- Brian Boru
name =Brian Bóruma
title =High King of Ireland
caption =A much later
engravingof Brian Boru, Emperor of the Irish
Mathgamain mac Cennétig
Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill
Cennétig mac Lorcáin
mother =Bé Binn ingen Murchada|
Brian mac Cennétig, called Brian Bóruma, (c. 941–23 April 1014), ( _en. Brian Boru, _ga. Brian Bóraimhe), was an Irish king who ended the centuries-long domination of the Kingship of Ireland by the
Uí Néill. Building on the achievements of his father, Cennétig mac Lorcain, and brother, Mathgamain, Brian first made himself King of Munster, then subjugated Leinster, making himself ruler of the south of Ireland.
The Uí Néill king
Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill, abandoned by his northern kinsmen of the Cenél nEógainand Cenél Conaill, acknowledged Brian as High King at Athlonein 1002. In the decade that followed, Brian campaigned against the northern Uí Néill, who refused to accept his claims, against Leinster, where resistance was frequent, and against Dublin. Brian's hard-won authority was seriously challenged in 1013 when his ally Máel Sechnaill was attacked by the Cenél nEógain king Flaithbertach Ua Néill, with the Ulstermen as his allies. This was followed by further attacks on Máel Sechnaill by the Norse Gaelsof Dublinunder their king Sihtric Silkbeardand the Leinstermen led by Máel Mórda mac Murchada. Brian campaigned against these enemies in 1013. In 1014, Brian's armies confronted the armies of Leinster and Dublin at Clontarfnear Dublinon Good Friday. The resulting Battle of Clontarfwas a bloody affair, with Brian, his son Murchad, and Máel Mórda among those killed. The list of the noble dead in the " Annals of Ulster" includes Irish kings, Norse Gaels, Scotsmen, and Scandinavians. The immediate beneficiary of the slaughter was Máel Sechnaill who resumed his interrupted reign as the last Uí Néill High King.
In death, Brian proved to be a greater figure than in life. The court of his great-grandson
Muirchertach Ua Briainproduced the " Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh", a work of near hagiography. The Norse Gaels and Scandinavians too produced works magnifying Brian, among these " Njal's Saga", the " Orkneyinga Saga", and the now-lost " Brian's Saga". Brian's war against Máel Mórda and Sihtric was to be inextricably connected with his complicated marital relations, in particular his marriage to Gormlaith, Máel Mórda's sister and Sihtric's mother, who had been in turn the wife of Amlaíb Cuarán, king of Dublin and York, then of Máel Sechnaill, and finally of Brian.
Brian was likely born in 941 although some sources date his birth as early as 926.Who|date=September 2008 He was born near Killaloe, a town in the region of Tuadmumu (
Thomond) where his father, Cennétig mac Lorcáin, was king. When their father died, the kingship of Tuadmumu passed to Brian's older brother, Mathgamain, and, when Mathgamain was killed in 976, Brian replaced him. Subsequently he became the King of the entire kingdom of Munster. His mother Bé Binn was also killed by Vikingswhen he was a child.Fact|date=September 2008
The origin of his
cognomenBoru or Borúma (of the tributes) is believed to relate to a crossing point on the river Shannonwhere a cattle-tribute was driven from his sept, the Dál gCaisto the larger sept to which they owed allegiance, the Eóganachta. However, it seems more likely that he would have been given this name for being the man to reverse the tide of this tribute, and receive it back from those who his family formerly paid it to. Later legends originated to suggest that it was because he collected monies from the minor rulers of Ireland and used these to rebuild monasteries and libraries that had been destroyed during Norsemen( Viking) invasions.
The Dál Cais
Brian belonged to the
Dál gCais(or Dalcassians) who occupied a territory straddling the largest river in Ireland, the River Shannon, a territory that would later be known as the Kingdom of Thomondand today incorporates portions of County Clareand County Limerick. The Shannon served as an easy route by which raids could be made against the province of Connacht(to the river's west) and Meath (to its east). Both Brian's father, Cennétig mac Lorcáinand his older brother Mathgamain conducted river-borne raids, in which the young Brian would undoubtedly have participated. This was probably the root of his appreciation for naval forces in his later career.
An important influence upon the Dalcassians was the presence of the
Hiberno-Norsecity of Limerickon an isthmus around which the Shannon River winds (known today as King's Island or the Island Field). Undoubtedly the Hiberno-Norse of Limerick and the Dalcassians frequently came to blows, but it's unlikely that the relationship was always one of hostility; there was probably peaceful contact as well, such as trade. The Dalcassians may have benefited from these interactions, from which they would have been exposed to Norse innovations such as superior weapons and ship design, all factors that may have contributed to their growing power.
In 964, Brian's older brother, Mathgamain, claimed control over the entire province of Munster by capturing the
Rock of Cashel, capital of the rival Eóganacht dynasty. The Eóganacht King, Máel Muad mac Brain, organised an anti-Dalcassian alliance that included at least one other Irish ruler in Munster, and Ivar, the ruler of Limerick. At the Battle of Sulchoid, a Dalcassian army led by Mathgamain and Brian decisively defeated the Hiberno-Norse army of Limerickand, following up their victory, looted and burned the city. The Dalcassian victory at Sulchoid may have led Máel Muad to decide that deception might succeed where an open contest of strength on the battlefield had failed. In 976 Mathgamain attended what was supposed to be a peaceful meeting for reconciliation, where he was seized and murdered. It was under these unpromising circumstances that Brian became the new leader of the Dalcassians.
Brian immediately set about avenging his brother's death and reinstating the control of the Dalcassians over the province of Munster. In quick succession, he attacked and defeated the Hiberno-Norse of Limerick, Máel Muad's Irish allies, and finally, Máel Muad himself. Brian's approach to establishing his control over the Munster demonstrated features that would become characteristic of all of his wars: he seized the initiative, defeating his enemies before they could join forces to overwhelm him, and although he was ruthless and horribly brutal by modern standards, he sought reconciliation in the aftermath of victory rather than continuing hostility. After he had killed both the ruler of Limerick, Ivar, and Ivar's successor, he allowed the Hiberno-Norse in Limerick to remain in their settlement. After he had killed Máel Muad, he treated his son and successor, Cian, with great respect, giving Cian the hand of his daughter, Sadb in marriage. Cian remained a faithful ally for the rest of his life.
Having established unchallenged rule over his home Province of Munster, Brian turned to extending his authority over the neighboring provinces of
Leinsterto the east and Connacht to the north. By doing so, he came into conflict with High King Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaillwhose power base was the Province of Meath. For the next fifteen years, from 982 to 997, High King Máel Sechnaill repeatedly led armies into Leinster and Munster, while Brian, like his father and brother before him, led his naval forces up the Shannon to attack Connacht and Meath on either side of the river. He suffered quite a few reverses in this struggle, but appears to have learned from his setbacks. He developed a military strategy that would serve him well throughout his career: the coordinated use of forces on both land and water, including on rivers and along Ireland's coast. Brian's naval forces, which included contingents supplied by the Hiberno-Norse cities that he brought under his control, provided both indirect and direct support for his forces on land. Indirect support involved a fleet making a diversionary attack on an enemy in a location far away from where Brian planned to strike with his army. Direct support involved naval forces acting as one arm in a strategic pincer, the army forming the other arm.
In 996 Brian finally managed to control the province of
Leinster, which may have been what led Máel Sechnaill to reach a compromise with him in the following year. By recognising Brian's authority over " Leth Moga", that is, the Southern Half, which included the Provinces of Munster and Leinster (and the Hiberno-Norse cities within them), Máel Sechnaill was simply accepting the reality that confronted him and retained control over " Leth Cuinn", that is, the Northern Half, which consisted of the Provinces of Meath, Connacht, and Ulster.
Precisely because he had submitted to Brian's authority, the King of Leinster was overthrown in 998 and replaced by
Máel Morda mac Murchada. Given the circumstances under which Máel Morda had been appointed, it is not surprising that he launched an open rebellion against Brian's authority. In response, Brian assembled the forces of the Province of Munster with the intention of laying siege to the Hiberno-Norse city of Dublin, which was ruled by Máel Morda's ally and cousin, Sigtrygg Silkbeard. Together Máel Morda and Sigtrygg determined to meet Brian's army in battle rather than risk a siege. Thus, in 999, the opposing armies fought the Battle of Glen Mama. The Irish annalsall agree that this was a particularly fierce and bloody engagement, although claims that it lasted from morning until midnight, or that the combined Leinster-Dublin force lost 4,000 killed are open to question. In any case, Brian followed up his victory, as he and his brother had in the aftermath of the Battle of Sulchoidthirty-two years before, by capturing and sacking the enemy's city. Once again, however, Brian opted for reconciliation; he requested Sigtrygg to return and resume his position as ruler of Dublin, giving Sigtrygg the hand of one of his daughters in marriage, just as he had with the Eoganacht King, Cian. It may have been on this occasion that Brian married Sigtrygg's mother and Máel Morda's sister Gormflaith, the former wife of Máel Sechnaill.
The struggle for Ireland
Brian made it clear that his ambitions had not been satisfied by the compromise of 997 when, in the year 1000, he led a combined Munster-Leinster-Dublin army in an attack on High King
Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill's home province of Meath. The struggle over who would control all of Ireland was renewed. Máel Sechnaill's most important ally was the King of Connacht, Cathal mac Conchobar mac Taidg(O'Connor), but this presented a number of problems. The Provinces of Meath and Connacht were separated by the Shannon River, which served as both a route by which Brian's naval forces could attack the shores of either province and as a barrier to the two rulers providing mutual support for each other. Máel Sechnaill came up with an ingenious solution; two bridges would be erected across the Shannon. These bridges would serve as both obstacles preventing Brian's fleet from traveling up the Shannon and as a means by which the armies of the Provinces of Meath and Connacht could cross over into each others kingdoms.
The Annals state that, in the year 1002, Máel Sechnaill surrendered his title to Brian, although they do not say anything about how or why this came about. The "
Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh" provides a story in which Brian challenges High King Máel Sechnaill to a battle at the Hill of Tarain the province of Meath, but the High King requests a month long truce so that he can mobilise his forces, which Brian grants him. But Máel Sechnaill fails to rally the regional rulers who are nominally his subordinates by the time the deadline arrives, and he is forced to surrender his title to Brian. This explanation is hardly credible, given Brian's style of engaging in war; if he had found his opponent at a disadvantage he would certainly have taken full advantage of it rather than allowing his enemy the time to even the odds. Conversely, it is hard to believe, given the length and intensity of the struggle between Máel Sechnaill and Brian, that the High King would surrender his title without a fight.
Where that fight may have occurred and what the particular circumstances were surrounding it we may never know. What is certain is that in 1002 Brian became the new High King of Ireland.
Unlike some who had previously held the title, Brian intended to be High King in more than name only. To accomplish this he needed to impose his will upon the regional rulers of the only Province that did not already recognise his authority,
Ulster. Ulster's geography presented a formidable challenge; there were three main routes by which an invading army could enter the Province, and all three favored the defenders. Brian first had to find a means of getting through or around these defensive ' choke points', and then he had to subdue the fiercely independent regional Kings of Ulster. It took Brian ten years of campaigning to achieve his goal which, considering he could and did call on all of the military forces of the rest of Ireland, indicates how formidable the Kings of Ulster were. Once again, it was his coordinated use of forces on land and at sea that allowed him to triumph; while the rulers of Ulster could bring the advance of Brian's army to a halt, they could not prevent his fleet from attacking the shores of their kingdoms. But gaining entry to the Province of Ulster brought him only halfway to his goal. Brian systematically defeated each of the regional rulers who defied him, forcing them to recognise him as their overlord.
Emperor of the Irish
It was during this process that Brian also pursued an alternate means of consolidating his control, not merely over the Province of Ulster, but over Ireland as a whole. In contrast to its structure elsewhere, the Christian Church in Ireland was centered, not around the bishops of
dioceseand archbishops of archdiocese, but rather around monasteries headed by powerful abbots who were members of the royal dynasties of the lands in which their monasteries resided. Among the most important monasteries was Armagh, located in the Province of Ulster. It is recorded in the ' Book of Armagh' that, in the year 1005, Brian donated twenty-two ounces of gold to the monastery and declared that Armagh was the religious capital of Ireland to which all other monasteries should send the funds they collected. This was a clever move, for the supremacy of the monastery of Armagh would last only so long as Brian remained the High King. Therefore, it was in the interest of Armagh to support Brian with all their wealth and power. It is also interesting that Brian is not referred to in the passage from the 'Book of Armagh' as the 'Ard Ri' —that is, High-King— but rather he is declared "Imperator Scottorum"," or "Emperor of the Irish."
Though it is only speculation, it has been suggested that Brian and the Church in Ireland were together seeking to establish a new form of kingship in Ireland, one that was modelled after the kingships of
Englandand France, in which there were no lesser ranks of regional Kings – simply one King who had (or sought to have) power over all. In any case, whether as High King or Emperor, by 1011 all of the regional rulers in Ireland acknowledged Brian's authority. Unfortunately, no sooner had this been achieved than it was lost again. Máel Mórda mac Murchadaof Leinsterhad only accepted Brian's authority grudgingly and in 1012 rose in rebellion. The " Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh" relates a story in which one of Brian's sons insults Máel Morda, which leads him to declare his independence from Brian's authority. Whatever the actual reason was, Máel Morda sought allies with which to defy the High-King. He found one in a regional ruler in Ulster who had only recently submitted to Brian. Together they attacked the Province of Meath, where the former High King Máel Sechnaill sought Brian's help to defend his Kingdom. In 1013 Brian led a force from his own Province of Munster and from southern Connacht into Leinster; a detachment under his son, Murchad, ravaged the southern half of the Province of Leinster for three months. The forces under Murchad and Brian were reunited on 9 September outside the walls of Dublin. The city was blockaded, but it was the High King's army that ran out of supplies first, so that Brian was forced to abandon the siege and return to Munster around the time of Christmas.
Máel Morda may have hoped that by defying Brian, he could enlist the aid of all the other regional rulers Brian had forced to submit to him. If so, he must have been sorely disappointed; while the entire Province of Ulster and most of the Province of Connacht failed to provide the High King with troops, they did not, with the exception of a single ruler in Ulster, provide support for Máel Morda either. His inability to obtain troops from any rulers in Ireland, along with his awareness that he would need them when the High King returned in 1014, may explain why Máel Morda sought to obtain troops from rulers outside of Ireland. He instructed his subordinate and cousin, Sigtrygg, the ruler of Dublin, to travel overseas to enlist aid.
Sigtrygg sailed to
Orkney, and on his return stopped at the Isle of Man. These islands had been seized by the Vikings long before and the Hiberno-Norse had close ties with Orkney and the Isle of Man. There was even a precedent for employing Norsemen from the isles; they had been used by Sigtrygg's father, Amlaíb Cuarán, in 980, and by Sigtrygg himself in 990. Their incentive was loot, not land. Contrary to the assertions made in the "Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh", this was not an attempt by the Vikings to reconquer Ireland. All of the Norsemen, both the Norse-Gaelsof Dublin and the Norsemen from the Isles, were in the service of Máel Morda. It should also be remembered that the High King had 'Vikings' in his army as well; mainly the Hiberno-Norse of Limerick (and probably those of Waterford, Wexford, and Cork as well), but also, according to some sources, a rival gang of Norse mercenaries from the Isle of Man.
Essentially this could be characterised as an Irish civil war in which foreigners participated as minor players.
Along with whatever troops he obtained from abroad, the forces that Brian mustered included the troops of his home Province of Munster, those of Southern Connacht, and the men of the Province of Meath, the latter commanded by his old rival Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill. He may have outnumbered Máel Morda's army, since Brian felt secure enough to dispatch a mounted detachment under the command of his youngest son, Donnchad, to raid southern Leinster, presumably hoping to force Máel Morda to release his contingents from there to return to defend their homes. Unfortunately for the High King, if he had had a superiority in numbers it was soon lost. A disagreement with the King of Meath resulted in Máel Sechnaill withdrawing his support (Brian sent a messenger to find Donnchad and ask him to return with his detachment, but the call for help came too late). To compound his problems, the Norse contingents, led by
Sigurd Hlodvirsson, Earl of Orkneyand Brodirof the Isle of Man, arrived on Palm Sunday, 18 April. The battle would occur five days later, on Good Friday.
The fighting took place just north of the city of
Dublin, at Clontarf (now a prosperous suburb). It may well be that the two sides were evenly matched, as all of the accounts state that the Battle of Clontarflasted all day. Although this may be an exaggeration, it does suggest that it was a long, drawn-out fight.
There are many legends concerning how Brian was killed, from dying in a heroic man-to-man combat to being killed by the fleeing Viking mercenary
Brodirwhile praying in his tent. He is said to be buried in the grounds of St. Patrick's Cathedral in the city of Armagh. Legend dictates he is buried at the north end of the church.
The popular image of Brian—the ruler who managed to unify the regional leaders of
Irelandso as to free the land from a 'Danish' ( Viking) occupation—originates from the powerful influence of a work of 12th century propaganda, "Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh" (" The War of the Irish with the Foreigners") in which Brian takes the leading role. This work is thought to have been commissioned by Brian's great-grandson, Muirchertach Ua Briainas a means of justifying the Ua Briain claim to the High-Kingship, a title upon which the Uí Neill had had a monopoly.
The influence of this work, on both scholarly and popular authors, cannot be exaggerated. Until the 1970s most scholarly writing concerning the Vikings' activities in Ireland, as well as the career of Brian Boru, accepted the claims of "Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh" at face value.
Brian did not free Ireland from a Norse (
Viking) occupation simply because it was never conquered by the Vikings. In the last decade of the 8th century, Norse raiders began attacking targets in Ireland and, beginning in the mid-9th century, these raiders established the fortified camps that later grew into Ireland's first cities: Dublin, Limerick, Waterford, Wexford, and Cork. Within only a few generations, the Norse citizens of these cities had converted to Christianity, inter-married with the Irish, and often adopted the Irish language, dress and customs; thus becoming what historians refer to as the ' Hiberno-Norse'. Such Hiberno-Norse cities were fully integrated into the political scene in Ireland, long before the birth of Brian. They often suffered attacks from Irish rulers, and made alliances with others, though ultimately came under the control of the kings of the Provinces of Meath, Leinster, or Munster, who chose those among Hiberno-Norse who would rule the cities, subservient to their loyal subordinates. Rather than conquering Ireland, the Vikings, who initially attacked and subsequently settled in Ireland were, in fact, assimilated by the Irish.
Brian married four women:
#Mór, mother of Murchad, who was slain with Boru at Clontarf.
#Echrad, mother of his successor Tadc.
Gormflaith, the best known of his wives and said to be the most beautiful. She was the daughter of Murchad mac Finn, King of Leinster, sister of Máel Morda and also widow of Olaf Cuaran, the Viking king of Dublin and York. She was the mother of Donnchad, later King of Munster. She was said to be his true love, having mistakeningly challenged his authority one too many times, they divorced. Though she is said to be the cause of his death, she was also said to be the one to mourn him the most.
#Dub Choblaig, was daughter of the King of Connacht.
According to "
Njal's Saga", he also had a foster-son named Kerthialfad. ["Njal's Saga". Trans. George DaSent. London, 1861. §§ 154-157.]
* The descendants of Brian were known as the Ua Briain (O'Brien) clan, hence the surnames Ó Briain, O'Brien, O'Brian etc. "O" was originally Ó which in turn came from Ua, which means "grandson", or "descendant" (of a named person). The prefix is often anglicised to O', using an apostrophe instead of the Irish
síneadh fada: "´". The O'Briens subsequently ranked as one of the chief dynasticfamilies of the country (see Chiefs of the Name).
In popular culture
The Royal Irish Regiment's mascot since 1970 has been an Irish Wolfhound, always named Brian Boru. [cite book | last = McBryde| first = Mary| title = The Irish Wolfhound Symbol of Celtic Splendour| publisher = Macmillan | date =1998 | location = New York | pages =335 | isbn = 0876051697]
The website for Irish
vodkabrand Boru says it is "named for the legendary king Brian Boru, who united Ireland in 1014." [cite web | title = The Breakdown on Boru| work = | publisher = Castle Brands Inc.| date =2007 | url = http://www.boru.com/#have-a-drink| accessdate =19 September 2008 ] Celtic metalband Mael Mórdhaderived their name from the king of Leinster who fought against Brian. [cite web |author=Matthijssens, Vera |title="Gealtacht Mael Mordha" Review |url=http://www.lordsofmetal.nl/showreview.php?id=9171&lang=en |publisher=Lordsofmetal.nl |accessmonthday=March 24 |access year=2008] This was also the theme of their 2005 debut album Cluain Tarbh. Another Celtic metal band Cruachan has used the story of Brian Boru for a song "Ard Rí Na hÉireann" (translated as "The High King of Ireland") on their 2004 album Pagan. [cite web |author=Bolther, Giancarlo |title=Interview with Keith Fay of Cruachan |url=http://www.rock-impressions.com/cruachan_inter2e.htm |publisher=Rock-impressions.com |accessmonthday=March 24 |access year=2008] Morgan Llywelynhas written a novelization of Brian's life called simply " Lion of Ireland." The sequel, "Pride of Lions," tells the story of his sons, Donough and Teigue, as they vie for his crown.
His name is remembered in the title of one of the oldest tunes in Ireland's traditional repertoire :
Brian Boru's March. Which is still widely played by traditional Irish musicians.French Breton singer Alan Stivellreleased in 1995 an album called Brian Boru. Most notable for a pop song reprise of the March (though the tune is normally an instrumental piece)
In "Strapping Young Lads" by Brian Dunning, Brunnhilde claimed to have killed Boru in single combat, and "torn his still-beating heart from his breast."
Limerick band Lucky Numbers released their hit single "Brian Boru" in 1979.
Star Trek Deep Space Nine, Chief Miles O'Brienhas traced his ancestry back to the 11th century Irish king Brian Boru. Robert E. Howardmentions Brian Boru and the Battle of Clontarfin a Turlogh Dubh O'Brienstory, "The Dark Man". Turlogh wears a torcgiven to him by the High King before that battle. He also wrote a fictionalised account of the battle in his story The Twilight of the Grey Gods.
*Annals of Tigernach
Annals of Ulster
*Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh
*O’Brien, Donough. "History of the O’Briens from Brian Boroimhe, A.D. 1000 to A.D. 1945". B. T. Batsford, 1949.
History of Ireland
Early Medieval Ireland 800-1166
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