- Benjamin Britten
Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976) was an English
composer, conductor, violist and pianist.
Britten was born in
Lowestoft, Suffolk, the son of a dentist and a talented amateur musician. He showed musical gifts very early in life, and began composing prolifically as a child. He was educated at Old Buckenham Hall School in Suffolk, a small all-boys prep school, and Gresham's School, Holt. In 1927, he began private lessons with Frank Bridge; he also studied, less happily, at the Royal College of Musicunder John Ireland, with some input from Ralph Vaughan Williams. Although ultimately held back by his parents (at the suggestion of College staff), Britten had also intended to study with Alban Bergin Vienna. Britten was a prolific juvenile composer; some 800 works and fragments precede his early published works. His first compositions to attract wide attention, however, were the "Sinfonietta" Op. 1, "A Hymn to the Virgin" (1930) and a set of choral variations "A Boy was Born", written in 1934 for the BBC Singers. The following year he met W. H. Auden, and they collaborated on the song-cycle "Our Hunting Fathers" Op. 8, radical both in politics and musical treatment, and other works. Of more lasting importance to Britten was his meeting in 1937 with the tenor Peter Pears, who was to become his musical collaborator and inspiration as well as his life partner. In the same year he composed a "Pacifist March" (words, Ronald Duncan) for the Peace Pledge Union, of which, as a pacifist, he had become an active member, but the work was not a success and soon withdrawn.
In early 1939, Britten and Pears followed Auden to America, where Britten composed "Paul Bunyan", an
operetta(to a libretto by Auden), as well as the first of many song cycles for Pears. The period in America was also remarkable for a number of orchestral works, including " Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge" Op. 10 (written in 1937 for string orchestra), the "Violin Concerto" Op. 15, and " Sinfonia da Requiem" Op. 20 (for full orchestra).
Britten and Pears returned to England in 1942, and both applied for recognition as
conscientious objectors; Britten was initially refused recognition, but gained it on appeal. He completed the choral works " Hymn to St. Cecilia" (his last collaboration with Auden) and " A Ceremony of Carols" during the long sea voyage. He had already begun work on his opera " Peter Grimes" based on the writings of Suffolk poet George Crabbe, and its première at Sadler's Wellsin 1945 was his greatest success so far. However, Britten encountered opposition from sectors of the English musical establishment and gradually withdrew from the London scene, founding the English Opera Groupin 1947 and the Aldeburgh Festivalthe following year, partly (though not solely) to perform his own works.
"Peter Grimes" was the first in a series of English operas, of which "Billy Budd" (1951) and "The Turn of the Screw" (1954) were particularly admired. These operas share common themes. For example, most feature an 'outsider' character, who is excluded or misunderstood by society. Often this is the eponymous protagonist, as in "Peter Grimes" and "
Owen Wingrave". He was appointed a Companion of Honour (CH) in the Coronation Honours, 1953. [LondonGazette|issue=39863|supp=yes|startpage=2976|date=26 May 1953|accessdate=2008-07-16]
1960 brought premiere of his most
shakespeareanopera, "A Midsummer Night's Dream".
An increasingly important influence was the music of the East, an interest that was fostered by a tour with Pears in 1957, when Britten was struck by the music of the
Balinese gamelanand by Japanese Nohplays. The fruits of this tour include the ballet " The Prince of the Pagodas" (1957) and the series of semi-operatic "Parables for Church Performance": " Curlew River" (1964), "The Burning Fiery Furnace" (1966) and "The Prodigal Son" (1968). The greatest success of Britten's career was, however, the musically more conventional " War Requiem", written for the 1962 consecrationof the newly reconstructed Coventry Cathedral.
Britten developed close friendships with the Russians
Dmitri Shostakovichand Mstislav Rostropovichin the 1960s: he composed his "Cello Suites", " Cello Symphony" and "Cello Sonata" for the latter, and conducted the first Western performance of the former's Fourteenth Symphony. Shostakovich dedicated this score to Britten, and often spoke very highly of his music. Britten himself had previously dedicated 'The Prodigal Son' (the third and last of the 'Church Parables') to Shostakovich. He was honoured again by appointment to the Order of Merit(OM) on 23 March 1965. [LondonGazette|issue=43610|supp=yes|startpage=3047|date=26 March 1965|accessdate=2008-07-16]
In the last decade or so of his life, Britten suffered from increasing ill-health. His late works became progressively more sparse in texture. They include the opera "Death in Venice" (1973), the "Suite on English Folk Tunes "A Time There Was" (1974) and Third String Quartet (1975)— which drew on material from "Death in Venice"— as well as the dramatic cantata "Phaedra" (1976), written for
Having previously declined a knighthood, Britten accepted a
life peerage on 2 July 1976 as Baron Britten, of Aldeburgh in the County of Suffolk. [LondonGazette|issue=46954|startpage=9295|date=6 July 1976|accessdate=2008-07-16] A few months later he died of heart failure at his house in Aldeburgh. He is buried in the churchyardof St. Peter and St. Paul's Church there. His grave lies next to that of his partner, Sir Peter Pears, and close to the grave of Imogen Holst, another close friend.
Britten was an accomplished pianist, frequently performing
chamber musicand accompanying lieder. However, apart from the "Holiday Diary" (1934), "Piano Concerto" (1938), "Young Apollo" (1939), "Diversions" (written for Paul Wittgensteinin 1940), "Scottish Ballad" (1941), he wrote relatively little music that puts the piano in the spotlight, and in a 1963 interview for the BBC said that he thought of it as "a background instrument".
One of Britten's best known works is "
The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra" (1946), which was composed to accompany "Instruments of the Orchestra", an educational filmproduced by the British government, narrated and conducted by Malcolm Sargent. Its subtitle is "Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Purcell", the theme is a melodyfrom Henry Purcell's " Abdelazar". Britten gives individual variations to each of the sections of the orchestra, starting with the woodwind, then the string instruments, the brass instruments and finally the percussion. Britten then brings the whole orchestra together again in a fuguebefore restating the theme to close the work. The original film's spoken commentary is often omitted in concert performances and recordings.
Britten's Church Music is also considerable: it contains frequently-performed 'classics' such as
Rejoice in the Lamb, composed for St Matthew's Northampton (where the Vicar was Revd Walter Hussey), as well as "A Hymn to the Virgin", and "Missa Brevis" for Boys voices and Organ.
As a conductor, Britten performed the music of many composers, and not just his own. Among his celebrated recordings are versions of Mozart's 40th Symphony and Elgar's "
The Dream of Gerontius" (with Pears as Gerontius), and an album of works by Grainger in which Britten features as pianist as well as conductor.
John Dowland" for guitar(1963) has an indisputably central place in the repertoire of its instrument. This work is typically spare in his late style, and shows the depth of his life-long admiration for Elizabethan lute songs. In each of the eight variations Britten focuses on a different feature of the work's theme, John Dowland's song "Come, Heavy Sleep", or its lute accompaniment, before the theme emerges complete at the close of the work.
In 2005, the [http://www.brittenpears.org/ Britten-Pears Foundation] in partnership with the
University of East Angliawas [http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/awards/award_detail.asp?id=325407 awarded funding] from the UK [http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/ Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC)] to produce a thematic catalogue of Britten's works. The project is distinguished by being the first composer thematic catalogue to be published initially online. (All previous thematic catalogues have been print publications, though some have been published online later.) The work involves gathering and cataloguing manuscript and published notation and published recordings, producing a chronology, and assigning identifiers to Britten's works. These identifiers are in addition to Britten's own Opus numbersand, after the style of preceding thematic catalogues such as BWVfor J.S. Bach, comprise the letters 'BTC' followed by numbers assigned in chronological order. The catalogue includes numerous unpublished works and is expected, when completed in 2013, to include around 1,200 works. (Britten's "published" output includes around 96 works.)
In the 1930s Britten made a conscious effort to set himself apart from the English musical mainstream, which he regarded as complacent, insular and amateurish. Many contemporary critics distrusted his facility, cosmopolitanism and admiration for composers such as Mahler, Berg, and Stravinsky, not at the time considered appropriate models for a young English musician.
Britten's status as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century is now secure among professional critics. However, criticism of his music is apt to become entangled with consideration of his personality, his politics (especially his pacifism in World War II) and his sexuality. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,1963922,00.html Hywel Williams, "The Puccini of Lowestoft". "The Guardian", 5 December 2006.] ] The publication of
Humphrey Carpenter's biography in 1992, with its revelations of Britten's often fraught social, professional and sexual relationships, ensured that he will remain a controversial figure. In 2003, a selection of Britten's writings, edited by Paul Kildea, revealed other ways that he addressed such issues as his pacifism. [ [http://arts.guardian.co.uk/fridayreview/story/0,,999907,00.html Paul Kildea, "In his own words". "The Guardian", 18 July 2003.] ] A further study along the lines begun by Carpenter is John Bridcut's " Britten's Children", 2006, which describes Britten’s infatuation with a series of adolescent boysthroughout his life, most notably David Hemmings.
For many musicians, however, Britten's technique, broad musical and human sympathies and ability to treat the most traditional of musical forms with freshness and originality place him at the head of composers of his generation. A notable tribute is "
Cantus In Memoriam Benjamin Britten", an orchestral piece written in 1977 by the Estonian composer Arvo Pärt.
Grammy Awards1963 - Classical Album Of The Year (for War Requiem)
Grammy Awards1963 - Best Classical Performance - Choral (Other Than Opera) (for War Requiem)
Grammy Awards1963 - Best Classical Composition By A Contemporary Composer (for War Requiem)
Sonning Award1967 ( Denmark)
BRIT Awards1977 - Best Orchestral Album (of the past 25 years) (for War Requiem)
*Donald Mitchell, "Britten, (Edward) Benjamin, Baron Britten (1913–1976)", "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, 2004. Accessed
18 October 2004: http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30853
* F. Avellar de Aquino. "Song of Sorrow". in The Strad Magazine, London, v. 117, Vol. 1391, p. 52-57, 2006. (on Britten's 3rd. Cello Suite)
*Philip Brett. "Benjamin Britten", "Grove Music Online", ed. L. Macy (accessed
October 18 2004), [http://www.grovemusic.com/ grovemusic.com] (subscription access).
Humphrey Carpenter, "Benjamin Britten: a biography" (London: Faber, 1992) ISBN 0-571-14324-5
* [http://www.brittenpears.org/ Britten-Pears Foundation]
* [http://www.musicweb-international.com/britten/index.htm#intro BENJAMIN BRITTEN (1913–1976)]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/audiointerviews/profilepages/brittenb1.shtml Audio (.ram files) of 1957 and 1963 interviews for the BBC]
* [http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/Strasse/1523/britworks.htm An extensive list of Benjamin Britten's works]
* [http://musariada.mus.uea.ac.uk/btc/ A thematic catalogue of Britten's works] (under development)
* [http://www.uiowa.edu/~c025045/Lachrymae.html Recording of Lachrymae]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C54NVlDpZRY Britten's Cello Symphony] performed by cellist
Julian Lloyd Webberand the Academy of St Martin in the Fieldsconducted by Sir Neville Marriner
* [http://www.gresham.ac.uk/event.asp?PageId=45&EventId=699 'Britten and Bridge'] , lecture and performance investigating the relation between the two composers,
Gresham College, 5th February 2008 (available for download as text, audio or video file).
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=6826020 Benjamin Britten Gravesite]
* [http://www.bellperc.com/pages/repertoire.php?composer=46 Britten's Percussion Repertoire] , from Bell Percussion's Composer Repertoire resource
SHORT DESCRIPTION=English composer
DATE OF BIRTH=22 November 1913
PLACE OF BIRTH=
Lowestoft, Suffolk, England
DATE OF DEATH=4 December 1976
PLACE OF DEATH=
Aldeburgh, Suffolk, England
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