Portuguese verb conjugation

Portuguese verb conjugation

Portuguese verbs display a high degree of inflection. A typical regular verb has over fifty different forms, expressing up to six different grammatical tenses and three moods. Two forms are peculiar to Portuguese within the Romance languages:

* The personal infinitive, a non-finite form which does not show tense, but is inflected for person and number.
* The future subjunctive, nowadays archaic in related languages such as Spanish, but still active in Portuguese.

It has also several verbal periphrases.


Portuguese verbs have the following properties.

:1. Two numbers—singular, plural:2. Three persons—first, second, third:3. Three aspects—perfective, imperfective, progressive*:4. Two voices—active, passive*:5. Six (or five) tenses—present, preterite, imperfect, pluperfect, future, and conditional.:6. Three (or four) moods—indicative, subjunctive, imperative (and conditional, according to some authors)

Classes with an asterisk are entirely periphrastic. The passive voice can be constructed in two different ways. The pluperfect, the future, and the conditional of the indicative mood are often replaced with other tenses or verbal periphrases in the spoken language.

Basic tenses and moods

Conjugation is demonstrated here with the important irregular verb "fazer" "to do". The Portuguese names of the tenses ("tempos") and moods ("modos") are given along with their English translations.



# or "hemos" (archaic)
# or "heis" (archaic)

Conditional and future

There are few irregular verbs for these tenses(only "dizer", "fazer", "trazer", and their compounds - also"haver", "ter", "ser", "ir", "pôr", "estar", etc. - for the Subjunctive Future Imperfect).The Indicative Future Imperfect, Conditional and SubjunctiveFuture Imperfect tenses are formed byadding to the infinitive of the verb the Indicative Present inflections of the
auxiliary verb "haver" (dropping the "h" and "av"), the2nd/3rd conjugation endings of the Preterit Imperfect and the PersonalInfinitive endings, respectively. Thus, for the majorityof the verbs, the Simple Personal Infinitive coincides with Subjunctive FutureImperfect.


The affirmative imperative for second person pronouns "tu" and "vós" is obtained from the present indicative, by deletion of the final "-s" (in some cases, an accent mark must be added to the vowel which precedes it). For other persons, and for negative clauses, the present subjunctive takes the role of imperative.

Present inflections pronunciation

In this tense, the stress fluctuates between the root and thetermination. As a rule of thumb, the last radical vowel (the one thatcan be stressed) will retain its original pronunciation when unstressed(atonic) and change into [a] , [e] (Subjunctive or Indicative 1st pers sing)/ [ɛ] (Infinitive), or [o] (Subjunctive or Indicative 1st pers sing)/ [ɔ] (Infinitive) - dependingon the vowel in question - in case it is stressed (is in a tonic syllable).Other vowels ("u", "i") and nasalized sounds will probably stayunchanged.Examples: See the conjugation of "comer" [-u-] above, in the IndicativePresent Simple. The "o" will assume three values [u] , [o] and [ɔ] .Compare with "absorver" [-ɔ-] .It will be conjugated as [ɐ·ˈbsoɾ·vu] , [ɐ·ˈbsɔɾ·vɨʃ] , [ɐ·ˈbsɔɾ·vɨ] , [ɐ·bsɔɾ·ˈve·muʃ] , [ɐ·bsɔɾ·ˈvɐjʃ] , [ɐ·ˈbsɔɾ·vɐ̃j] .The value [u] is not assumed in this case.This also has repercussions in the Imperative, for its inflections areconstructed from the Indicative Present Simple.

ee also

*Portuguese grammar
*Portuguese phonology
*Portuguese personal pronouns and possessives
* [http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Portuguese:Variation_of_the_Portuguese_Verbs Wikibooks: Variation of the Portuguese Verbs]

External links

* [http://www.verbomatic.com/ Verbomatic] Free Online Multi-language verb conjugation
* [http://www.orbilat.com/Languages/Portuguese/Grammar/Portuguese-Verb-Conjugation-Simple_Tenses.html Conjugation paradigm for Portuguese regular verbs] , at Orbis Latinus
* [http://www.inf.ufrgs.br/~emiliano/conver/geral_i.html ConVer — Paradigm of the Portuguese verb conjugation]
* [http://www.geocities.com/email_theguy/newportweb/portuguese_verbregulars.htm Portuguese: Regular Verb Endings] , at the Portuguese Online Homepage
* [http://lxconjugator.di.fc.ul.pt/ LX-Conjugator] Online conjugator with support for pronominal conjugation (up to three clitics)
* [http://www.priberam.pt/dlpo/dlpo.aspx Priberam] free online dictionary and conjugator
* [http://www.verbix.com/languages/portuguese.shtml Verbix] free online verb conjugator
* [http://www.verbs-online.com/portuguese-verbs/portuguese-verbs.htm Verbs-online.com] Online verb conjugation trainer

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Portuguese grammar — Portuguese grammar, the morphology and syntax of the Portuguese language, is similar to the grammar of most other Romance languages especially Galician and the other languages of Iberian Peninsula. It is a synthetic, fusional language. Nouns,… …   Wikipedia

  • Verb — This article is about the part of speech. For the physical activity program, see VERB (program). For English usage of verbs, see English verbs. Verbs redirects here. For the Christian gospel rapper, see Verbs (rapper). Examples I washed the car… …   Wikipedia

  • Portuguese personal pronouns — The Portuguese personal pronouns and possessives display a higher degree of inflection than other parts of speech. Personal pronouns have distinct forms according to whether they stand for a subject (nominative), a direct object (accusative), an… …   Wikipedia

  • Portuguese language — Romance language spoken by about 170 million people in Portugal, Brazil, and other former Portuguese colonies. The first literary works in Portuguese date from the 13th–14th century. Standard Portuguese is based on the dialect of Lisbon.… …   Universalium

  • Differences between Spanish and Portuguese — Although Portuguese and Spanish are closely related, to the point of having a considerable degree of mutual intelligibility, there are also important differences between them, which can pose difficulties for people acquainted with one of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Portuguese orthography — The Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes. Accented… …   Wikipedia

  • Portuguese phonology — The phonology of Portuguese can vary considerably between dialects, in extreme cases leading to difficulties in intelligibility. This article focuses on the pronunciations that are generally regarded as standard. Since Portuguese is a… …   Wikipedia

  • Grammatical conjugation — Part of the conjugation of the Spanish verb correr, to run , the lexeme is corr . Red represents the speaker, purple the addressee and teal a third person. One person represents the singular number and two, the plural number. Dawn represents the… …   Wikipedia

  • Brazilian Portuguese — (Portuguese: português brasileiro or português do Brasil; pt BR) is a group of Portuguese dialects written and spoken by most of the 190 million inhabitants[1] of Brazil and by a few million Brazilian emigrants, mainly in the United States,… …   Wikipedia

  • Finite verb — A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages in which it occurs. Finite verbs can form independent clauses, which can stand by their own as complete sentences.The finite …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”