Hamites

Hamites

Taxobox
name = "Hamites"
fossil_range = Early - Late Cretaceous


image_caption = A Reconstruction of the heteromorph
ammonite "Hamites gardneri"
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Mollusca
classis = Cephalopoda
subclassis = Ammonoidea
ordo = Ammonitida
subordo = Ancyloceratina
familia = Hamitidae
genus = "Hamites"
subdivision_ranks = Subgenera
subdivision = "Eohamites"
"Hamitella"
"Helicohamites"
"Lytohamites"
"Planohamites"
"Psilohamites"
"Sziveshamites"

"Hamites" ("Hook-stone") is a genus of heteromorph ammonite that evolved late in the Aptian stage of the Early Cretaceous and lasted into the Cenomanian stage of the Late Cretaceous. The genus is almost certainly paraphyletic but remains in wide use as a "catch all" for heteromorph ammonites of the superfamily Turrilitaceae that do not neatly fit into the more derived groupings. In an attempt to identify clades within the genus, it has been divided up into a series of new genera or subgenera by different palaeontologists, including "Eohamites", "Hamitella", "Helicohamites", "Lytohamites", "Planohamites", "Psilohamites", and "Sziveshamites". [Szives O. & Monks N. 2002. Heteromorphs of the Tata Limestone Formation (Aptian - Lower Albian), Hungary. Palaeontology, 44, 1137-1149 [http://homepage.mac.com/nmonks/files/hungarian_heteros.pdf] ] [Monks N. 2002. Cladistic analysis of a problematic ammonite group: the Hamitidae (Cretaceous, Albian - Turonian) and proposals for new cladistic terms. Palaeontology, 44, 687-707 [http://homepage.mac.com/nmonks/files/hamitidae.pdf] ]

The type species is "Hamites attenuatus" from the early Albian, named by James Sowerby in his "Mineral Conchology of Great Britain" of 1814, although the genus itself was created by James Parkinson in his 1811 book "Organic Remains of the Former World". This James Parkinson is best known as the first scientific description of a disease he called the "Shaking Palsy", now referred to as Parkinson's disease in his honour. [ cite journal
author = Parkinson J
title = An essay on the shaking palsy. 1817
journal = J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci | volume = 14 | issue = 2
pages = 223–36; discussion 222 | year = 2002 | pmid = 11983801
url=http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/14/2/223|format=Reproduced
doi = 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.14.2.223
]

Morphology and ecology

"Hamites" species are characterised by a shell that began with an open, sometimes helical, regular spiral that either opened into a single large hook [http://homepage.mac.com/nmonks/Projects/ammonitereconstr.html] , or else formed three parallel shafts that gave the mature shell the approximate appearance of a paper clip [http://homepage.mac.com/nmonks/Projects/ammonitereconstr.html] . No "Hamites" had spines or other such ornamentation on the shell, but several species appear to have developed apertural modifications when mature; that is, once the ammonite had grown to its final size, the aperture became constricted and was bounded by one or two thickened ribs, known as collars. These have been observed on other ammonites as well, and are assumed to be signs of sexual dimorphism. [Monks N. 1999. Cladistic analysis of Albian heteromorph ammonites. Palaeontology, 42, 907-925 [http://homepage.mac.com/nmonks/files/cladistics_albian_heteros.pdf] ] [Monks N. 2002. Cladistic analysis of a problematic ammonite group: the Hamitidae (Cretaceous, Albian - Turonian) and proposals for new cladistic terms. Palaeontology, 44, 687-707 [http://homepage.mac.com/nmonks/files/hamitidae.pdf] ] .

The open shell of these ammonites would have made them poor swimmers because of drag, but beyond that fact, very little is certain about their mode of life. It is widely assumed that they were planktonic, perhaps catching small prey in the manner of jellyfish, but repaired shell damage apparently caused by crabs may indicate that they spent at least some time close to the sea floor. [Trueman A. 1941. The ammonite body-chamber, with special reference to the buoyancy and mode of life of the living animal. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 384, 339-383] [Monks N. 2000. Mid Cretaceous heteromorph ammonite shell damage. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 66, 283-285]

Phylogeny

The genus "Hamites" is of particular interest to palaeontologists because the species included in the genus span a wide range of morphologies including ones apparently similar to several more derived groups of heteromorph ammonites. The genus rapidly diversified during the Albian into a number of morphologically distinct lineages that seem to have given rise to at least three other families of heteromorphs, the Baculitidae, Turrilitidae, and Scaphitidae. [Monks N. 1999. Cladistic analysis of Albian heteromorph ammonites. Palaeontology, 42, 907-925 [http://homepage.mac.com/nmonks/files/cladistics_albian_heteros.pdf] ] [Monks N. 2000. Phylogeny of the Scaphitidae. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 66, 205-216] The lineage that gave rise to the helical Turrilitidae, for example, had a shell that initially grew as a helix before straightening out; the Turrilitidae thus appear to have been derived from neotenic "Hamites" that retained the helically-coiled juvenile morphology of "Hamites" into adulthood. [Monks N. 2001. The functional morphology of "Hamites" and "Stomohamites" and the origins of the Turrilitidae. Bollettino Malacologico, 36, 195-200]

References

See also

* "Baculites"
* "Scaphites"
* "Turrilites"

External links

* [http://www.gaultammonite.co.uk/Pages/Link_Pages/Family_Hamitidae.htm Gault Clay Ammonites, featuring "Hamites" and other Hamitidae]
* [http://homepage.mac.com/nmonks/Projects/ammonitereconstr.html Reconstructions of "Hamites" and related genera]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hamītes — (Hakenammonit, Petref.), 1) Gattung der Ammoniten, deren Windungen in od. außerhalb einer Ebene liegen, von einander entfernt sind od. sich berühren; im letzteren Falle umschließen sie sich nicht od. nur auf eine Strecke, die Loben u. Sättel sind …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Hamites — ou Chamites ( Fils de Cham ) nom sous lequel on désignait autref. des peuples de la Corne de l Afrique (éthiopiens, Somalis, etc.), d Afrique du Nord (Berbères et Touareg) et des Canaries (Guanches). Cette classification, qui s est aussi… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Hamites — Carte représentant les domaines linguistiques en accord avec la théorie linguistique hamitique. Les langues sémitiques sont représentées en orange, ce qui était alors considéré comme le domaine des « langues hamitiques » est représenté… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hamites — noun a group of heteromorph ammonites of the Turrilitaceae superfamily, alive during the Cretaceous …   Wiktionary

  • Hamites — ha·mite || heɪmaɪt n. descendant of Ham (Biblical); member of any of several peoples of eastern and northern Africa (e.g. the Berbers) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • hamites — ha·mi·tes …   English syllables

  • hamites — həˈmīd.(ˌ)ēz noun Usage: capitalized Etymology: New Latin, from Latin hamus hook + New Latin ites more at hamate : a genus of extinct Cretaceous ammonoids with a shell forming repeated V shaped loops in one plane …   Useful english dictionary

  • Ham, Hamites — • Son of Noe and progenitor of one of the three great races of men whose ethnographical table is given by Genesis 10 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Cham, Chamites (Ham, Hamites) —     Cham, Chamites     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Cham, Chamites     I. CHAM     (A.V. Ham). Son of Noe and progenitor of one of the three great races of men whose ethnographical table is given by Genesis 10. Wherever the three sons of Noe are… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Chamites — Hamites ou Chamites ( Fils de Cham ) nom sous lequel on désignait autref. des peuples de la Corne de l Afrique (éthiopiens, Somalis, etc.), d Afrique du Nord (Berbères et Touareg) et des Canaries (Guanches). Cette classification, qui s est aussi… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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