- Social engineering (political science)
Social engineering is a concept in
political sciencethat refers to efforts to influence popular attitudes and social behavioron a large scale, whether by governments or private groups. In the political arena the counterpart of social engineering is political engineering.
For various reasons, the term has been imbued with negative connotations. However, virtually all law and
governancehas the effect of changing behavior and can be considered "social engineering" to some extent. Prohibitions on murder, rape, suicideand litteringare all policies aimed at discouraging undesirable behaviors. In British and Canadian jurisprudence, changing public attitudes about a behaviour is accepted as one of the key functions of laws prohibiting it. The most effective way for "social engineering" is through mass mediaand especially television. Governments also influence behavior more subtly through incentives and disincentives built into economic policy and tax policy, for instance, and have done so for centuries.
In practice, whether any specific policy is labeled as "social engineering" is often a question of intent. The term is most often employed by the political right as an accusation against anyone who proposes to use
law, taxpolicy, or other kinds of stateinfluence to change existing power relationships: for instance, between men and women, or between different ethnic groups. Political conservatives in the United Stateshave accused their opponents of social engineering through the promotion of political correctness, insofar as it may change social attitudes by defining "acceptable" and "unacceptable" languageor acts. The right has itself been accused of social engineering do to it's promotion of Abstinence-only sex education, Sodomy laws, and state sponsored school prayer.
Before one can engage in social engineering, one must have reliable information about the society that is to be engineered, and one must have effective tools to carry out the engineering. Both of these only became available relatively recently - roughly within the past one hundred years. The development of
social sciencemade it possible to gather and analyze information about social attitudes and trends, which is necessary in order to judge the initial state of society before an engineering attempt and the success or failure of that attempt after it has been implemented. At the same time, the development of modern communications technology and the media provided the tools through which social engineering could be carried out.
While social engineering can be carried out by any organization - whether large or small, public or private - the most comprehensive (and often the most effective) campaigns of social engineering are those initiated by powerful central governments.
Extremely intensive social engineering campaigns occurred in countries with authoritarian governments. In the
1920s, the government of the Soviet Unionembarked on a campaign to fundamentally alter the behavior and ideals of Soviet citizens, to replace the old social frameworks of Tsarist Russiawith a new Soviet culture, to create the New Soviet man. The Soviets used newspapers, books, film, mass relocations, and even architectural design tactics to serve as " social condenser" and change personal values and private relationships. Similar examples are the Chinese " Great Leap Forward" and " Cultural Revolution" program and the Khmer Rouge's plan of deurbanization of Cambodia.
Non-authoritarian regimes tend to rely on more sustained social engineering campaigns that create more gradual, but ultimately as far-reaching, change. Examples include the "
War on Drugs" in the United States, the increasing reach of intellectual propertyrights and copyright, and the promotion of electionsas a political tool. The campaign for promoting elections, which is by far the most successful of the three examples, has been in place for over two centuries. In Singapore, the government's housing policies attempt to promote a mix of all races within each subsidized housing district in order to foster social cohesion and national loyalty while providing the citizens with affordable housing.Fact|date=August 2008
Social theorists of the
Frankfurt Schoolin Weimar Germanylike Theodor Adornohad also observed the new phenomenon of mass cultureand commented on its new manipulative power, when the rise of the Nazis drove them out of the country around 1930(many of them became connected with the Institute for Social Researchin the United States). The Nazis themselves were no strangers to the idea of influencing political attitudes and re-defining personal relationships. The Nazi propagandamachine under Joseph Goebbelswas a synchronized, sophisticated and effective tool for creating public opinion.
In a similar vein the
Greek military junta of 1967-1974attempted to steer Greek public opinion not only by propaganda but also by inventing new words and slogans such as: "palaiokommatismos" (translated as "old-partyism"), "Ellas Ellinon Christianon" translated as: "Greece of Christian Greeks", "Ethnosotirios Epanastasis" translated as "Nation-saving Revolution" meaning " coup d'état" etc.
Social engineering can be used as a means to achieve a wide variety of different results, as illustrated by the different governments and other organizations that have employed it. The discussion of the possibilities for such manipulation became especially active following
World War II, with the advent of television, and continuing discussion of techniques of social engineering - particularly in advertising- is still quite pertinent in the western model of consumer capitalism.
A popular novel taught in most high schools is the
George Orwellnovel "1984", in which the known world is controlled by three super countries perpetually at war. The country, the story is set in, controls the population with various propagandistic techniques and constant absolute surveillance where every person is being watched all the time. The book was written to comment on the state socialistgovernment of Russia during the time of Stalin, with Stalin replaced by a presidential-like figure called "Big Brother".
In his classic political science book, "The Open Society and Its Enemies", volume I, "The Spell of Plato",
Karl Popperexamined the application of the critical and rational methods of science to the problems of the open society. In this respect, he made a crucial distinction between the principles of democratic social reconstruction (called 'piecemeal social engineering') and 'Utopian social engineering'
Popper wrote: [ Popper, K. 1971 "The Open Society and Its Enemies" Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press ]
"the piecemeal engineer will adopt the method of searching for, and fighting against, the greatest and most urgent evil of society, rather than searching for, and fighting for, its greatest ultimate good." For him, the difference between 'piecemeal social engineering' and 'Utopian social engineering' is "the difference between a reasonable method of improving the lot of man, and a method which, if really tried, may easily lead to an intolerable increase in human suffering. It is the difference between a method which can be applied at any moment, and a method whose advocacy may easily become a means of continually postponing action until a later date, when conditions are more favorable. And it is also the difference between the only method of improving matters which has so far been really successful, at any time, and in any place, and a method which, wherever it has been tried, has led only to the use of violence in place of reason, and if not to its own abandonment, at any rate to that of its original blueprint"
The term social engineering is commonly used as a slang term to refer to an individual act of
manipulation(or possibly fraud) rather than large-scale societal planning. This is an arguably incorrect usage.Fact|date=August 2008
Propaganda/ Public relations
Framing (social sciences)
Business Process Reengineering
Charles Arthur Willard"Liberalism and the Social Grounds of Knowledge" Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
*"Seeing Like a State", James C. Scott
*"Social Engineering", Adam Podgórecki
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