- Peking University
name= Peking University
president= Xu Zhihong (许智宏)
undergrad = 15,128
postgrad = 15,039
faculty = 4,206
campus= Urban, 273 ha
website= [http://www.pku.edu.cn/ www.pku.edu.cn]
Imperial University of Peking
Peking University (zh-tsp|t=北京大學|s=北京大学|p=Běijīng Dàxué) of
Beijing, colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大, "Běidà"), is the first formally established university, and the first national university of China. It was founded as Imperial Capital University in 1898 as a replacement of the ancient Guozijian(國子監 guózǐjiàn) [ [http://hi.baidu.com/yiyi/blog/item/ec385c60a0da9cde8db10d19.html] ] . By 1920 it had become a center for progressive thought. Today, most national and international rankings place Peking University amongst the top universities in China. [ [http://www.arwu.org/rank/2006/ARWU2006_TopAsia.htm] ] [ [http://www.chinaeducenter.com/en/universityranking1.php] ] [ [http://22.214.171.124/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=zh-CN%7Cen&u=http://rank2008.netbig.com/cn/rnk_1_0_0.htm&usg=ALkJrhg-R6R1hxyclErwaWM5azZaXdUeDA] ] [ [http://www.china-university-ranking.com/] ] [ [http://www.universitymetrics.com/tiki-index.php?page=Top+300+Universities+2006&PHPSESSID=097539296a56ac89458242de5a67e6bf] ] [ [http://www.ensmp.fr/Actualites/PR/EMP-ranking.html] [http://gse.sjtu.edu.cn/kxyj/articles/en/ELW2005003--Univ%20ranking%20in%20China%202005%20HEE_30_02%20p10.pdf] ] In addition to its academics, the Peking University is especially renowned for the beauty of its traditional Chinese architecture at its campus ground. [ [http://bschool.nus.edu.sg/NUSPKUMBA/AboutPekingUniversity/Overview/tabid/412/Default.aspx About Peking University.] National University of Singapore]
Throughout its history, the university has distinguished himself from the peers in terms of intellectual freedom and have produced and hosted many of modern China's top thinkers, including
Lu Xun, Mao Zedong, Hu Shih, Li Dazhao, Gu Hongming, and Chen Duxiu[ [http://www.pku.edu.cn/about/about/beida/mingren.htm] ] . The Peking University was the among the birthplaces for China's New Culture Movement, May Fourth Movement, the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989and many other significant events.cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/449011/Peking-University#tab=active~checked%2Citems~checked&title=Peking%20University%20--%20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia|title=Peking University|publisher=" Encyclopædia Britannica"|date=2008-08-21]
Peking University was established in Beijing in December 1898 during the
Hundred Days Reformand was originally known as the Imperial Capital University (zh-tsp|t=京師大學堂|s=京师大学堂|p=Jīngshī Dàxuétáng) to replace the ancient Guozijian(國子監 guózǐjiàn). In 1902, the Imperial Capital University's Faculty of Education was spinned off to become today's Beijing Normal University, the best teacher's college in China. In 1912, following the Xinhai Revolution, the Imperial University was renamed the National Peking University (zh-ts|t=國立北京大學|s=国立北京大学). The famous scholar Cai Yuanpeiwas appointed president on January 4 1917 and helped transform the university into the country's largest institution of higher learning, with 14 departments and an enrollment of more than 2,000 students. Cai, inspired by the German model of academic freedom, recruited an intellectually diverse faculty that included Hu Shi, Chen Duxiu, and Lu Xun. In 1919 students of Peking University formed the bulk of the protesters of the May Fourth Movement. Efforts by the Beiyang government to end to protests by sealing off the Peking University campus led to Cai's resignation. In 1920 Peking University became the second Chinese university to accept female students, after Nanjing University.After the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 (and the resulting expansion of Japanese territorial control in east China), Peking University moved to Changshaand formed the Changsha Temporary University along with Tsinghua University and Nankai University. In 1938, the three schools moved again, this time to Kunming, and formed the National Southwestern United University. In 1946, after World War II, Peking University moved back to Beijing. At that time, the university comprised six schools (Arts, Science, Law, Medicine, Engineering, and Agriculture), and a research institute for humanities. The total student enrollment grew up to 3,000.
In 1952, three years after the People's Republic of China was established, the
Yenching Universitywas merged into Peking University and Peking University lost its "national" appellation to reflect the fact that all universities under the new socialist state would be public. In 1952 Peking University moved from downtown Beijing to the former Yenching campus. The first disturbances of the Cultural Revolution began at Peking University in 1966; education there ceased between 1966 and 1970. Since then, the university has reasserted its position as one of the leading universities of China.
Beijing Medical Universitywas merged into Peking University and became the Peking University Health Science Campus. Beida now has eight affiliated hospitals and 12 teaching hospitals.
In 2001, Peking University set up a satellite campus in Shenzhen. The university's second business school openned its door on this campus in 2004, and was renamed Beida HSBC School of Business in 2008.
Most national and international rankings of Chinese universities place Peking University amongst top universities in China [ [http://www.arwu.org/rank/2006/ARWU2006_TopAsia.htm] ] [ [http://www.chinaeducenter.com/en/universityranking1.php] ] [ [http://126.96.36.199/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=zh-CN%7Cen&u=http://rank2008.netbig.com/cn/rnk_1_0_0.htm&usg=ALkJrhg-R6R1hxyclErwaWM5azZaXdUeDA] ] [ [http://www.china-university-ranking.com/] ] [ [http://www.universitymetrics.com/tiki-index.php?page=Top+300+Universities+2006&PHPSESSID=097539296a56ac89458242de5a67e6bf] ] [ [http://www.ensmp.fr/Actualites/PR/EMP-ranking.html] ] [ [http://gse.sjtu.edu.cn/kxyj/articles/en/ELW2005003--Univ%20ranking%20in%20China%202005%20HEE_30_02%20p10.pdf] ] . "
The Times Higher Education Supplement" in 2006 ranked Peking University as the 14th best university in the world, taking the highest spot in Asia [ [http://www.topuniversities.com/worlduniversityrankings/results/2006/top_200_universities/ THES - QS World University Rankings 2006] ] [ [http://www.paked.net/higher_education/rankings/times_2006.htm The Top 200 World University Rankings] ] ; the same ranking in 2007 placed the University at 36th best worldwide, still the highest in the Chinese mainland. [ [http://uniranks.unifiedself.com/2007top200.html World University Rankings 2007] ]
Peking University is a comprehensive and
national key university[http://news.sohu.com/14/84/news202198414.shtml 全国重点大学] . The University consists of 30 colleges and 12 departments, with 93 specialties for undergraduates, 2 specialties for the second Bachelor's degree, 199 specialties for Master's degreecandidates and 173 specialties for Doctoral candidates. While in a leading position of basic sciencesresearch and teaching, the university has gained itself very successful development of applied sciences.
At present, Peking university has 216 research institutions and research centres, including 2 national engineering research centres, 81 key national disciplines, 12 national key laboratories. With eight million holdings, the university
libraryis the largest of its kind in Asia.
The university has made an effort to combine the research on fundamental scientific issues with the training of
personnelwith high level specialized knowledge and professional skill as demanded by the country's modernization. It strives not only for the simultaneous improvements in teaching and research work, but also for the promotion of interaction and mutual promotion among various subjects. Teachingalso has been emphasized. It aims to cultivate the students' practical ability and creative power. As a result, the teaching of core courses is strengthened, the content of courses is enriched and renewed and favourable conditions have been created, for the students to develop themselves in extracurricular activities.
Peking University has been becoming a center for teaching and research, consisting of diverse branches of learning such as pure and applied sciences,
social sciencesand the humanities, and sciences of managementand education. Its aim is to rank among the world's best universities in the next couple of decades, with the school's leadership placing great emphasis on developing bilateral relationships with prominent American universities for student and faculty exchanges.
Over the past century, more than 400 Peking University alumni had become presidents of other major Chinese universities, including former Tsinghua President Luo Jialun,
Renmin UniversityPresident Yuan Baohua, Zhejiang UniversityPresident Qian Sanqiang, Fudan UniversityPresident Zhang Zhirang, Nankai UniversityPresident Teng Weizao, Chinese University of Science and TechnologyPresident Guan Weiyan and so on [ [http://club.cn.yahoo.com/bbs/threadview/1100055843_2__pn1.html] ] .
The campus of Peking University was originally located north of
Forbidden Cityin the center of Beijing, and was later moved to the former campus of Yenching Universityin 1952. The current campus is located in northwest Beijing, in the Haidian district, which was concentrated with many well known colleges and universities.
It is located in the former site of
Qing Dynastyroyal gardens and it retains traditional Chinese-style landscaping as well as many historical buildings. It is known throughout China, along with its neighbour, Tsinghua University, for their beautiful campuses. The university campus is surrounded by the weiming lake.
Beyond it's main campus,
Peking University Health Science Center( PKUHSC) is located in Xue Yuan Rd. where the country's most distinguished colleges are located. PKUHSC's campus is less aesthetically appealing but is nonetheless a fitting site for academics and research.
In 2001, Peking University's
Shenzhencampus, Shenzhen Graduate School, opened its doors. The campus is located in the northwest part of Shenzhen City.
National Economic Research Institute
The Director of the National Institute of Economic Research, Professor of Economics of the Peking University and Professor of the graduate school of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences is Prof. Fan Gang. Dr Fan had more than 100 academic papers published in both Chinese and English academic journals, more than 200 articles in newspapers and magazines and had also published several books.Justin Lin, the founding director of the institute, is the World Bank's chief economist, the first time the post has gone to a candidate outside Europe and the United States. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/02/05/business/05wbankFW.php New World Bank economist is first from outside Europe and U.S. - International Herald Tribune ] ]
Peking University has one of the largest pools of international students in China. The dorms for international students are located at "Shao Yuan" (Shao Garden). Every year, Peking University has approximately 2,000 international students studying on campus. Its international students are made up of students from most countries in the world including most of Western Europe, North America, South America, all parts of Asia, Australia as well as many countries in Africa.
Since 2006, Peking University has launched a joint undergraduate program with the
Yale University[ [http://www.yale.edu/iefp/pku-yale/ Peking University - Yale University. Joint Undergraduate Program in Beijing] ] ; students will spend a semester overseas, living and studying together with the host institute's students. [http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200609/22/eng20060922_305110.html] ]
Notable alumni, administrators, and faculty
Peking University has produced many notable people, especially lead thinkers in modern China. These include Hu Shi, Li Dazhao and Lu Xun. Beida also has two Nobel Prize winners, Tsung-Dao Lee and Yang Chen Ning. Since the year 1948, 586 Peking University alumni have been selected into the renowned Academic Division of the Chinese Academy of Science (两院院士), overshadowing any other universities in China. [ [http://www.gotopku.cn/data/detail.php?id=4405 北大招生网 ] ]
Peking University is the home both to communist, nationalist and liberal thoughts in modern China.
Mao Zedong, Chen Duxiuand Li Dazhao, all founders of the Communist Party of China, either taught or held offices in the university. Lu Xun, a great contemporary writer, thinker and influential figure of the Chinese New-Culture Movement, which took place in 1919 and sparked China’s anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism march, was also attached to the university. [ [http://bbs.myspace.cn/t/3397392.html] ] During the Cultural Revolution, Peking University philosophy faculty Nie Yuanzinotoriously published the first Big-character poster. Peking University students also led at the Tiananmen Square Protest of 1989 for democracy.
Qian Xuantong錢玄同 - linguist
Gu Hongming辜鸿铭- writer, advocate of monarchy and Confucian values. Gu preserved his plait even after the overthrow of Qing Dynasty
Chen Duxiu陈独秀- dean of letters, later co-founder of Communist Party of China
Lu Xun鲁迅- writer, a spiritual leader of modern Chinese nationalism
Shen Congwen沈从文- writer
Hu Shih胡适- philosopher, writer and the leader of China's New Culture Movement
Lin Yutang林语堂 - writer, inventor of the first Chinese typewriter and a new method of romanizing the Chinese language
Fei Xiaotong费孝通 - researcher of sociology and anthropology; chairman of China Democratic Alliance.
Qian Mu钱穆 [ [http://baike.baidu.com/view/2036.htm?tp=belinked] ] - historian, philosopher and confucian.
Liang Shuming梁漱溟 - modern neo-Confucianist. Liang was most famous for his critique of Marxist class theory, stating that, despite obvious disparities of wealth, Chinese rural society could not be unambiguously classified along class lines. One and the same family (particularly the large patriarchal lineages found in many regions) would commonly have some members among the "haves" and others among the "have-nots". The class struggle advocated by the Maoists would necessitate kinsmen attacking each other.
Ma Yinchu马寅初 - a prominent population economist,whose New Population Theory was criticized by Mao since 1957 for two decades. Having examined trends of the early 1950s, Ma argued that further population growth at such high rates would be detrimental to China's development. Therefore, he advocated government control of fertility.In 1979, the communist party formally apologies to Ma,stating that "erroneously criticized one person, population mistakenly increased 300,000,000".
Jiang Menglin蒋梦麟 [ [http://baike.baidu.com/view/131087.htm] ] - a prominent education reformer in China and former President of Peking University and Zhejiang University
Xu Beihong徐悲鴻 - the most famous Chinese artist, dean of Beida School of Arts
Ta-You Wu吴大猷: the "Father of Chinese Physics". His many illustrious students include Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee, co-winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1957, Yuan Tseh Lee, the co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1986.
Yu Dafu郁達夫 - modern Chinese short story writer and poet, author of Ch'en-lun "Sinking" (1921)
Wang Xiaobo王小波 - writer
He Weifang贺卫方 - judicial reformist
Wang Tieya王鐵崖 - jurist, Judge of International Criminal Court
Li Haopei李浩培 - jurist, Judge of International Criminal Court
Jian Bozan翦伯贊 - historian
Cai Yuanpei蔡元培 - early University Chancellor
Yan Fu严复 - early University Chancellor
Li Dazhao- head librarian, later co-founder of Communist Party of China
* Fan Changjiang - journalist and writer
Feng Youlan冯友兰 - philosopher [ [http://www.guoxue.com/master/fengyoulan/fengyoulan.htm ] ]
* Han Suyin - writer
Mao Dun茅盾- writer and journalist [ [http://www.pku.edu.cn/about/about/beida/mingren.htm] ]
Xu Zhimo徐志摩 - poet
* Zhang Chengzhi - writer
Zhu Ziqing朱自清- poet [ [http://baike.baidu.com/view/1222.htm] ]
* Dolma Kyab - writer (currently political prisoner)
* Jan Wong - writer (one of the first western students permitted to study aboard.)
* Qian Xuantong and Liu Bannong 钱玄同与刘半农 - writers and promotioners of the New Culture Movement [ [http://www.pku.edu.cn/about/about/beida/mingren.htm] ]
* Michael Halliday - developed systemic functional grammar
Gang Tian- Mathematician
* Li Yining - economist
Tsung-Dao Lee( Li Zhengdao) - physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (physics, 1957)
Yang Zhenning- physicist, Nobel Prize laureate, 1957
Justin Yifu Lin- economist (now the chief economist of World Bank)
* Yu Jie - First house church leader to meet an American president (May 2006, meeting George W Bush in the White House)
* Yu Min - physicist, Father of Chinese H-bombs
Luo Jialun罗家伦 - leader of the May Fourth Movement, president of Tsinghua University
Fu Sinian傅斯年 - educator and linguist; leader of the May Fourth Movement, creators of the Academia Sinica, former president of National Taiwan University
Gu Jiegang顾颉刚 - a Chinese historian; the founder of the Skeptical school of early Chinese history, known as yigupai; best known for the seven volume work Gushi Bian (古史辨 "Debates on Ancient History").
* Ren Jiyu 任继愈 - Chinese historian and philosopher, former director of the National Library.
Deng Jiaxian邓稼先 - a nuclear physics expert; a leading organizer and key contributor to the Chinese nuclear weapon programs.
Qian Sanqiang钱三强) - a nuclear physicist and education administrator; a leading organizer and key contributor to the Chinese nuclear weapon programs; former president of Zhejiang University
Zhu Guangya朱光亚 - a renowned nuclear physicist of China, key contributor to China's "Two Bombs, One Satellite" projects.
Zhou Guangzhao周光召) - expert on particle physics, discoverer of PCAC (partial conservation of axial current), an important step toward the understanding of symmetry breaking; former director of the Chinese Nuclear Weapons Research Institute and president of the Academica Sinica.
Bo Xilai- Mayor of Chongqing, Former Minister of Commerce
Cai Wu- Minister of Culture
Deng Nan- Former Vice minister of the State Science and Technology Commission
Deng Pufang- founder and Chairman of China Disabled Persons' Federation
Guo Gengmao- Governor of Henan Province
Hu Chunhua- Youngerst governor in China, former First Secretary of the Communist Youth League
* Hu Deping - vice chairman of All-China General Chamber of Industry & Commerce Party, Secretary of National Association of Industry and Commerce, and vice minister of the Propaganda Department
Li Keqiang- Politburo Standing Committee member, First Deputy Prime Minister
Li Yuanchao- Politburo member and Minister for the Organization Department of the Chinese Communist Party
* Li Zhaoxing - minister of foreign affairs
Lu Hao- First Secretary of Communist Youth League of China
Yuan Chunqing- Governor of Shaanxi Province, Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party
* K. Natwar Singh - India politician
* Wang Dan - Leader of the Tiananmen protests in 1989
Fang Lizhi- Spiritual leader of the Tiananmen Protests in 1989
Shen Tong- Author, Pro-democracy activist
Chen Duxiu- founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
Zhang Guotao- founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
Li Dazhao- founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
Mao Zedong- founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
* Deng Zhongxia 邓中夏, founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
In commerce and media
Among the "top 300 richest in China" [ [http://cuaa.net/cur/2008/xiaoyou1.shtml] ] 27 graduated from Beida, much higher than any other Chinese university. The second ranking school is Zhejiang University, with 17 alumni on the list .
* Li Yanhong - founder of
* Wang Xuan - founder of Founder Co.
* Wang Zhidong - founder of
* Yu Minhong - founder of
Peggy Yu- founder of dangdang.com, the largest online retailor in Chinese language.
* Yan Yan -- Founding Partner of SoftBank China
Li Ning- founder of Li Ning Group [ [http://www.pku.edu.cn/web/xq110/xqjz/jzdt/141.htm] ]
* Huang Nubo - founder of Zhongkun Real Estate Group
* James Jian Ding - founder of Asiainfo, founding partner of Golden Sand River Venture Capital
* Yu Liang - CEO of
Mao Zedong- staff librarian, leader of Communist Party of China
Bertrand Russell- Lecturer in Philosophy (1920-21)
7072 Beijingdaxue- asteroid named after Peking University
List of universities in Mainland China
Beijing Medical University
High School of Peking University
Chinese Family Panel StudiesProgram
* [http://en.pku.edu.cn/ English Homepage]
* [http://www.pku.edu.cn/ Chinese Homepage]
* [http://www.pku.org.cn/ Peking University Alumni Association]
* [http://bbs.pku.edu.cn/ Peking University BBS]
* [http://acm.pku.edu.cn/JudgeOnline/ Peking University Judge Online]
* [http://www.szpku.edu.cn/ Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, Chinese Homepage]
* [http://pku.6dxy.com Campus real three-dimensional map]
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