Magnetic dipole-dipole interaction

Magnetic dipole-dipole interaction

Magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, also called dipolar coupling, refers to the direct interaction between two magnetic dipoles. The energy of the interaction is as follows:

: old{H} = - frac{ mu_0 } {4 pi r_{jk}^3 } left( 3 (old{m}_j cdot old{e}_{jk}) (old{m}_k cdot old{e}_{jk}) - old{m}_j cdot old{m}_k ight)

where ejk is a unit vector parallel to the line joining the centers of the two dipoles. rjk is the distance between two dipoles, mk and mj.

For two interacting nuclear spins:

: old{H} = - frac{ mu_0 }{ 4 pi } frac{ gamma_j gamma_k }{ r_{jk}^3 } left( 3 (old{I}_j cdot old{e}_{jk}) (old{I}_k cdot old{e}_{jk}) - old{I}_j cdot old{I}_k ight)

γj, γk and rjk are gyromagnetic ratios of two spins and spin-spin distance respectively.

Dipolar coupling and NMR spectroscopy

The direct dipole-dipole coupling is very useful for molecular structural studies, since it depends only on known physical constants and the inverse cube of internuclear distance. Estimation of this coupling provides a direct spectroscopic route to the distance between nuclei and hence the geometrical form of the molecule. Although internuclear magnetic dipole couplings contain a great deal of structural information, in isotropic solution, they average to zero as a result of rotational diffusion. However, their effect on nuclear spin relaxation results in measurable nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs).

The residual dipolar coupling (RDC) occur if the molecules in solution exhibit a partial alignment leading to an incomplete averaging of spatially anisotropic magnetic interactions i.e. dipolar couplings. RDC measurement provides information on the global folding of the protein-long distance structural information. It also provides information about "slow" dynamics in molecules.


*Malcolm H. Levitt , "Spin Dynamics: Basics of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance". ISBN 0-471-48922-0.

See also

*Magic angle
*Residual dipolar coupling
*Nuclear Overhauser effect

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