Storyboards are graphic organizers such as a series of
illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of previsualizing a motion graphicor interactive mediasequence, including website interactivity.
The storyboarding process, in the form it is known today, was developed at the
Walt Disney Studioduring the early 1930s, after several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other animation studios.
The storyboarding process can be very tedious and intricate. The form widely known today was developed at the Walt Disney studio during the early 1930s. In the biography of her father, "The Story of Walt Disney" (Henry Holt, 1956),
Diane Disney Millerexplains that the first complete storyboards were created for the 1933 Disney short " Three Little Pigs". According to John Canemaker, in "Paper Dreams: The Art and Artists of Disney Storyboards" (1999, Hyperion Press), the first storyboards at Disney evolved from comic-book like "story sketches" created in the 1920s to illustrate concepts for animated cartoon short subjects such as Plane Crazyand " Steamboat Willie".
According to Christopher Finch in "The Art of Walt Disney" (Abrams, 1973), Disney credited animator Webb Smith with creating the idea of drawing scenes on separate sheets of paper and pinning them up on a bulletin board to tell a story in sequence, thus creating the first storyboard.
One of the first live action films to be completely storyboarded was Gone with the Wind. William Cameron Menzies, the film's production designer, was hired by David Selznik to design every shot of the film. Many large budget silent films were also storyboarded but most of this material has been lost during the reduction of the studio archives during the 1970s.
Storyboarding became popular in live-action film production during the early 1940s, and grew into a standard medium for previsualization of films: "We can see the last half century ... as the period in which production design was largely characterized by adoption of the storyboard", wrote curator Annette Michelson in a 1993 catalog for the Pace Gallery exhibit "Drawing into Film: Director's Drawings", which featured storyboards of popular films.
Storyboarding's most recent use is outlining
websites and other interactive media projects during the designphase.
A film storyboard is essentially a large comic of the film or some section of the film produced beforehand to help
film directors, cinematographersand television commercial advertisingclients visualize the scenes and find potential problems before they occur. Often storyboards include arrows or instructions that indicate movement.
In creating a
motion picturewith any degree of fidelity to a script, a storyboard provides a visual layout of events as they are to be seen through the camera lens. And in the case of interactive media, it is the layout and sequence in which the user or viewer sees the content or information. In the storyboarding process, most technical details involved in crafting a film or interactive media project can be efficiently described either in picture, or in additional text.
Some live-action film directors, such as
Joel and Ethan Coen, used storyboard extensively before taking the pitch to their funders, stating that it helps them get the figure they are looking for since they can show exactly where the money will be used. Other directors storyboard only certain scenes, or none at all. Animation directors are usually required to storyboard extensively, sometimes in place of doing a script.
A common misconception is that storyboards are not used in theater. They are frequently special tools that directors and playwrights use to understand the layout of the scene.
animationand special effectswork, the storyboarding stage may be followed by simplified mock-ups called "animatics" to give a better idea of how the scene will look and feel with motion and timing. At its simplest, an animatic is a series of still images edited together and displayed in sequence. More commonly, a rough dialogueand/or rough sound track is added to the sequence of still images (usually taken from a storyboard) to test whether the sound and images are working effectively together.
This allows the
animators and directors to work out any screenplay, camera positioning, shot list and timing issues that may exist with the current storyboard. The storyboard and soundtrack are amended if necessary, and a new animatic may be created and reviewed with the director until the storyboard is perfected. Editing the film at the animatic stage can avoid animation of scenes that would be edited out of the film. Animation is usually an expensive process, so there should be a minimum "deleted scenes" if the film is to be completed within budget.
Often storyboards are animated with simple zooms and pans to simulate camera movement (using non-linear editing software). These animations can be combined with available animatics, sound effects and dialog to create a presentation of how a film could be shot and cut together. Some feature film
DVD"special features" include production animatics.
Photomaticis a series of still photographs edited together and presented on screen in a sequence.Usually, a voice-over, soundtrackand sound effects are added to the piece to create a presentation to show how a film could be shot and cut together. Increasingly used by advertisers and advertising agenciesto research the effectiveness of their proposed storyboardbefore committing to a 'full up' television advertisement.
The photomatic is usually a research tool, similar to an
animatic, in that it represents the work to a test audience so that the commissioners of the work can gauge its effectiveness.
Originally, photographs were taken using colour negative film. A selection would be made from contact sheets and prints made. The prints would be placed on a rostrum and recorded to
videotapeusing a standard video camera. Any moves, pans or zooms would have to be made in camera. The capured scenes could then be edited. Digital photography, web access to stock photographyand Non-linear editingprograms have had a marked impact on this way of film making also leading to the term 'digimatic'. Images can be shot and edited very quickly to allow important creative decisions to be made 'live'. Photo composite animationscan build intricate scenes that would normally be beyond many test film budgets.
The term '
photomatic' is probably derived from ' animatic' or photo-animation.
Storyboards were adapted from the film industry to business, purportedly by
Howard Hughesof Hughes Aircraft. Today they are used by industry for planning ad campaigns, commercials, a proposal or other projects intended to convince or compel to action.
quality storyboard" is a tool to help facilitate the introduction of a quality improvement process into an organisation. Design comicsare a type of storyboard used to include a customer or other characters into a narrative. Design comics are most often used in designing web sites or illustrating product usage scenarios during design.
More recently the term "storyboard" has been used in the fields of
web development, software developmentand instructional designto present and describe, in written, interactiveevents as well as audio and motion, particularly on user interfaces and electronic pages.
One advantage of using storyboards is that it allows (in film and business) the user to experiment with changes in the storyline to evoke stronger reaction or interest. Flashbacks, for instance, are often the result of sorting storyboards out of chronological order to help build suspense and interest.
The process of visual thinking and planning allows a group of people to brainstorm together, placing their ideas on storyboards and then arranging the storyboards on the wall. This fosters more ideas and generates consensus inside the group.
Storyboards for films are created in a multiple step process.--They can be created by hand drawing or digitally on the computer.
If drawing by hand, the first step is to create or download a storyboard template. These look much like a blank comic strip, with space for comments and dialogue. Then sketch a "
thumbnail" storyboard. Some directors sketch thumbnails directly in the script margins. These storyboards get their name because they are rough sketches not bigger than a thumbnail. For some motion pictures, thumbnail storyboards are sufficient.
However, some filmmakers rely heavily on the storyboarding process. If a director or producer wishes, more detailed and elaborate storyboard images are created. These can be created by professional
storyboard artists by hand on paper or digitally by using 2D storyboarding programs. Some software applications even supply a stable of storyboard-specific images making it possible to quickly create shots which express the director's intent for the story. These boards tend to contain more detailed information than thumbnail storyboards and convey more of the mood for the scene. These are then presented to the project's cinematographer who achieves the director's vision.
Finally, if needed, 3D storyboards are created (called Technical
Previsualization). The advantage of 3D storyboards is they show exactly what the film camera will see using the lenses the film camera will use. The disadvantage of 3D is the amount of time it takes to build and construct the shots. 3D storyboards can be constructed using 3D animation programs or digital puppets within 3D programs. Some programs have a collection of low resolution 3D figures which can aid in the process. Some 3D applications allow cinematographers to create "technical" storyboards which are optically-correct shots and frames.
While technical storyboards can be helpful, optically-correct storyboards may limit the director's creativity. In classic motion pictures such as
Orson Welles' " Citizen Kane" and Alfred Hitchcock's " North by Northwest", the director created storyboards that were initially thought by cinematographers as to be impossible to film. Such innovative and dramatic shots had "impossible" depth of field and angles where there was "no room for the camera." At least not until creative solutions were found to achieve the ground-breaking shots that the director had envisioned. It is very important that the director not be limited to what is just "possible" or "normal" to the cinematographer. Technical 3D programs can sometimes help the cinematographer plan what challenges the director has created for them to achieve complex storytelling shots.
* List of film-related topics
* [http://www.bafta.org/learning/storyboarding-for-beginners-with-temple-clark,446,BA.html Storyboarding for Beginners with Temple Clark] ,
BAFTAFamilies Event, June 2008
* [http://www.ronald-kaiser.com/film/Storyboardmaster.rtf Storyboard Master] (rtf file)
* [http://www.storyboards.co.nz/gallery.htm Examples of TVC Storyboards]
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