A slaughterhouse, also called an abattoir (from the French verb "abattre", "to strike down") or freezing works (
New Zealand English), is a facility where animals are killed and processed into meatproducts. The animals most commonly slaughtered for food are cattle(for beefand veal), sheep(for lamb and mutton), pigs (for pork), horses (for horsemeat), and fowl, largely chickens, turkeys, and ducks.
In the United States, around ten billion animals are slaughtered every year in 5,700 slaughterhouses and processing plants employing 527,000 workers;Williams, Erin E. and DeMello, Margo. "Why Animals Matter". Prometheus Books, 2007, p. 73.] in 2007, 28.1 billion pounds of beef were consumed in the U.S. alone. [ [http://www.ers.usda.gov/news/BSECoverage.htm "U.S. Beef and Cattle Industry"] , United States Department of Agriculture, cited in Torres, Bob. "Making a Killing". AK Press, 2007, p. 45.] In Canada, 650 million are killed annually. [ [http://www.gan.ca/campaigns/slaughterhouses/index.en.html "Slaughterhouses"] , Global Action Network, accessed March 18, 2008.] In the European Union, the annual figure is 300 million cattle, sheep, and pigs, and four billion chickens.Stevenson, Peter. [http://www.ciwf.org.uk/publications/reports/animal_welfare_problems_in_uk_slaughterhouses_2001.pdf "Animal welfare problems in UK slaughterhouses"] , Compassion in World Farming, July 2001.]
Slaughtering animals on a large scale poses significant logistical problems and
public healthconcerns, with public aversion to meat packingin many cultures influencing the location of slaughterhouses. In addition, some religions stipulate certain conditions for the slaughter of animals so that practices within slaughterhouses vary.
There has been criticism of the methods of preparation, herding, and killing within slaughterhouses, and in particular of the speed with which the slaughter is conducted. Investigations by
animal welfareand animal rightsgroups have indicated that a proportion of animals are being skinned or gutted while alive and apparently conscious. [For example, see
*Eisnitz, Gail A. "Slaughterhouse". Prometheus Books, 1997.
*Hershaft, Alex. [http://www.meat.org.uk/slaught.html "Review of Gail Eisnitz's Slaughterhouse] , written by the president of FARM, retrieved March 17, 2008.
*McNeil, Donald. "Videos cited in calling kosher slaughterhouse inhumane," "The New York Times", December 1, 2004, cited in Williams, Erin E. and DeMello, Margo. "Why Animals Matter". Prometheus Books, 2007, p. 60.
*Stevenson, Peter. [http://www.ciwf.org.uk/publications/reports/animal_welfare_problems_in_uk_slaughterhouses_2001.pdf "Animal welfare problems in UK slaughterhouses"] , Compassion in World Farming, July 2001.
*Torres, Bob. "Making a Killing". AK Press, 2007.
*Also see a
PETAvideo taken inside AgriProcessorsInc. in Iowa in 2004 (warning: graphic images). [http://www.petatv.com/tvpopup/Prefs.asp?video=agri_long] ] There has also been criticism of the methods of transport of the animals, who are driven for hundreds of miles to slaughterhouses in conditions that often result in crush injuries and death "en route". [See, for example, Vansickle, J. "Quality Assurance Program Launched," "National Hog Farmer", February 15, 2002, which reports that each year 420,000 pigs are crippled and 170,000 killed during transport to slaughterhouses, cited in Williams, Erin E. and DeMello, Margo. "Why Animals Matter". Prometheus Books, 2007, p. 49.]
Slaughterhouses act as the starting point of the meat industry, where stock come from farms/market to enter the food chain. They have existed as long as there have been settlements too large for individuals to rear their own stock for personal consumption.
Early maps of London show numerous stockyards in the periphery of the city, where slaughter occurred in the open air. A term for such open-air slaughterhouse is a shambles. There are streets named "
The Shambles" in some English towns (e.g. Worcester, York) which got their name from having been the site on which butchers killed and prepared animals for consumption.
Open-air slaughter inside cities produced very substantial concerns about
public health, morals, and aesthetics. This antipathy towards slaughterhouses is mentioned at least as early as the 16th century, in Thomas More's "Utopia". In the 19th and 20th century, slaughterhouses were increasingly sited away from the public view, and took pains to portray themselves as clean, innocuous businesses. In this they have been responding not only to increasing regulation, but also to public sentiment. Most Westerners find the subject of animal slaughter to be unpleasant and prefer not to know the details of what goes on inside a slaughterhouse.Fact|date=September 2008 As such, in the West, the connection between packaged meat products in the supermarketand the live animals from which they are derived is obscured.
In the latter half of the 20th century, the layout and design of most US slaughterhouses has been significantly influenced by the work of Dr. Temple Grandin. [Grandin, T. "Best Practices for Animal Handling and Stunning", "Meat & Poultry", April 2000, pg. 76. [http://www.grandin.com/humane/best.practices.handle.stun.html] ] It was her fascination with patterns and flow that first led her to redesign the layout of cattle holding pens.
Grandin's primary objective was to reduce the stress and suffering of animals being led to slaughter. In particular she applied an intuitive understanding of
animal psychologyto design pens and corrals which funnel a herd of animals arriving at a slaughterhouse into a single file ready for slaughter. Her corrals employ long sweeping curves so that each animal is prevented from seeing what lies ahead and just concentrates on the hind quarters of the animal in front of it. This design also takes advantage of the animal's instinct to return from the direction it came from.
Grandin now claims to have designed over 54% of the slaughterhouses in the United States as well as many other slaughterhouses around the world.
The slaughterhouse process differs by species and region and may be controlled by civil law as well as religious laws such as Kosher and Halal laws. A typical procedure follows:
# Cows are received by
truckor rail from a ranch, farm, or feedlot.
# Cows are herded into holding pens.
# Cows receive a preslaughter
# Cows are usually knocked unconscious by applying an electric shock of 300 volts and 2 amps to the back of the head, effectively
stunningthe animal. [cite web|url=http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/animals/oie/downloads/tahc-guide-slau-animals-76-sep07.pdf|title=Guidelines for the Slaughter of Animals USDA] If unsuccessful, secondary methods include the use of a captive bolt pistolto the front of the cow's head. Livestock are also rendered unconscious by pneumatic or cartridge-fired captive bolt stunning and CO2/inert gas stunning. (This step is prohibited under strict application of Halaland Kashrutcodes.)
# Animals are hung upside down by one of their hind legs on the processing line.
# The main arteries and veins are severed with a
knife, mainly in the neck, and the cow's blood drains, causing death through exsanguination.
# The hide/skin/
plumageis removed by down pullers, side pullers and fisting off the pelt (sheep and goats)
# The internal organs are removed and inspected for internal parasites and signs of disease. The guts, referred to as viscera, are separated for inspection from the heart and lungs, referred to as the "pluck." Livers are separated for inspection, tongues are dropped or removed from the head, and the head is sent down the line on the head hooks or head racks for inspection.
carcassis inspected by a government inspector for safety. (This inspection is performed by the Food Safety Inspection Servicein the U.S., and CFIA in Canada.)
# Carcasses are subjected to intervention to reduce levels of bacteria. Common interventions are steam, hot water, and organic acids. Carcasses are chilled to prevent the growth of
microorganisms and to reduce meat deterioration while the meat awaits distribution.
# The chilled carcass is broken down into subprimals and primals for boxed meat unless customer specifies for swinging sides of meat. Beef and horse carcasses are always split in half and then quartered, pork is split into sides only and goat/veal/mutton and lamb is left whole
# The remaining carcass may be further processed to extract any residual traces of meat, usually termed
mechanically recovered meat, which may be used for human or animal consumption.
Wastematerials such as lardor tallow, are sent to a rendering plant.
waste water, consisting of blood and fecal matter, generated by the slaughtering process is sent to a waste water treatment plant.
# The meat is transported to distribution centers that then distribute to
The standards and regulations governing slaughterhouses vary considerably around the world. In many countries the slaughter of animals is regulated by custom and tradition rather than by law. In the non-Western world, including the
Arab world, the Indian sub-continent, etc., both forms of meat are available: one which is produced in modern mechanizedslaughterhouses, and the other from local butchershops.
In some communities animal slaughter may be controlled by
religious laws, most notably halalfor Muslims and kashrut for Jewish communities. These both require that the animals being slaughtered should be conscious at the point of death, and as such animals cannot be stunned prior to killing. This can cause conflicts with national regulations when a slaughterhouse adhering to the rules of kosher preparation is located in some Western countries.
In many societies, traditional cultural and religious aversion to slaughter led to prejudice against the people involved. In
Japan, where the ban on slaughter of livestock for food was lifted only in the late 19th century, the newly found slaughter industry drew workers primarily from villages of " burakumin", who traditionally worked in occupations relating to death (such as executioners and undertakers). In some parts of western Japan, prejudice faced by current and former residents of such areas (" burakumin" "hamlet people") is still a sensitive issue. Because of this, even the Japanese word for "slaughter" (屠殺 "tosatsu") is deemed politically incorrectby some pressure groups as its inclusion of the kanji(Chinese symbol) for "kill" (殺) supposedly portrays those who practice it in a negative manner.
Some countries have laws that exclude specific animal species or grades of animal from being slaughtered for human consumption, especially those that are taboo food. The former Indian Prime Minister
Atal Behari Vajpayeesuggested in 2004 introducing legislation banning the slaughter of cows throughout India, as Hinduismholds cows as sacred and considers their slaughter unthinkable and offensive. This was often opposed on grounds of religious freedom. The slaughter of cows and the importation of beef into the nation of Nepalare strictly forbidden. Several U.S. states have banned the slaughter and consumption of dogs. The sale and consumption of horse meatis illegal in Illinoisand California, [" Daily Chronicle": [http://www.daily-chronicle.com/articles/2004/03/26/news/news01.txt "Bill banning horse slaughtering fails."] ] although horses are slaughtered for meat export to Europe and Japan for human consumption and for the U.S. pet foodmarket.
Most countries have laws in regard to the treatment of animals at slaughterhouses. In the
United States, there is the Humane Slaughter Actof 1958, a law requiring that all swine, sheep, cattle, and horses be stunned unconscious with just one application of a stunning device by a trained person before being shackled and hoisted up on the line (chickens are exempt from this Act). The USDA is opposed to the Humane Slaughter Act, and violations of the Act carry no penalties. Since stopping the line to re-knock conscious animals causes "down time" and results in fewer profits, the Humane Slaughter Act is usually bypassed and ignored by USDA supervisors Harvcol|Eiznitz|1997|. There is some debate over the enforcement of this act. This act, like those in many countries, exempts slaughter in accordance to religious law, such as kosher shechitaand dhabiĥa halal. Most strict interpretations of kashrut require that the animal be fully sensible when its carotid arteryis cut.
The novel "
The Jungle" detailed unsanitary conditions in slaughterhouses and the meatpacking industry during the 1800s, leading to the passage of the Meat Inspection Actand the Pure Food and Drug Actof 1906, which established the Food and Drug Administration. A much larger body of regulation deals with the public health and worker safety regulation and inspection.
The largest slaughterhouse in the world is operated by the
Smithfield Packing Companyin Tar Heel, North Carolina. It is capable of butchering over 32,000 pigs a day. The Dutch Stork Food Systems is the world largest manufacturer of chicken slaughtering installations with an annual turnover of €149m.
The largest slaughterhouse in Asia is in
Deonar, a suburb of Mumbai, India.
Ethics of eating meat
The Jungle", a novel by Upton Sinclair
Blood of the Beasts" ("Le Sang des bêtes"), a 1949 French documentary film
Union Stock Yards
* [http://www.grandin.com/ Slaughterhouse designer Temple Grandin's official site] detailing her design principles, as well as many of the regulations affecting slaughter in the United States.
* [http://www.hyfoma.com/en/content/food-branches-processing-manufacturing/meat-fish-shrimps/pig-slaughtering/process_description.html Pig slaughtering process]
* [http://www.hyfoma.com/en/content/food-branches-processing-manufacturing/meat-fish-shrimps/poultry-slaughtering/process_description.html Poultry slaughtering process]
* [http://active.inspection.gc.ca/scripts/meavia/reglist/reglist.asp?lang=e&cmd=1&enum=&ename=&dbaname=&ad=&cit=&prov=&fn0=1&fn1=1&fn2=1&fn3=1&fn4=1&fn5=1&fn6=1&fn7=1&fn8=1&fn9=2&fn10=2&fn11=2&fn12=3&fn13=3&fn14=3&fn15=3&fn16=4&fn17=4&fn18=4&fn19=4&fn20=5&fn21=6&fn22=7&fn23=7&fn24=7&fn25=7&fn26=8&fn27=9&fn28=10&fn29=10&fn30=10&fn31=10&fn32=10&fn33=11&fn34=11&fn35=11&fn36=12&fn37=12&fn38=12&fn39=12&fn40=12&fn41=12&fn42=12&fn43=12&fn44=12&fn45=12&fn46=12&fn47=12&fn48=12&fn49=12&fn50=12&fn51=12&fn52=14 Search slaughterhouses in Canada]
* [http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/processing/ Sustainable slaughtering issues]
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