Communist Party of Quebec

Communist Party of Quebec
Communist Party of Quebec
Parti communiste du Québec
Leader Francis Gagnon-Bergmann
President Guy Roy
Founded 1921 (1921)
Ideology Communism,
Quebec sovereigntism
Official colours Red
Seats in the National Assembly
0 / 125
Politics of Quebec
Political parties

The Parti communiste du Québec or PCQ (in English: Communist Party of Quebec) is a communist political party in Quebec. The PCQ was the Quebec branch of the Communist Party of Canada until 2005 when the PCQ split at convention with a majority opposing the CPC's stance on Quebec independence. The name "Parti communiste du Québec" is now authorized by the Quebec Director General of Elections as the name of a political party led by Francis Gagnon-Bergmann.

The PCQ has run candidates in Quebec general elections from 1936 to 1998. The party was banned in 1941, and henceforth ran candidates as the Parti ouvrier-progressiste (in English: "Labour-Progressive Party") until 1959. Sam Walsh was leader of the party from 1962 to 1990.

In 2002, the PCQ joined in a federation with the Rassemblement pour l'alternative progressiste and the Parti de la démocratie socialiste to form the Union des forces progressistes, which in turn merged with Option Citoyenne to form Québec Solidaire. The PCQ is now a collective in Quebec solidaire.


Origins of Communist Party 1921-1965

1923: Albert Saint-Martin tries to establish a French-Canadian section of the International Communist later refused his request, accepting a one-party country.

1927: The Club PC based on French-Canadian education in order to train cadres for the Party speaking. Evariste Dubé, president of the university workers, seeking dissolution of the latter and the membership of its members to the Communist Party. St. Martin refused and Dube founded the first section communist French Canadian in the PC with the "old" Paquette. Leo Lebrun, Charles Ouimet, M. Simard and E. Galarneau and Belanger.

1928: Georges Dubois joined the party and became the organizer of the French-Canadian group, Sidney and Michael Sarkin Buhay then ruling Party.

July 1930: E. Simard, blacksmith, is as Communist candidate in the federal election in Maisonneuve, Montreal. Its organizer Georges Dubois, was arrested by the police. The party organized a demonstration against the arrest at Viger Square, the police brutally disperse the hundreds of protesting workers.

1934: Death of Paul Delisle, leader of the French-Canadian party. Funeral "red" in Montreal. Assembly of the League against War and Fascism in Montreal, 600 people hear Lilian Mendelssohn, J. S. Wallace, Fred Rose, Maurice Armstrong and Stanley Brehaut Ryerson. (November) Assembly cons section 98 of the Criminal Code 3 000 to 4 000 people gathered at St. Jacques Market to hear J. S. Wallace, John Boychuk, Becky Buhay, Paul and Tom McEwen.

1935: The journal Clarity becomes a weekly will be published until 1939. Evariste Dube made it to Moscow. Norman Bethune joined the Communist Party hotel. Communist participation in the creation of unemployed clubs in Montreal. S. Larkin, J. Bedard, C. A. Perry, L. Dufour and Ms. Lebrun argue various clubs such as assembly workers United Lorimier Unemployed League St. Henri, etc.

October 1935: (14) federal election: Fred Rose gets 3378 votes in Montreal-Cartier, CA Perry gets 1 012 in Saint-Denis.

1936: Stanley Brehaut Ryerson is appointed secretary of the Communist Party in Quebec. Lucien Dufour President of the Front Populaire, reported that 56 organizations are part of Quebec. The central theme and organizing struggles of the unemployed. Established the first executive committee of the Quebec section of the Communist Party: Evariste Dube (Chairman), S. B. Ryerson (secretary), Fred Rose, Emile Godin Alec Rosenberg, Samuel Emery. Alex Gauld, Mrs. Leo Lebrun, Willie Fortin. Jean Bourget Sarkin and Sydney are included.

August 1936: (27) provincial election: Fred Rose gets 578 votes in St. Louis, Evariste Dube 185 votes in Saint-Jacques and Emile Godin 288 votes in Sainte-Marie.

1937: The padlock law was created by the Quebec premier Maurice Duplessis.

June 1937: Demonstration of 300 to 400 women in the Champ de Mars organized by Solidarity Women: 5 women were arrested after the police charge (18) Norman Bethune returned to Montreal after a journey of several months in Spain . Thousands of people are waiting to come Bonaventure station and organize a parade in the streets of Montreal in his honor (20) Over 15 000 people gather at the Mount Royal Arena to hear Bethune tell what he saw in Spain and declared: "Spain can be the tomb of fascism" - Bethune continues with a tour of seven months the country to raise money for the Spanish Republic.

November 1937: The newspaper Clarity is prohibited by the Duplessis government.

May 1938: (1) Approximately 4 000 people attend a meeting of the Communist Party unit and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation in the arena Mont-Royal in Montreal: The main speakers are Eugene Forsey, CCF and Stanley B. Ryerson for the Communist Party.

1941: Meeting in Montreal: Guy Caron, the Communist Party and Jean-Charles Harvey, Le Jour newspaper, spoke to 6 000 people to support the war effort against the fascists.

August 1943: (9th) Fred Rose was elected MP for Montreal-Cartier during a federal by-election. He won 5767 votes.

November 1943: First Congress of the Labour-Progressive Party of Quebec at Montreal, 172 delegates representing 40 clubs from the party.

January 1944 (26) Fred Rose Tait are coming to the House of Commons as MP for Montreal-Cartier.

August 1944: provincial election: the Labour-Progressive Party candidate in Saint Louis, Michael Buhay, gets 6 512 votes.

June 1945: Federal Election: Fred Rose is re-elected MP for Montreal-Cartier.

On March 14, 1946, Fred Rose is arrested and accused of spying for the Soviet Union in the wake of revelations of Igor Gouzenko. He was freed after six years in prison and deported to Poland where he will end his days. The Canadian government will never give the right to return.

1946: Guy Caron is appointed leader of the provincial Labour-Progressive Party (LPP).

April 1946: Henri Gagnon and other Communist League mow Homeless Veterans: Gagnon is president. The League consists of squatters occupying homes that veterans can not afford, or unoccupied, for their return.

1948: Police conduct a seizure at the local newspaper Combat (founded 1946), under the padlock law.

1951: Release of Fred Rose after six years in prison. Continued harassment by the police he decided to leave Canada for Czechoslovakia and Poland.

October 1956: (14) Public meeting in Montreal following the 20th Congress of the CPSU: Tim Buck and JB Salsberg, back in the USSR, reflecting the results of their talks with Soviet leaders (15) Dissatisfied with the explanations provided by Buck, Guy Caron resigned from the LPP with five other members of the provincial committee: Ken Perry, Harry Gulkin, Norman Nerenberg, Frank Arnold and Pierre Gélinas.

February 1957: In an article published in Clarity, Henri Gagnon estimates that 200 members have left the party since the revelations of Khrushchev.

March 1957: The padlock law is declared unconstitutional.

History since 1965

In 1965, the Communist Party of Quebec was definitely established a political party under the laws of Quebec, under the chairmanship of Samuel Walsh.

1973: The DMP has published a pamphlet calling for the creation of a mass federated party in Quebec and require unions to take the lead in this process. Quebec then saw an unprecedented rise of struggles. We're after the big strike of 1972 in the public sector, which was then followed by the imprisonment of union leaders and the outbreak of unprecedented general strike in Quebec.

The idea received a more favorable reception in many unions, especially in Montreal. The project to create a mass party of workers from unions, thereby subject to close debate on the floor of Congress of the Quebec Federation of Labour in 1975. But the proposal was defeated. Elsewhere, particularly in the Congres des Syndicats Nationaux and the CEQ, the same is the enthusiasm gives way slowly to the ground a certain selflessness. The problem lies in the fact that the support of the Parti Québécois (PQ) is skyrocketing, including in unions, as people realize that the PQ could take power. In November 1976 the PQ takes power for the first time.

Given the lack of enthusiasm on the part of unions to promote such a project, which is increasingly seen as being harmful to the chances of PQ to finally beat the Liberals, and to the difficulties within the groups Left can agree because of the extreme partisanship that exists then the idea will die a natural death.

1980: The PCQ gave its support to the Yes Campaign, at the first referendum on Quebec sovereignty in 1980.

March 1983: The death of Fred Rose in Poland.

1991: The Communist Party through to turn a very serious crisis that will actually be his worst so far. It will virtually complete its liquidation. At the same time, the USSR imploded.

1998: In September 1998 a small group of activists, mostly of Greek origin, united in purpose with the members of the Communist Workers Group (ACG), resulting mostly from the former CPO, to put up a section of the CPC in Quebec. Two months later, the last member of the PCQ in turn meet these new activists united to suggest they can also join

We are then in November, one month before the PQ government would trigger the 1998 elections. This event marks the official return then DMP within the CCP. This unit will not last very long however, as already mentioned above, since 2005, the DMP is not at all associated with the Canadian Communist Party.

Interestingly, although the PCQ has just departed on a new basis, it is already active in promoting the search for greater unity among the left forces. Beginning in September, members of the CPC in Quebec had in fact begun to meet some members of the Party of Social Democracy (PDS), particularly in the region of Quebec, to discuss possible cooperation.

In the elections of 1998, the Communist Party of Quebec is pursuing the approach and suggests the PDS form an alliance to avoid too much pounding on the feet during the elections. The offer remains unanswered then the side of the PDS, but the steps are nevertheless useful.

A few months later, in a rather unexpected move, the SDP calls on the DMP effect coming as a special guest, to attend their next conference, in order to enforce its vision of the unity of left forces.

In 2002, the Communist Party of Quebec merged with the Party of Social Democracy (PDS) and the Rally for the progressive alternative (RAP) to form the Union of Progressive Forces (UFP). The UFP in turn merged with the political movement Option citizen in 2006 to form the party Québec solidaire (QS).

2005 split

The PCQ account of this situation is available online ([1]).


The official Directeur général des élections du Québec recognizes the existence of a Parti communiste du Québec with leader André Parizeau, authorized April 3, 2006. [2] This party did not run any candidates in the 2007 Quebec election.

2007 provincial elections

In 2007 the Parti communiste du Québec decided not to run candidates in the provincial election and rather to support those of Quebec Solidaire. It should be specified that the PCQ was one of the party-founders of the UFP, interdependent ancestor of Quebec Solidaire. The party decided to remain active only in order to prevent that a new political formation takes its name, putting thus fine at the efforts to link the Quebec left. The president of the party, André Parizeau Francis Gagnon-Bergmann member of the Executive committee and Jocelyn Parent, were candidate for Quebec Solidaire in the district of Acadie Blainville and Mirabel. All the members of the PCQ are working in the Quebec Solidaire party.

2008 provincial elections

The Communist Party of Quebec has decided not to run candidates in this election and instead support those of Québec solidaire as in the previous election. Four members of the PCQ were presented as candidates in elections under the banner of Quebec solidaire ; Francis Gagnon-Bergmann, Leader of the PCQ in Blainville, André Parizeau Spokesman PCQ in Acadie, Sabrina Perreault executive member in Terrebonne and Jean Nicolas Denis in Bellechasse. Now Quebec solidaire got about 8% of the popular votes.

Leaders list

  • Sam Walsh 1965 - 1989
  • Marianne Roy 1989 - 1991
  • Ginette Gauthier 1991 - 1994
  • André Cloutier 1994 - 1998
  • André Parizeau 1998 - 2008
  • Francis Gagnon-Bergmann 2008–present

See also

External links

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