Gorky Automobile Plant
Type Public (RTS:GAZA)
Industry Automotive
Founded 1932
Headquarters Nizhny Novgorod
Key people Bo Andersson (President & CEO of GAZ Group),Siegfried Wolf (Chairman of the Board of Directors of OAO GAZ)
Products Automobiles, automotive parts
Revenue $3,17 billion (GAZ Group 2010)
Net income $69,51 million (GAZ Group 2010)
Website Gaz website

GAZ (RTS:GAZA) or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (Russia, Nizhny Novgorod), translated as Gorky Automobile Plant (Russian: ГАЗ or Го́рьковский автомоби́льный заво́д), started in 1932 as NAZ, a cooperation between Ford and the Soviet Union. It is one of the largest companies in the Russian automotive industry.

GAZ is a part of GAZ Group holding which comprises 18 plants in 10 regions of Russia. The headquarters of GAZ Group is located in Nizhny Novgorod. Russian Machines Corporation is the controlling shareholder in OAO GAZ.

GAZ Group produces light commercial and medium-duty vehicles, heavy-duty trucks, buses, cars, construction and road-building equipment, powertrain and automotive components.

GAZ Group is the leader of the Russian commercial vehicles market. The market shares of the company: about 50% in the light commercial vehicles segment, about 45% in the all-wheel-drive heavy-duty trucks segment, about 70% in the bus segment and over 40% in the engines segment[1][2].


Current products

  • Minibuses and vans

· GAZelle-Business · Sobol-Business

  • Trucks

· GAZelle-Business · Valday · Sadko · Ural Trucks

  • Buses & Coaches


  • Construction equipment

· ChSDM · Bryansk Arsenal · TVEKS · ZZGT (Asphalt Paver · Bulldozer · Trailer · Front-End Loader · Excavator · Tracked Vehicle · Excavator Loader · Feller Buncher · Motor Grader · Bucket Loader · Pavement Scraper)

  • Powertrain

· YaMZ · UMZ (Diesel engine · Pertrol engine · Gearbox · Fuel Injection System · Clutch · Diesel generating set · Power unit)


In May 1929 the Soviet Union signed an agreement with the Ford Motor Company. Under its terms, the Soviets agreed to purchase $13 million worth of automobiles and parts, while Ford agreed to give technical assistance until 1938 to construct an integrated automobile-manufacturing plant at Nizhny Novgorod. Production started on January 1, 1932, and the factory and marque was titled Nizhegorodsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or NAZ, but also displayed the "Ford" sign. GAZ's first vehicle was the medium-priced Ford Model A, sold as the NAZ-A, and a light truck, the Ford Model AA (NAZ-AA). NAZ-A production commenced in 1932 and lasted until 1936, during which time over 100,000 examples were built.

In 1933, the factory's name changed to Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or GAZ, when the city was renamed after Maxim Gorky; similarly, models were renamed GAZ-A and GAZ-AA. From 1935 to 1956, the official name was augmented with imeni Molotova (literally, named after Molotov).

The GAZ-A was succeeded by the more modern GAZ M1 (based largely on the four cylinder version of the Ford Model B), produced from 1936 to 1942. The M letter stands for Molotovets ('of Molotov's fame'), it was the origin of the car's nickname, M'ka (Эмка).

Experience with the A and the M1 allowed the GAZ engineers to develop their own car model independently of Ford. Called the GAZ 11, this more upscale model entered production in 1942 and remained in limited wartime production until 1946. The M2's bodyshell entered limited production in 1941, mounted on a four-wheel drive chassis and sold in small quantities as the GAZ-61 (quite possibly the world's first all-wheel drive passenger car).

During the war years, GAZ engineers worked to develop an all-new car model to enter production once hostilities ended. Called the GAZ-M20 Pobeda (Victory), this affordably-priced sedan with streamlined, fastback styling, entered production in 1946 and was produced by GAZ until 1958. (Licensed production under the name Warszawa continued in Polish FSO until the 1970s). GAZ-72, a four-wheel drive version, was produced in low volume.

During the war GAZ also assembled Chevrolet G7107 and G7117 (G7107 with winch) from parts shipped from the USA according to Lend Lease agreement.

GAZ also made GAZ-12 ZIM, GAZ-21 and GAZ-24 Volga and the luxury cars GAZ-13 and GAZ-14 Chaika. GAZ also makes trucks and 4x4s such as the GAZelle and the famous GAZ-69.

2006 and beyond

In 2006, GAZ made a move on the LDV company based in Birmingham, England, and acquired the van maker from the venture capital group Sun European Partners in July of that year. GAZ said that they planned to market the MAXUS (LDV's new Panel-van, that was released in January 2005) into the rest of Europe and Asia. GAZ proposed to increase production in the LDV plant in England, while also commencing production of the MAXUS in a new plant in Russia. However, due to the recession, the production at the LDV plant was halted and the plant was sold to a Chinese company ECO Concept in 2009[3].

As then DaimlerChrysler modernized its Sterling Heights Assembly plant in 2006, the old Chrysler Sebring / Dodge Stratus assembly line and tooling was sold to GAZ and was shipped to Nizhny Novgorod in Russia[4]. To produce the Sebring vehicle in Nizhny Novgorod, GAZ built a modern production facility with a high degree of automation. The Sebring vehicle with minor design changes was produced by GAZ from 2008 until the end of 2010 when it was phased out due to the economic crisis. GAZ car facility will be used for contract manufacturing for foreign automakers Volkswagen and General Motors.

In 2010 GAZ upgraded its model range by launching new GAZelle-BUSINESS lineup with diesel and petrol engines and LPG equipment[5].

In September 2010 GAZ Group signed a memorandum of understanding with FAW, one of the leading Chinese automakers, to set up a heavy-duty trucks joint venture in Russia. According to the MoU the joint venture will be organized at the facilities GAZ Group’s Ural plant[6].

In December 2010 GAZ Group signed a memorandum of understanding with Daimler on contract manufacturing of Mercedes-Benz Sprinter at GAZ plant in Nizhny Novgorod. It is expected that production will start in 2012[7].

In February 2011 General Motors and GAZ Group signed a memorandum of understanding on contract assembly of new Chevrolet Aveo small car at GAZ’s facility in Nizhny Novgorod. Start of production is planned for mid 2012[8].

In May 2011 GAZ Group entered into a joint venture agreement with Terex Corporation. The joint venture will manufacture construction and road-building equipment at some of GAZ plants. It is expected that the joint venture will start operation in early 2012[9].

In June 2011 Volkswagen Group Rus and GAZ Group signed a long-term agreement on contract manufacturing of 110,000 cars at GAZ plant. It is planned to produce the new Volkswagen Jetta, Škoda Octavia, and Škoda Yeti cars[10].

In 2011 GAZ announced that it had started preproduction for the new-generation light commercial vehicle GAZelle-Next. The new GAZ model will be launched into mass production in 2013.


  • GAZ-A passenger car (1932–1936) Ford Model A (1927)
  • GAZ-AA truck (1932–1938) Ford Model AA
  • GAZ-4 truck (1932-1936)
  • BA-3 armored car (1933-1935)
  • GAZ-TK halftrack (1933-1934) - based on GAZ-A
  • GAZ-03-30 bus (1933–1950) - based on GAZ-AA
  • GAZ-6 prototype car (1934)
  • GAZ-AAA truck 6x4 (1934–1943)
  • GAZ-410 (also called GAZ-S-1) dump truck (1934–1947)
  • BA-6 medium armoured car (1936–1938)
  • GAZ-M1 passenger car (1936–1942) - based on 1933 Ford
  • GAZ-05-193 bus (1936-1945)
  • GAZ-М415 pickup truck (1937–1941) - based on GAZ-M1
  • GAZ-VM halftrack - based on GAZ-M415
  • GAZ-55 ambulance (1938-1945) - based on GAZ-AA
  • GAZ-60 halftrack (1938-1946)
  • GAZ-MM truck (1938–1950)
  • BA-10 middle armoured car (1939–1941) - based on GAZ-AAA
  • GAZ-44 truck (1939-1942) - based on GAZ-AA but powered by LPG
  • GAZ-42 truck (1939-1946) - based on GAZ-AA but powered by wood gas
  • GAZ-11-40 (1940-1941) - 4-door version of GAZ-11-73
  • GAZ-11-73 (6-I) passenger car (1940–1941, 1945–1948) - based on GAZ-M1
  • GAZ-61-73 4x4 passenger car (1941–1945)
  • GAZ-64 4x4 jeep (1941–1943)
  • T-60 light tank (1941–1942)
  • T-70 light tank (1942–1943)
  • BA-64 light armoured car (1942–1943)
  • GAZ-67 4x4 jeep (1943–1944)
  • BA-64B light armoured car (1943–1946)
  • GAZ-67B - 4x4 jeep (1944–1953)
  • GAZ-51 - truck (1946–1975)
  • GAZ-M20 - Pobeda passenger car (1946–1948, 1949–1955)
  • GAZ-63 truck - (1947–1968) - 4x4 version of GAZ-51
  • GAZ-011 amphibian prototype (1949)
  • GAZ-40 - BTR-40 armoured personnel carrier (1950–1960)
  • GAZ-12 ZIM - big sedan (1950–1960)
  • GAZ-20 - truck (1951-1958)
  • GAZ 46 MAV - light 4x4 amphibian (1952-??)
  • GAZ-69 - 4x4 jeep (1952–1972)
  • GAZ-69A - 4x4 jeep (1953–1972)
  • GAZ-47 - off-road vehicle (1954-1967)
  • GAZ-M20V - Pobeda passenger car (1955–1958) [1] (Russian)
  • GAZ-М72 - Pobeda 4x4 passenger car (1955–1958) [2] (Russian)
  • GAZ-56 - prototype truck (1956)
  • GAZ-21 - Volga sedan (1956–1970)
  • GAZ-18 - invalid car prototype (1958)
  • GAZ-62 - 4x4 military truck (1958–1962)
  • GAZ-93A - dump truck (1958-1975) - based on GAZ-51
  • GAZ-13 - Chaika limousine (1959–1981)
  • GAZ-49 - BTR-60 armored personnel carrier (1960–1976)
  • GAZ-52 - truck (1961–1997)
  • GAZ-53 - truck (1961–1993)
  • GAZ-22 - Volga station wagon (1962–1970)
  • GAZ-23 - Volga V8 KGB sedan (1962–1971)
  • GAZ-66 - 4x4 military truck (1964–1999)
  • GAZ-24 - Volga sedan (1968–1985)
  • GAZ-24-24 - Volga V8 KGB sedan (1971–1986)
  • GAZ-24-02 - Volga station wagon (1972–1986)
  • GAZ-4905 - BTR-70 armored personnel carrier (1976–86)
  • GAZ-14 - Chaika limousine (1977–1988)
  • GAZ-3102 - Volga Militsiya and KGB luxury sedan (from 1982)
  • GAZ-3101 - Volga V8 KGB luxury sedan (1984–1991)
  • GAZ-24-10 - Volga sedan (1984–1993)
  • GAZ-24-34 - Volga V8 KGB sedan (1986–1991)
  • GAZ-5903 - BTR-80 armored personnel carrier (from 1986)
  • GAZ-31029 - Volga sedan (1992–1997)
  • GAZ-3302 - GAZelle light truck (from 1994)
  • GAZ-2705 - GAZelle cargo van (from 1995)
  • GAZ-3221 - GAZelle passenger van (from 1996)
  • GAZ-33023 - GAZelle "Farmer" light truck double cab (from 1996)
  • GAZ-33027 - GAZelle 4x4 light truck (from 1996)
  • GAZ-3937 - Vodnik amphibious 4x4 amphibian (from 1997)
  • GAZ-2752 - Sobol cargo van (from 1998)
  • GAZ-22171 - Sobol passenger van (from 1998)
  • GAZ-2217 - Barguzin passenger van (from 1999)
  • GAZ-2310 - Sobol pick-up truck (from 1999)
  • GAZ-3102 - Volga sedan (1982–2010)
  • GAZ-3110 - Volga sedan (1997–2004)
  • GAZ-310221 - Volga station wagon (from 1997)
  • GAZ-3111 - Volga luxury sedan (2001–2004)
  • GAZ-31105 - Volga sedan (from 2004)
  • GAZ-2330 - Tiger heavy army jeep (from 2002)[3]
  • GAZ-2975 - Armoured Tiger
    • VPK-3927 Volk - tactical high-mobility multipurpose military armored vehicle
  • GAZ-3309 - 4x4 truck
  • GAZ-3310 - "Valdai" medium duty truck
  • GAZ-5923 - Rostok BTR-90 armored personnel carrier (from 2004)
  • Volga Siber - mid-class sedan based on Chrysler Sebring platform (2008–2010)

Car gallery


Coordinates of GAZ's Nizhniy Novgorod factory: 56°14′47.20″N 43°53′23.58″E / 56.246444°N 43.8898833°E / 56.246444; 43.8898833Coordinates: 56°14′47.20″N 43°53′23.58″E / 56.246444°N 43.8898833°E / 56.246444; 43.8898833

See also

Factory 1b.svg Companies portal


  1. ^ "Sales of new foreign brand commercial vehicles in Russia in 2010 showed considerable growth". Association of European Businesses, February, 2011. 
  2. ^ "GAZ Group and Terex Corporation Announce Joint Venture to Make Construction and Roadbuilding Equipment in Russia". The Wall Street Journal, May 30, 2011. 
  3. ^ "LDV Vans bought by China's Qu Li". The Telegraph, October 15, 2009. 
  4. ^ "US: GAZ to buy Sebring/Stratus assembly line from Chrysler". Just-Auto, April 18, 2006. 
  5. ^ "GAZ Group has started serial production of upgraded GAZelle-BUSINESS". Press release, February 25, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Deripaska’s GAZ to Make Trucks With China’s FAW Group". Bloomberg Businessweek, September 27, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Russia: Daimler, GAZ sign Sprinter assembly MoU". Automotive World, December 24, 2010. 
  8. ^ "GM to assemble Chevrolets at Russia's GAZ plant". Reuters, February 1, 2011. 
  9. ^ "GAZ Group and Terex Corp. Announce Joint Venture to Make Construction and Roadbuilding Equipment in Russia". Reuters, May 30, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Volkswagen, GAZ Group to invest 200 mln euro in car assembly". RIA NOVOSTI, June 14, 2011. 


External links

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