Low infestations may be difficult to detect, and it is not unusual for the victim not to even realize they have bedbugs early on. Patterns of bites in a row or a cluster are typical as they may be disturbed while feeding. Bites may be found in a variety of places on the body.
Bedbugs may be erroneously associated with filth in the mistaken notion that this attracts them. Bedbugs are attracted by exhaled carbon dioxide and body heat, not by dirt, and they feed on blood, not waste. In short, the cleanliness of their environments has effect on the control of bedbugs but, unlike
cockroaches, does not have a direct effect on bedbugs as they feed on their hosts and not on waste. Good housekeeping in association with proper preparation and mechanical removal by vacuuming will certainly assist in control.
matevia a process termed traumatic insemination.Carayon, J. 1959 Insémination par “spermalège” et cordon conducteur de spermatozoids chez Stricticimex brevispinosus Usinger (Heteroptera, Cimicidae). Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 60, 81-104.] Carayon, J. 1966 Traumatic insemination and the paragenital system. In Monograph of the Cimicidae (Hemiptera – Heteroptera) (ed. R. L. Usinger), pp. 81-166. College Park, MD: Entomological Society of America.] Carayon, J. 1977 Insémination extragénitale traumatique. In Traité de Zoologie 8(V-A) (ed. P. P. Grassé), pp. 351-390. Paris: Masson.] Instead of inserting their genitaliainto the female's reproductive tract as is typical in copulation, males instead pierce females with hypodermic genitalia and ejaculate into the body cavity. This form of mating is thought to have evolved as a way for males to overcome female mating resistance.Arnqvist, G. & Rowe, L. 2005 Sexual Conflict. Princeton NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.] Stutt, A. D. & Siva-Jothy, M. T. 2001 Traumatic insemination and sexual conflict in the bed bug Cimex lectularius. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 98, 5683-5687.] Traumatic insemination imposes a cost on females in terms of physical damage and increased risk of infection.Morrow, E. H. & Arnqvist, G. 2003 Costly traumatic insemination and a female counter-adaptation in bed bugs. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270, 2377-2381.] Reinhardt, K., Naylor R. & Siva-Jothy, M. T. 2003 Reducing a cost of traumatic insemination: female bedbugs evolve a unique organ. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270, 2371-2375.] To reduce these costs females have evolved internal and external " paragenital" structures collectively known as the “ spermalege”. Within the True Bugs () traumatic insemination occurs in the () and the (, , , and ), and has recently been discovered in the plant bug genus "" ().Tatarnic, N.J., Cassis, G. $ Hochuli, D.F. 2006 Traumatic insemination in the plant bug genus "Coridromius" Signoret (Heteroptera: Miridae). Biology Letters2, 58-61.]
Remarkably, in the genus "" both males and females possess functional external paragenitalia, and males have been found with copulatory scars and the ejaculate of other males in their haemolymph. There is a widespread misbelief that males inseminated by other males will in turn pass the sperm of both themselves and their assailants onto females with whom they mate."A Natural History of Sex", 1991, by Adrian Forsyth] While it is true that males are known to mate with and inject sperm into other males, there is however no evidence to suggest that this sperm ever fertilizes females inseminated by the victims of such acts.
Femalebedbugs can lay up to five eggs in a day and 500 during a lifetime.Fact|date=August 2008 The eggs are visible to the naked eye measuring 1 mm in length (approx. two grains of salt) and are a milky-white tone. The eggs hatch in one to two weeks. The hatchlings begin feeding immediately. They pass through five molting stages before they reach maturity. They must feed once during each of these stages.
At room temperature, it takes only about five weeks for a bedbug to pass from hatching to maturity. They become reproductively active only at maturity.Fact|date=August 2008
In most observed cases, bites consist of a raised red bump or flat welt, and are often accompanied by intense itching. The red bump or welts are the result of an allergic reaction to the anesthetic contained in the bedbug's saliva, which is inserted into the blood of its victim. Bedbug bites may appear indistinguishable from mosquito bites, though they tend to last for longer periods. Bites may not become immediately visible, and can take up to 9 days to appear. Bedbug bites tend to not have a red dot in the center such as is characteristic of flea bites. A trait shared with flea bites, however, is tendency towards arrangements of sequential bites. Bites are often aligned three in a row, giving rise to the colloquialism "breakfast, lunch and dinner." This may be caused by the bedbug being disturbed while eating, and relocating half an inch or so farther along the skin before resuming feeding. Alternatively, the arrangement of bites may be caused by the bedbug repeatedly searching for a blood vein. People react very differently to bedbugs, and individual responses vary with factors including skin type, environment, and the species of bug. In some rare cases, allergic reactions to the bites may cause nausea and illness. In a large number of cases, estimated to 50% of all people, there is no visible sign of bites whatsoever, greatly increasing the difficulty of identifying and eradicating infestations.
People commonly respond to bed bug infestations and their bites with anxiety, stress, and
insomnia. Susan C. Jones, PhD http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/pdf/2105.pdf Extension Fact Sheet "Bed Bugs, Injury" January, 2004 ] Individuals may also get skin infections and scars from scratching the bedbug bite locations.
Most patients who are placed on systemic
corticosteroidsto treat the itching and burning often associated with bed bug bites find that the lesions are poorly responsive to this method of treatment. Antihistamines have been found to reduce itching in some cases, but they do not affect the appearance and duration of the lesions. Topical corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone, have been reported to expediently resolve the lesions and decrease the associated itching. Mark D. Scarupa and Athena Economides, MD Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology "Bedbug bites masquerading as urticaria" Vol. 117, Issue 6, June 2006, p.1508-1509]
Bedbugs seem to possess all of the necessary prerequisites for being capable of passing diseases from one host to another, but there have been no known cases of bed bugs passing disease from host to host. There are at least twenty-seven known
pathogens(some estimates are as high as forty-one) that are capable of living inside a bed bug or on its mouthparts. Extensive testing has been done in laboratory settings that also conclude that bed bugs are unlikely to pass disease from one person to another. Sean Rollo http://thebedbugresource.com/bedbugfaq6.htm The Bed Bug Resource "Can bed bugs pass diseases?" 2007] Therefore bedbugs are less dangerous than some more common insects such as the flea. However, transmission of Chagas diseaseor hepatitis Bmight be possible in appropriate settings. Robert A Schwartz MD, MPH http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic600.htm EMedicine "Bedbug bites" 28 March 2007]
The salivary fluid injected by bed bugs typically causes the skin to become irritated and inflamed, although individuals can differ in their sensitivity. Anaphylactoid reactions produced by the injection of serum and other nonspecific proteins are observed and there is the possibility that the saliva of the bedbugs may cause
anaphylactic shockin a small percentage of people. It is also possible that sustained feeding by bedbugs may lead to anemia. It is also important to watch for and treat any secondary bacterial infection.Fact|date=August 2008
Bedbugs were originally brought to the United States by early colonists from Europe. Bedbugs thrive in places with high occupancy, such as hotels. Bedbugs were believed to be altogether eradicated 50 years ago in the United States and elsewhere with the widespread use of
DDT. One recent theory about bedbug reappearance involves potential geographic epicentres. Investigators have found three apparent United States epicentres at poultry facilities in Arkansas, Texas and Delaware. It was determined that workers in these facilities were the main spreaders of these bedbugs, unknowingly carrying them to their places of residence and elsewhere after leaving work.Austin, James.http://urbanentomology.tamu.edu/bedbugs/bedbugs.cfm] Bedbug populations in the United States have increased by 500 percent in the past few years. The cause of this resurgence is still uncertain, but most believe it is related to increased international travel and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bedbugs.James Owen http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/05/0513_040513_bedbugs.html National Geographic “Bloodthirsty Bedbugs Stage Comeback in U.S., Europe” 13 May 2004. ] In the last few years, the use of baits rather than insecticide sprays is believed to have contributed to the increase.
New York City
New York City has been riddled with bedbug infestations since the early 21st century. Bedbugs have found their way into hotels, schools, and even hospital maternity wards. Jeffrey Eisenberg, owner of Pest Away Exterminating on the Upper West Side, claims his company currently receives 125 calls a week, compared to only a few just five years ago. In 2004, New York City had 377 bedbug violations. However, in the five-month span from July to November 2005, 449 violations were reported in the city, an alarming increase in infestations over a short period of time. Exterminators and entomology experts believe this is because so many international travellers visit New York each day. Jacobs, Andrew [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/27/nyregion/27bugs.html “Just Try to Sleep Tight. The Bedbugs are Back.”] New York Times, New York, N.Y. Nov 27, 2005 pg1.1.]
Bedbug cases have been on the rise recently across the world. Prior to the mid-twentieth century, bedbugs were very common. According to a report by the UK Ministry of Health, in 1933 there were many areas where all the houses had some degree of bedbug infestation. Boase, Clive J, "Bed-bugs - reclaiming our cities" The Pest Management Consultancy, Haverhill, UK, Biologist April 2004, Vol. 51 issue 1, p9-12 ] Since the mid-1990s, reports of bedbug cases have been rising. Figures from one London borough show reported bedbug infestations doubling each year from 1995 to 2001. The rise in bedbug infestations has been hard to track because bedbugs are not an easily identifiable problem. Most of the reports are collected from pest-control companies, local authorities, and hotel chains. Therefore, the problem may be more severe than is currently believed.
As stated above, the most-cited reason for the dramatic worldwide rise in bedbug cases in recent decades is increased international travel. Masetti, Massimo and Bruschi, Fabrizio "Bedbug Infestations recorded in Central Italy" Parasitology International Volume 56, Issue 1, March 2007, p81-83 ] In 1999, four separate infestations throughout the United Kingdom alerted people to the possibility of an increase in the worldwide bedbug population, facilitated by international travel and trade. However, there is evidence of a previous cycle of bedbug infestations in the United Kingdom. The Institution of Environmental Health Officers maintained statistics for bedbug infestations -- data collected from reports and inspections. In the period 1985-1986, the Institution of Environmental Health Officers reported treating 7,771 infestations in England and Wales, and 6,179 infestations in 1986-1987. There were also reports of infestations in Belfast and in Scotland. King, F; Dick, I; Evans, P. "Bed bugs in Britain." Parasitology Today. Vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 100-102. 1989 ]
Since 1999, infestations have been reported in the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Australia, Canada, India,
Israel[ [http://www.haaretz.co.il/hasite/spages/1005065.html זהירות, הפשפשים חוזרים!] , (hebrew) www.haaretz.co.il, retrieved 05.08.08] and the United States. Two separate studies in Tuscany, Italy offer further correlation of international travel with a resurgence in bedbug infestations. In case 1, in summer 2003 a seven-year-old boy developed a number of papulae that caused severe itching on his lower legs. His parents suspected insects in the boy’s room, and found several in the folds of his mattress. Two specimens were identified as "C. lectularius" and the room was treated with an insecticide. The house had never been infested with bedbugs before. However, one month earlier, two family friends had flown from Nepal to stay with the family for ten days. In Case 2, a forty-eight-year-old man travelled by car to Pisa, Italy from Prague, Czech Republicin June 2003 and stayed in a rented house with three friends. After several days, the man noticed several bullouseruptions in linear patterns of three on his upper and lower extremities. The man found several insects in his room that were identified as "C. lectularius". The rented house was well kept and had never had a bedbug infestation. However, a group of Germans had rented the house a few weeks before the Czech group arrived.
Bedbugs had nearly been eradicated by the widespread use of potent insecticides such as DDT. However, many of these strong insecticides have been banned from the United States and replaced with weaker insecticides such as
pyrethroids. Many bedbugs have grown resistant to the weaker insecticides. In a study at the University of Kentuckybedbugs were randomly collected from across the United States. These “wild” bedbugs were up to several thousands of times more resistant to pyrethroids than were laboratory bedbugs. Voiland, Adam "You May not be Alone" U.S. News & World Report 7/16/2007, Vol. 143, Issue 2, p53-54 ] Another problem with current insecticide use is that the broad-spectrum insecticide sprays for cockroaches and ants that are no longer used had a collateral impact on bedbug infestations. Recently, a switch has been made to bait insecticides that have proven effective against cockroaches but have allowed bedbugs to escape the indirect treatment.
The number of bedbug infestations has risen significantly since the early 21st century. The
National Pest Management Associationreported a 71% increase in bedbug calls between 2000 and 2005. The Steritech Group, a pest-management company based in Charlotte, North Carolina, claimed that 25% of the 700 hotels they surveyed between 2002 and 2006 needed bedbug treatment. In 2003, a brother and sister staying at a Motel 6in Chicagowere awarded $372,000 in punitive damages after being bitten by bedbugs during their stay. These are only a few of the reported cases since the turn of the 21st century. Initi, John "Sleeping with the Enemy" Maclean's, 1/14/2008, Vol. 121, Issue 1, p54-56 ]
There are several means by which dwellings can become infested with bedbugs. People can often acquire bedbugs at hotels, motels, or bed-and-breakfasts, and bring them back to their homes in their luggage. They also can pick them up by inadvertently bringing infested furniture or used clothing to their household. If someone is in a place that is severely infested, bedbugs may actually crawl onto and be carried by people's clothing, although this is atypical behaviour — except in the case of severe infestations, bedbugs are not usually carried from place to place by people on clothing they are currently wearing. Bedbugs may travel between units in multi-unit dwellings, such as condominiums and apartment buildings, after being originally brought into the building by one of the above routes. Bedbugs can also be transmitted via animal vectors including wild birds and household pets.Fact|date=August 2008
This spread between sites is dependent in part on the degree of infestation, on the material used to partition units and whether infested items are dragged through common areas while being disposed of, resulting in the shedding of bedbugs and bedbug eggs while being dragged. In some exceptional cases, the detection of bedbug hiding places can be aided by the use of dogs that have been trained to find the insects by their scent much as dogs are trained to find drugs or explosives. A trained dog and handler can detect and pinpoint a bedbug infestation within minutes. This is a fairly costly service that is not used in the majority of cases, but can be very useful in difficult cases.
The numerical size of a bedbug infestation is to some degree variable, as it is a function of the elapsed time from the initial infestation. With regards to the elapsed time from the initial infestation, even a single female bedbug brought into a home has a potential for reproduction, with its resulting offspring then breeding, resulting in a
geometric progressionof population expansion if control is not undertaken. Sometimes people are not aware of the insects and do not notice the bites. The visible bedbug infestation does not represent the infestation as a whole, as there may be infestations elsewhere in a home. However, the insects do have a tendency to stay close to their hosts, hence the name "bed" bugs.
Bedbugs travel easily and quickly along pipes and boards, and their bodies are very flat, which allows them to hide in tiny crevices. In the daytime, they tend to stay out of the light, preferring to remain hidden in such places as mattress seams, mattress interiors, bed frames, nearby furniture, carpeting, baseboards, inner walls, tiny wood holes, or bedroom clutter. Bedbugs can be found on their own, but more often congregate in groups. Bedbugs are capable of travelling as far as 100 feet to feed, but usually remain close to the host in bedrooms or on sofas where people may sleep.
Bedbugs are known for being elusive, transient, and
nocturnal, making them difficult to detect. While individuals have the option of contacting a pest control professional to determine if a bedbug infestation exists, there are several do-it-yourself methods that may work equally well.
The presence of bedbugs may be confirmed through identification of the insects collected or by a pattern of bites. Though bites can occur singularly, they often follow a distinctive linear pattern marking the paths of blood vessels running close to the surface of the skin. The common bite pattern of three bites often around the ankle or shin close to each other has garnered the macabre colloquialism "breakfast, lunch & dinner."
A technique for catching bedbugs in the act is to have a light source quickly accessible from your bed and to turn it on at about an hour before dawn, which is usually the time when bedbugs are most active. A flashlight/torch is recommended instead of room lights, as the act of getting out of bed will cause any bedbugs present to scatter before you can catch them. If you awaken during the night, leave your lights off but use your flashlight/torch to inspect your mattress. Bedbugs are fairly fast in their movements, about equal to the speed of ants. They may be slowed down if engorged. When the bedroom light is switched on, it may temporarily startle them allowing time for you to get a dust pan and brush kept next to the bed and sweep the bugs into the pan then immediately sweep them into a cup or mug full of water where the bugs drown quickly. Dispose of the water down the sink or toilet. Disinfect the mattress, skirting boards and so on regularly.
Glue traps placed in strategic areas around the home, sometimes used in conjunction with heating pads or balloons filled with exhaled breath offering a carbon dioxide source, may be used to trap and thus detect bedbugs. This method has varied reports of success. There are also commercial traps like 'flea' traps whose effectiveness is questionable except perhaps as a means of detection. Perhaps the easiest trapping method is to place double-sided carpet tape in long strips near or around the bed and check the strips after a day or more.
Also, bedbug infestation give a very distinct odor .
With the widespread use of
DDTin the 1940s and '50s, bedbugs all but disappeared from North America in the mid-twentieth century. [ [http://money.cnn.com/2005/11/28/real_estate/buying_selling/bedbugs_redux/index.htm Bedbugs are back and so are their bites. - Nov. 29, 2005 ] ] Infestations remained common in many other parts of the world and in recent years have also begun to rebound in North America. Reappearance of bedbugs has presented new challenges for pest control without DDT and similarly banned agents.
Another reason for their increase is that pest control services more often nowadays use low toxicity gel-based pesticides for control of cockroaches, the most common pest in structures, instead of residual sprays. When residual sprays meant to kill other insects were commonly being used, they resulted in a collateral insecticidal effect on potential bedbug infestations; the gel-based insecticides primarily used nowadays do not have any effect on bedbugs, as they are incapable of feeding on these baits.
The National Pest Management Association, a US advocacy group for pest management professionals conducted a "proactive bedbug public relations campaign" in 2005 and 2006, resulting in increased media coverage of bedbug stories and an increase in business for pest controllers, possibly distorting the scale of the increase in bedbug infestations. [ [http://www.pctonline.com/news/news.asp?ID=4033 Bayer ] ] It is possible to create makeshift temporary barriers from the insects around a bed. Although bedbugs cannot fly or jump, they have been observed climbing a higher surface in order to then fall to a lower one, such as climbing a wall in order to fall onto a bed. Barrier strategies nevertheless often have beneficial effects: an elevated bed for example, can be protected by applying double-sided sticky tape around each leg, or by keeping each leg on a plastic furniture block in a tray of water.
Bed frames can be effectively rid of adult bedbugs and eggs by use of steam or by spraying
rubbing alcoholon any visible insects, although this is not a permanent treatment. Small steam cleaners are available and are very effective for local treatment. A suspect mattress can be protected by wrapping it in disposable plastic sheeting, sealing shut all the seams and putting it on a protected bed after a final visual inspection. Bedding can be sanitized by a 120 °F (49 °C) laundry dryer. Once sanitized, bedding should not be allowed to drape to the floor. An effective way to quarantine a protected bed is to store sanitized sleeping clothes in the bed during the day, and bathing before entering the bed.
diatomaceous earth(DE) can be sprinked under mattresses, along baseboards and on the edges of bookshelves where bedbugs hide. Food-grade DE, although harmless to mammals, including common house pets and humans, is a virtual death sentence for bedbugs. DE is a drying agent and is actually used in many dry pet foods to keep the kibble dry and fresh.
The DE particles abrade the bedbug, essentially dehydrating it of water and
lipids. Neem oil(mentioned below) can be added to the DE (1 cup DE to 20 drops neem oil) in a plastic bag before sprinking it around. Other essential oils that can be added are juniper oil, eucalyptus oil, ylang ylangoil, rosemaryoil and tea tree oil. The bedbugs hate the smell of the oils, and for those who don't and pass through, they will eventually be killed by the DE itself. Use 20 drops of each essential oil mentioned for each cup of DE.
Alternative treatments that may actually work better and be more comfortable than wrapping bedding in plastic that would cause sweating would be to encase your mattress and box springs in impermeable bed bug bite proof encasements after a treatment for an infestation. There are many products on the market but only some products have been laboratory tested to be bedbug bite proof. Make sure to check to see that the product you are considering is more than an allergy encasement, but is bed bug bite proof.
Vermin and pets will complicate a barrier strategy. Bedbugs prefer human hosts, but will resort to other warm-blooded hosts if humans are not available. Some bedbug species can live up to eighteen months without feeding at all. A co-infestation of mice can provide an auxiliary food source to keep bedbugs established for longer. Likewise, a house cat or human guest might easily defeat a barrier by sitting on a protected bed. Such considerations should be part of any barrier strategy.
BBC1aired a television program entitled " The One Show" about the growth of bedbug infestations in London. In the program a pest control officer claimed that the use of insecticides alone was no longer an effective method to control bed bugs as they had developed a resistance to most if not all insecticides that might be used legally in the UK. He stated that insecticide use in conjunction to freezing bedbugs was the only effective control. All items of clothing and upholstery (including curtains) in the affected household had to be deep-frozen for at least 3 days in giant freezers to ensure complete eradication. The exact temperature at which bedbugs must be frozen was not mentioned.
Another method that might be useful in controlling bedbugs is the use of
neem oil. It can be sprayed on carpets, curtains and mattresses.Fact|date=August 2008 Neem oil is made from the leaves and bark of the neem tree native to India. It has been used safely for thousands of years in India both as a natural, effective insect repellent and it is antibacterial. It has recently received US Food and Drug Administration approval for external use. It is also possible to incorporate neem oil into certain types of mattress. Such mattresses are currently being manufactured by a German company. Some may find the aroma of neem oil objectionable.
An exterminator may use
permethrininsecticide. Permethrin is a neurotoxinand is not known to be harmful to most mammals and humans. However it is highly toxicto house cats and lethal to cold blooded animals (snake, turtle, lizard).
Since most bedbugs are carried by travellers through contact with beds and hotel rooms of infected locations, following are some tips for those travelling to hotels that might be at risk.Fact|date=August 2008
#First look at the room to seek potential hiding places for bedbugs, such as carpet edges, mattress seams, pillow case linings, bedboards, wall trim or other tiny crack-like places bedbugs might hide.
#Next, look specifically at the mattress seams for signs of bedbug activity: droppings, eggs, bloodstains or even bedbugs themselves, hiding in tiny folds and seam lines.
#As mentioned, keep a flashlight nearby when sleeping, to immediately observe activity during the night without having to get up out of bed, thus giving bedbugs time to hide in safety.
#Never leave your clothing laying on the bed, or any location of possible infestation (as mentioned above). Instead, use hangers or hooks capable of keeping all cloth distant from the floor or bed.
#Close your suitcase, travel bag, when you're not using it. This way, during the night the bugs may move over top of your luggage with greater difficulty to get inside.
#Elevate your luggage off the floor to tables or chairs. These may also be hiding places, but less likely.
#Keep any bedbug you find (intact if possible) to show the hotel owner.
The Texas A&M Center for Urban and Structural
Entomologyand the University of ArkansasDepartment of Entomology have been collaborating to study bedbugs on a genetic level in the hopes to shed light on their recent resurgence. By studying the genetic variationwithin bedbug populations, researchers can gain insight into insecticide resistanceand insect dispersal. Researchers have two theories as to how bedbug resurgence has occurred in the United States. One theory is that the source of current bedbug populations is from other countries without bedbug pesticides that have made their way through air travel, and another theory is that the surviving bed bug populations were forced to switch hosts to birds, such as poultry, and bats. Since bedbugs have undergone a huge resurgence in poultry populations since the 1970s, theory two seems likely.
The theory that the surviving bedbug populations were forced to switch hosts to birds is also supported by the research done at Texas A&M and the University of Arkansas. In a recent study, researchers subjected 136 adult bedbugs from 22 sampled populations from nine U.S. states, Australia, and Canada to genetic analysis. Their finding concluded that the bedbug populations were never completely eradicated from the United States as there was no evidence of a
genetic bottleneckin either the mitochondrialor nuclear DNAof the bedbugs. Researchers suspect that resistant populations of bedbugs have slowly been propagating in poultry facilities, and have made their way back to human hosts via the poultry workers. [Szalanski, Allen L., James W. Austin, Jackie A. McKern, C. Dayton Steelman, and Roger E. Gold. 2008.Mitochondrial and Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 Diversity of Cimex electuaries (Hemiptera: Cinicidae). J. Med. Entomol.. 45(2):229-236] [Austin, James.http://urbanentomology.tamu.edu/bedbugs/bedbugs.cfm. "Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius."2007]
Other research is being conducted at Texas A&M and
Virginia Techto be able to use bedbugs in forensic science. Researchers have been successful at isolating and characterizing human DNAtaken from bedbug blood meals. One advantage that bedbugs have over other blood feeders being used in forensics is that they do not remain on the host, and instead remain in close proximity to the crime scene. Therefore bedbugs could potentially provide crucial evidence linking the suspectto the crime scene. Researchers are able to identify what hosts are being fed upon, and are taking further steps to be able to identify the individual by genotyping, and to predict the duration from the time of feeding to recovery of viable DNA. [Szalanski, Allen L., James W. Austin, Jackie A. McKern, C. Dayton Steelman, Dini M. Miller, and Roger E. Gold. 2007 Isolation and Characterization of Human DNA from Bed Bugs, Cimex electuaries L., (Hemiptera: Cinicidae) Blood Meals. J. Agric. Urban Entomol. 23(3):189-194]
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* Goddard, Jerome A. "The Physician’s Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance" (second edition). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8493-5160-X.
* MacQuitty, Miranda, and Lawrence Mound. "Megabugs: The Natural History Museum Book of Insects". New York: Random House Children's Books, 1995. ISBN 1-898304-37-8, ISBN 1-85868-045-X.
* Quammen, David. "The Flight of the Iguana: A Sidelong View of Science and Nature". New York: Delacorte Press, 1988. ISBN 0-385-29592-8, ISBN 0-385-26327-9, ISBN 0-684-83626-2. Provides detail about "Xylocaris maculipennis".
* Smithereen Pest Control (Chicago, Illinois), employees of. Personal interviews. August 2005. (Used for [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bedbug&oldid=22917342 semi-rewrite] .)
* Martin Leverkus, Ryan C. Jochim, Susanne Schad et al. Bullous allergic hypersensitivity to bed bug bites mediated by IgE against salivary nitrophorin. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2006) 126, 91-96.
* [http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/vector/vector-faq1.shtml] The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene "Vector surveillance and control: Bed bug fact sheet" 12 January 2008
* [http://bedbugger.com/faqs/ Frequently Asked Questions About Bed Bugs]
* [http://www.soilandhealth.org/03sov/0302hsted/030212campbell/campbell%203-1.htm "My Observations on Bedbugs", by Dr. Charles A.R. Campbell] (historical interest only)
* [http://npic.orst.edu/pestpub.html#BedBugs Bed Bugs Pest Control Information - National Pesticide Information Center]
* KidsHealth.Org: [http://kidshealth.org/kid/ill_injure/bugs/bedbug.html "Hey! A Bedbug Bit Me!"]
* eMedicine, July 2006: " [http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic600.htm Bedbug bites] ", Robert A. Schwartz, MD, MPH, et al.
* [http://www.bedbugcentral.com/bedbugs101/ Bed Bugs 101: Information Everyone Should Know about Bed Bugs] By Richard Cooper, Entomologist and Pest Control Operator.
* [http://www.bed-bug.org Bed Bugs Information:] A look at the history of bed bugs and their effects on society. Includes recent bed bugs lawsuits.
* [http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/urban/bed_bug.htm bed bug] on the
UF/ IFAS Featured Creatures Web site
* [http://vector.ifas.ufl.edu/chapter_04.htm Bed Bugs] chapter in
EPAand UF/ IFAS National Public Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual
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