Hobo is a term that refers to a
subcultureof wandering homelesspeople, [cite web | authorlink = Answers.com | title = "hobo." | work = The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition | publisher = Houghton Mifflin Company | date = 2004 |url = http://www.answers.com/topic/hobo | format = | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ] particularly those who make a habit of hopping freight trains. The iconic image of a hobo is that of a downtrodden, shabbily-dressed and perhaps drunken male, one that was solidified in American cultureduring the Great Depression. Hobos are often depicted carrying a bindleand/or a sign asking for money/work/food.
The hobo imagery has been employed by entertainers to create horribly failing characters in the past, two of them being
Emmett Kelly's "Weary Willy" and Red Skelton's "Freddy the Freeloader".
The origin of the term is unknown, though there are a number of theories. Author Todd DePastino has suggested that it may come from the term "hoe-boy" meaning "farmhand," or a greeting such as "Ho, boy!". [ [http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/143783in.html Interview with Todd DePastino, author of Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America ] ]
Bill Brysonsuggests in "Made in America" that it could either come from the railroadgreeting, "Ho, beau!" or a syllabic abbreviationof "homeward bound". Others have said that the term comes from the Manhattanintersection of Houston and Bowery, where itinerant people once used to congregate.
Still another theory of the term's origins is that it derives from the city of Hoboken,
New Jersey, which was a terminus for many railroad lines in the 19th century. The word "hobo" may also be a shortening of the phrase which best describes the early hobo's method of transportation, which was "hopping boxcars", or of the phrase "homeless body" or "homeless bohemian".
It is unclear exactly when hobos appeared on the American railroading scene. With the end of the Mexican Civil War in the mid 19th Century, many soldiers looking to return home took to hopping freight trains. Others looking for work on the American frontier followed railroads westward aboard freight trains in the late 19th Century.
In 1906, Prof. Edmund Kelly, after an exhaustive study, put the number of tramps in America at 500,000 (about .6% of the U.S. population). The article citing this figure, "What Tramps Cost Nation", was published by "The New York Telegraph" in 1911 and estimated the number had surged to 700,000. [New York Telegraph: "What Tramps Cost Nation," page D2. "The Washington Post", June 18, 1911]
The population of hobos increased greatly during the
Great Depressionera of the 1930s. With no work and no prospects at home, many decided to travel for free via freight trains and try their luck elsewhere.
Life as a hobo was a dangerous one. In addition to the problems of being itinerant, poor, far from home and support, and the hostile attitude of many train crews, the railroads employed their own security staff, often nicknamed "bulls", who had a reputation for being rough with trespassers. Also, riding on a freight train is a dangerous enterprise. The British poet
W.H. Davies, author of " The Autobiography of a Super-Tramp", lost a leg falling under the wheels whilst trying to jump a train. One could easily get trapped between cars, or freeze to death in bad weather. When freezer cars were loaded at an ice factory, any hobo inside was likely to be killed.
National Hobo Convention
In 1900, the town fathers of Britt,
Iowainvited Tourist Union #63 to bring their annual convention to town, and the National Hobo Conventionhas been held each year in early to mid August ever since. Hobos stay in the "Hobo Jungle" telling stories around campfires at night. A hobo king and queen are named each year and get to ride on special floats in the Hobo Day parade. Following the parade, mulligan stew is served to hundreds of people in the city park. Live entertainment, a carnival, and a flea market are also part of the festivities.
Hobo lingo in use up to the 1940s
*"Accommodation car" - The
cabooseof a train
*"Angellina" - young inexperienced kid
*"Bad Road" - A train line rendered useless by some hobo's bad action
*"Banjo" - (1) A small portable
frying pan. (2) A short, "D" handled shovel
*"Barnacle" - a person who sticks to one job a year or more
*"Beachcomber" - a hobo that hangs around docks or sea
*"Big House" -
*"Bindle stick" - Collection of belongings wrapped in cloth and tied around a stick
*"Bindlestiff" - A hobo who steals from other hobos.
*"Blowed-in-the-glass" - a genuine, trustworthy individual
*"'Bo" - the common way one hobo referred to another: "I met that 'Bo on the way to Bangor last spring".
*"Boil Up" - Specifically, to boil one's clothes to kill lice and their eggs. Generally, to get oneself as clean as possible
*"Bone polisher" - A mean
*"Bone orchard" - a
*"Bull" - A railroad officer
*"Buck" - a Catholic
priestgood for a dollar
*"C, H, and D" - indicates an individual is Cold, Hungry, and Dry (thirsty)
*"California Blankets" -
Newspapers, intended to be used for bedding
*"Calling In" - Using another's
campfireto warm up or cook
*"Cannonball" - A fast train
*"Carrying the Banner" - Keeping in constant motion so as to avoid being picked up for loitering or to keep from freezing
*"Catch the Westbound" - to die
*"Chuck a dummy" - Pretend to faint
*"Cover with the moon" - Sleep out in the open
*"Cow crate" - A railroad stock car
*"Crumbs" - Lice
*"Doggin' it" - Traveling by
bus, especially on the Greyhound busline
*"Easy mark" - A hobo sign or mark that identifies a person or place where one can get food and a place to stay overnight
*"Elevated" - under the influence of drugs or alcohol
*"Flip" - to board a moving train
*"Flop" - a place to sleep, by extension: "Flophouse", a cheap hotel.
*"Glad Rags" - One's best clothes
*"Graybacks" - Lice
*"Grease the Track" - to be run over by a train
*"Gump" - a scrap of meat
*"Honey dipping" - Working with a shovel in the sewer
*"Hot" - (1) A
fugitivehobo. (2) A decent meal: "I could use three hots and a flop."
*"Hot Shot" - train with priority freight, stops rarely, goes faster. Simile for "Cannonball"
*"Jungle" - An area off a railroad where hobos camp and congregate
*"Jungle Buzzard" - a hobo or
trampthat preys on their own
*"Knowledge bus" - A
school busused for shelter
*"Main Drag" - the busiest road in a town
*"Moniker" / "Monica" - A
*"Mulligan" - a type of
community stew, created by several hobos combining whatever food they have or can collect
*"Nickel note" - five-dollar bill
*"On The Fly" - jumping a moving train
*"Padding the hoof" - to travel by foot
*"Possum Belly" - to ride on the roof of a passenger car. One must lay flat, on his/her stomach, to not be blown off
*"Pullman" - a rail car
*"Punk" - any young kid
*"Reefer" - A compression of "refrigerator car".
*"Road kid" - A young hobo who apprentices himself to an older hobo in order to learn the ways of the road
*"Road stake" - the small amount of money a hobo may have in case of an emergency
*"Rum dum" - A drunkard
*"Sky pilot" - a preacher or minister
*"Soup bowl"- A place to get soup, bread and drinks
*"Snipes" - Cigarette butts "sniped" (eg. in ashtrays)
*"Spear biscuits" - Looking for food in garbage cans
*"Stemming" - panhandling or mooching along the streets
*"Tokay Blanket" - drinking alcohol to stay warm
*"Yegg" - A traveling professional thief
Many hobo terms have become part of common language, such as "Big House", "glad rags", "main drag", and others.
To cope with the difficulty of hobo life, hobos developed a system of symbols, or a code. Hobos would write this code with chalk or coal to provide directions, information, and warnings to other hobos. Some signs included "turn right here", "beware of hostile railroad police", "dangerous dog", "food available here", and so on. For instance:
*A cross signifies "angel food," that is, food served to the hobos after a party.
*A triangle with hands signifies that the homeowner has a gun.
*Sharp teeth signify a mean dog.
*A square missing its top line signifies it is safe to camp in that location.
top hatand a triangle signify wealth.
*A spearhead signifies a warning to defend oneself.
*A circle with two
parallelarrows means to get out fast, as hobos are not welcome in the area.
*Two interlocked humans signify
handcuffs. (i.e. hobos are hauled off to jail).
*A Caduceus symbol signifies the house has a medical doctor living in it.
*A cat signifies that a kind lady lives here.
*A wavy line (signifying water) above an X means fresh water and a campsite.
diagonallines means it's not a safe place.
*A square with a slanted roof (signifying a house) with an X through it means that the house has already been "burned" or "tricked" by another hobo and is not a trusting house.
*Two shovels, signifying work was available (Shovels, because most hobos did manual labor).
Another version of the Hobo Code exists as a display in the Steamtown Railroad Museum at
Scranton, Pennsylvania, operated by the National Park service.
Hobo ethical code
An ethical code was created by Tourist Union #63 during its 1889 National Hobo Convention in St. Louis Missouri. [cite web | url=http://www.hobo.com/tourist_union_63.htm | title=Tourist Union 63 | publisher=National Hobo Museum] This code was voted upon as a concrete set of laws to govern the Nation-wide Hobo Body, it reads this way;
#Decide your own life, don't let another person run or rule you.
#When in town, always respect the local law and officials, and try to be a gentleman at all times.
#Don't take advantage of someone who is in a vulnerable situation, locals or other hobos.
#Always try to find work, even if temporary, and always seek out jobs nobody wants. By doing so you not only help a business along, but insure employment should you return to that town again.
#When no employment is available, make your own work by using your added talents at crafts.
#Do not allow yourself to become a stupid drunk and set a bad example for locals treatment of other hobos.
#When jungling in town, respect handouts, do not wear them out, another hobo will be coming along who will need them as bad, if not worse than you.
#Always respect nature, do not leave garbage where you are jungling.
#If in a community jungle, always pitch in and help.
#Try to stay clean, and boil up wherever possible.
#When traveling, ride your train respectfully, take no personal chances, cause no problems with the operating crew or host railroad, act like an extra crew member.
#Do not cause problems in a train yard, another hobo will be coming along who will need passage through that yard.
#Do not allow other hobos to molest children, expose to authorities all molesters, they are the worst garbage to infest any society.
#Help all runaway children, and try to induce them to return home.
#Help your fellow hobos whenever and wherever needed, you may need their help someday.
Maurice W. Graham, known as "Steam Train Maurie".
Leon Ray Livingston, known as "A No.1".
Robert Joseph Silveria, Jr., known as "Sidetrack", who killed 34 other hobos before turning himself in to the authorities.
Jim Tully, an author who penned several pulp fiction books during the years of 1928 through 1945. One of his published works, " Beggars of Life", was adapted as a silent film of the same name; Mr. Tully noted that the book and movie was loosely based on his years hoboing in the western U.S.
Notable people who have hoboed
Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema
Louis L'amour[ [http://www.louislamour.com/aboutlouis/biography.htm] ]
Robert Mitchum[ [http://www.moviemail-online.co.uk/scripts/media_view.pl?id=287&type=Articles] ]
*Tiki Mick - Villain in "
D. Gray-man" whose alter ego is a hobo. He travels with a group of friends by train, stopping in towns for mining jobs and playing poker with other travelers to earn money through gambling.
Hobos in media
Emperor of the North", directed by Robert Aldrich, 1973. OCLC|70283150. Loosely based on Jack London's "The Road".
The Billion Dollar Hobo", starring Tim Conwayand Will Geer, 1977.
Tokyo Godfathers" an anime
Sullivan's Travels", directed by Preston Sturges.
Hobo (book)", by Eddy Joe Cotton, 2002. ISBN 0-609-60738-3
*"Knights of the Road", by Roger A. Bruns, 1980. ISBN 0-416-00721-X.
*"Hard travellin': The hobo and his history", by Kenneth Allsop. ISBN 0-340-02572-7.
*"All the Strange Hours: The Excavation of a Life", by
Loren Eiseley, 1975. ISBN 0-8032-6741-X
*"The Road", by
*"You Can't Win", by Jack Black
Of Mice and Men", by John Steinbeck
*"One More Train to Ride: The Underground World of Modern American Hobos" by Clifford Williams.
*"The Hobo - The Sociology of the Homeless Man", by Nels Anderson, 1923.
Bottom Dogs", by Edward Dahlberg
On the Road", by Jack Kerouac
Lonesome Traveler", by Jack Kerouac ("The Vanishing American Hobo")
The Areas of My Expertise" by John Hodgman- Humor book which features a lengthy section on "hobos", including a list of 700 hobo names which spawned an online effort to illustrate the complete list.
The Jungle" by Upton Sinclaircontains a section in which the main character, Jurgis Rudkus, abandons his family in Chicago and becomes a hobo for a while.
Television and radio
BBC Radio 4recently broadcast a one-off program about the Hobo Convention entitled "Hobo Heaven", and in 2006 broadcast a memorial to 5-time elected "King of the Hobos" Steamtrain Maury Graham, who passed away in November of 2006 - or as hobos call it "He Caught The Westbound".
The Littlest Hobo" - A movie and TV series about a dog of the same name.
Mad Men" Episode "The Hobo Code" - The protagonist has a flashback to his childhood, when a hobo's brief visit teaches young Don/Dickie something about his father and something about life.
*The work of
Ramblin' Jack Elliott
*The work of
*The work of Jimmie Rodgers, including "Hobo Bill's Last Ride" and "Hobo's Meditation," among others.
*The work of
Jesus' Blood Never Failed Me Yet" a 74-minute sound recording of a hobo singing on a London street, by composer Gavin Bryars.
Hobo Chang Ba" by Captain Beefheart
Long Train Runnin'" by the Doobie Brothers, also sings of freighthopping
I Am a Lonesome Hobo", " Only a Hobo" and " Ramblin' Gamblin' Willie" by Bob Dylan
Hard Travelin'" and " Hobo's Lullaby" by Woody Guthrie
The Hackensaw Boys
Hobo Blues" and " The Hobo" by John Lee Hooker
Hobo Bill", " I Ain't Got No Home" and " Mysteries of a Hobo's Life" by Cisco Houston
*"Jack Straw" by Robert Hunter and
*"Aqualung" and "
Locomotive Breath" by Jethro Tull
Kulkurin Valssi" (Hobo Waltz) by Arthur Kylander
Big Rock Candy Mountain" by Harry McClintock
Streets of London" by Ralph McTell
*"King of the Road" by
Waltzing Matilda" by Banjo Paterson
Lännen lokari" (Western Logger) by Hiski Salomaa
Papa Hobo" by Paul Simon
*"Cold Water" by
*"Wherever I May Roam" by
Freight Train Riders of America, a brotherhood of hobos
Hobo nickel, an art form associated with hobos
John Hodgman, humorist who writes about hobos
National Hobo Convention, held in Britt, Iowaby the Hobo Foundation
Wobbly lingo, the jargon of the hobos who joined the union
Hobo With a Shotgun", parody trailer created by the fictional Dartmouth Pictures, included in the movie "Grindhouse"
Kirby, Texas, the "hobo capital of Texas"
#Brady, Jonann (2005). Hobos Elect New King and Queen. ABC Good Morning America, Includes
Todd “Adman” Waterslast ride as reigning Hobo King plus hobo slide show with Adman’s photo’s taken on the road. http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=1020800&page=1
#Bannister, Matthew (2006). Maurice W Graham "Steam Train" Grand Patriarch of America’s Hobos who has died aged 89. Last Word. BBC Radio. Matthew Bannister talks to fellow King of the Hobos
Todd Waters “Ad Man”and to Obituary Editor of the New York Times, Bill McDonald. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/news/lastword_28dec2006.shtml
#Davis, Jason (2007). “The Hobo”, 30 minute special On The Road feature. KSTP television. Covers
Adman Waterstaking his daughter out on her first freight ride. http://kstp.com/article/stories/S208805.shtml?cat=69
#Johnson, L. Anderson, H.S. (1983, July 12). Riding The Rails For The Homeless. The New York Times, sec B page 3, col 3. Story on
Adman WatersThe Penny Route.
#Hobo Museum, Hobo Foundation. 51 Main Ave. S. Britt, IA. (641) 843-9104
* [http://www.northbankfred.com/index.html North Bank Fred] contains numerous photographs, links, stories, and academic reports about hoboes and freighthopping.
* [http://www.worldpath.net/~minstrel/hobosign.htm Fran's Hobo Page] , by Fran DeLorenzo. Includes hobo history and a glossary of hobo signs.
* [http://www.slackaction.com/signroll.htm Slackaction: Hobo Signs & Symbols]
* [http://www.epcc.edu/ftp/Homes/monicaw/borderlands/12_hobo_sign_language.htm Hobo Sign Language In El Paso]
* [http://ia300127.us.archive.org/2/items/700HoboNames/Hobo_Names.mp3 "700 Hobos"] , MP3 of John Hodgman's recording of 700 hobo names
* [http://www.hobo.com/ Iowa Hobo Foundation]
* [http://www.stephanvanfleteren.com/gallery_hobo/index.html "Hobo's in the U.S.A."] , a photo documentary on hobos by Stephan Vanfleteren, a Belgian photographer.
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