- River Severn
name = River Severn
other_name = Welsh: Afon Hafren
image_size = 288
image_caption = The Severn at
Shrewsburyfrom Shrewsbury Castle.
country = Wales
country1 = England
state1 = west midlands
region = Mid Wales
region1 = West Midlands
region2 = South West
district = Powys
district1 = Shropshire
district2 = Worcestershire
district3 = Gloucestershire
district_type = Counties
city = Shrewsbury
city1 = Worcester
city2 = Gloucester
city3 = Bristol
landmark = Ironbridge Gorge
landmark1 = Severn Valley
landmark2 = Severn Bore
landmark3 = Severn crossing
length = 354
watershed = 11420
discharge1 = 107
Bewdley, Worcs. oscoor|SO78157622|SO 7815 7622
discharge = 61.17
discharge_note = [cite web |url= http://www.nwl.ac.uk/ih/nrfa/station_summaries/054/001.html|title= National River Flow Archive - 54001 Severn @ Bewdley|accessdate=2008-01-24 |format= |work= ]
discharge_max = 533.48
max recorded on
1947-03-21[cite web |url= http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/hiflowsuk/stations/54001/|title= HiFlows-UK|accessdate=2008-01-24 |format= |work= ]
discharge2 = 43.46
discharge_note = [cite web |url= http://www.nwl.ac.uk/ih/nrfa/station_summaries/054/005.html|title= National River Flow Archive - 54001 Severn @ Montford|accessdate=2008-01-24 |format= |work= ]
source_location = Plynlimon
source_district = Ceredigion
source_country = Wales
source_lat_d = 52.493465
source_lat_NS = N
source_long_d = 3.734578
source_long_EW = W
source_elevation = 610
mouth_name = Severn Estuary
mouth_location = Bristol Channel
mouth_country = United Kingdom
mouth_elevation = 0
tributary_left = Vyrnwy
tributary_left1 = Tern
tributary_left2 = Stour
tributary_left3 = Warwickshire Avon
tributary_left4 = Bristol Avon
tributary_right = Teme
tributary_right1 = Leadon
tributary_right1 = Wye
map_size = 288
map_caption = Tributaries (light blue) and major settlements on and near the Severn (bold blue)
:"For other rivers named "Severn", see
Severn River."The River Severn (Welsh: "Afon Hafren", Latin: "Sabrina") is the longest riverin Great Britain, at convert|220|mi|km|0. [cite web| url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/england/sevenwonders/west/severn-river/| title=The River Severn Facts| author=BBC| accessdate=2006-12-28] It rises at an altitude of convert|2001|ft|m|0 on Plynlimonnear Llanidloes, Powys, in the Cambrian Mountainsof mid Wales. It then flows through Shropshire, Worcestershireand Gloucestershire, with the county towns of Shrewsbury, Worcester, and Gloucesteron its banks. With an average discharge of 107 m³/s at Apperley, Gloucestershire, the Severn is England's greatest river in terms of water flow, and is considered one of the ten major rivers of the United Kingdom.
The river becomes the
Severn Estuaryafter the Second Severn Crossingnear Severn Beach, South Gloucestershire. The river then discharges into the Bristol Channelwhich in turn discharges into the Celtic Seaand the wider Atlantic Ocean. The Severn's drainage basin area is convert|11420|km2|sqmi|0, excluding the River Wyeand Bristol Avon which flow into the Bristol Channel. The major tributaries to the Severn are the Vyrnwy, Teme, Warwickshire Avon and Stour.
According to some sources, the name "Severn" is derived from the name Sabrina (or
Hafren), based on the mythical story of a nymph who drowned in the river. [cite web| url=http://www.geocities.com/andymorrall/sabrina.htm| title=The Legend of Sabrina| author=Andy Morrall| accessdate=2006-12-09] Sabrina is also the goddess of the River Severn in Brythonic mythology. The story of Sabrina is featured in Milton's "Comus". [cite web| url=http://www.whitedragon.org.uk/articles/sabrina.htm| author=Liam Rogers| title=Sabrina and the River Severn| accessdate=2006-12-09] There is a statue of 'Sabrina' in the Dingle Gardens at the Quarry, Shrewsbury.
As the Severn becomes tidal the associated deity changes to Noadu (Romanized as
Nodens), who is represented mounted on a seahorse, riding on the crest of the Severn bore. [Clucas, P. (1985) "Britain - The Landscape Below". Guildford: Colour Library Books. ISBN 0-86283-174-1]
The River Stour rises in the north of Worcestershire in the
Clent Hills, near St Kenelm's Church at Romsley. It flows north into the adjacent West Midlands at Halesowen. It then flows westwards through Cradley Heathand Stourbridgewhere it leaves the Black Country. It is joined by the Smestow Brook at Prestwood before it winds around southwards to Kinver, and then flows back into Worcestershire. It then passes through Wolverley, Kidderminsterand Wildento its confluencewith the Severn at Stourport-on-Severn.
River Vyrnwy, which begins at Lake Vyrnwy, flows eastwards through Powysbefore entering England and joining the Severn at Melverley, Shropshire. The Rea Brookflows north from its source in the Shropshire Hillsand joins the Severn at Shrewsbury. The River Tern, after flowing south from Market Draytonand being joined by the River Roden, meets the Severn at Attingham Park.
River Worfejoins the Severn, just above Bridgnorth. The River Stour rising on the Clent Hillsand flowing through Halesowen, Stourbridge, and Kidderminster, joins the Severn at Stourport. On the opposite bank, the tributaries are only brooks, Borle Brook, Dowles Brookdraining the Wyre Forestand Dick Brook. The River Temeflows eastwards from its source in Mid Wales, straddling the border between Shropshireand Herefordshire, it is joined by the River Onny, River Corveand River Rea before it finally joins the Severn slightly downstream of Worcester.
One of the several rivers named Avon, in this case the Warwickshire Avon, flows west through Rugby,
Warwickand Stratford-upon-Avon. It is then joined by its tributary the River Arrow, before finally joining the Severn at Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire.
The port of
Bristolis located on the Severn Estuary, where another River Avon flows into it through the Avon Gorge.
River Wye, from its source in Plynlimon, Wales, flows generally south east through the Welsh towns of Rhayaderand Builth Wells. It enters Herefordshire, flows through Hereford, and is shortly afterwards joined by the River Lugg, before flowing through Ross-on-Wyeand Monmouth, and then southwards where it forms the boundary between England ( Forest of Dean) and Wales. It flows into the Severn near the town of Chepstow, slightly upstream of the Bristol Avonon the opposite bank.
River Uskflows into the Severn Estuary just south of Newport.
Below is a list of major
towns and cities that the Severn flows through (from northto south):
The Severn is bridged at many places, and many of these bridges are notable in their own right, with several designed and built by the engineer
Thomas Telford. There also is the famous Iron Bridgeat Ironbridge, which was the world's first iron arch bridge.
The two bridges of the
Severn crossingcarrying roads link Wales with the southern counties of England and are among the most important in Britain.
Severn Bridge— opened in 1966 carrying the M48
Second Severn Crossing— opened in 1996 carrying the M4 motorway
Previous to the construction of the first bridge in 1966, the channel was crossed by the
Severn Tunnel, situated near the Second Severn Crossingroad bridge, carries the Great Western Main Lineunder the channel.
Cars could also be transported through the Severn Tunnel. In the 1950s three trains a day made round trips between Severn Tunnel Junction and Pilning. The vehicles were loaded onto open flat bed carriages and pulled by a small pannier tank locomotive although sometimes they were joined to a scheduled passenger train. The prudent owner paid to cover the vehicle with a sheet as sparks often flew when the
steam locomotivetackled the grade leading to the tunnel exit. A rail coach was provided for passengers and drivers. Reservations could be made and the fee for the car was about thirty shillings in the early 1950s.
There have been many
disasters on the Severn, making it Britain's most dangerous river. It has claimed many lives (figures vary depending on how it is recorded, circa 300 people), especially during the 20th century.fact|date=July 2007
There is a public right of navigation between
Pool Quay, near Welshpool, and Stourport. However this stretch of the river has little traffic, other than small pleasure boats, canoes and some tour boats in towns such as Shrewsbury and Worcester. Below Stourport, where the river is more navigable for larger craft, users must obtain permits from British Waterways, who are the navigation authority.
There are locks on the lower Severn to enable sea going boats to reach as far as
Stourport. The most northerly lock is at Lincombe, about a mile downstream from Stourport.
Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, and the Herefordshire and Gloucestershire Canalall join the Severn at Stourport, Worcesterand Gloucesterrespectively. The Droitwich Barge Canal used to join the Severn at Hawford, near to the River Salwarpeand it hoped that a new link to the Severn via the Salwarpe will be re-established in the future.
The main operator of pleasure craft and particularly
paddle steamers on the river from the mid 19th century to the late 1970s were P and A Campbellof Bristol, but also included the Barry Railway Company. There were also three ferries operating between Aust and Chepstow these were called the Severn King, Severn Queen and Severn Princess. The Severn Princess is currently undergoing restoration after being found in Ireland full of fertiliser, after dragging her back with her sinking twice on the way it is hoped that at some time in the near future she will be fully operational again. The Severn King and Queen were scrapped not long after their decommission following the completion of the First Severn Bridge.
In Worcester, the Worcester River Cruises have boat trips up and down the river operating the boats The Pride of the Midlands and The Earl Grosvenor. After 2008 there are plans for another boat, The Severn Travellor, to be refurbished and relaunched for trips.
In Shrewsbury, boat trips around the loop of the town centre are at present provided by the "Sabrina" and depart from Victoria Quay near the
Welsh Bridgeduring the summer. [http://www.shrewsburyboat.co.uk/ ]
The River Severn extends down to the
Second Severn Crossing. The Severn Estuarybegins at this point and stretches to a line from Lavernock Point(south of Cardiff) to Sand Point near Weston-super-Mare. West of this line is the Bristol Channel. In the Severn Estuary (or the Bristol Channelin the last two cases, depending where the boundary is drawn) are the rocky islands called Denny Island, Steep Holmand Flat Holm.
A curious phenomenon associated with the lower reaches of the Severn is the
tidal bore. The Severn bore forms somewhat upstream of the Port of Sharpness, which is also the Southern terminus of the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal.
estuary, which empties into the Bristol Channel, has the second largest tidal rangein the world — about convert|15|m|ft|0, [cite web | url= http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/commondata/acrobat/severnpositionmay2006_1508223.pd | format= PDF | work= UK Environment Agency | title= Severn Estuary Barrage | date= 31 May 2006| accessdate= 2007-09-03 ] [cite web | url= http://www.bbc.co.uk/bristol/content/articles/2005/07/04/bristolchannel_feature.shtml | title= Coast: Bristol Channel | work= BBC | accessdate= 2007-08-27 ] exceeded only by the Bay of Fundy; and during the highest tides, the rising water is funnelled up the estuary into a wave that travels rapidly upstream against the river current. The largest bores occur in spring, but smaller ones can be seen throughout the year. The Environment Agencypublishes timetable and prediction of bore heights on its website. [cite web | url= http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/regions/midlands/434823/ | publisher= Environment Agency| title= Severn Bore and Trent Aegir | accessdate= 2008-01-13] . Being the onset of the flood tide it is accompanied by a rapid rise in water level which continues for about one and a half hours after the bore has passed. The Severn Bore is a natural example of a self-reinforcing solitary wave or soliton. River surfingenthusiasts even attempt to surf along on the wave, which can be convert|2|m|ft|0. In March 2006, an "unofficial" record surf was achieved, for the longest-ever 'surf', by Steve King, a railway engineer from Gloucestershire, England. Despite the media acceptance of the record the exact distance of the ride was never verified and the record was later rejected by both the British Surfing Association and " Guinness World Records". [cite web| url=http://www.severnsolutions.co.uk/twblog/archive/2006/04/17/severnborerecord| author=Tom Wright| title=Severn Bore World Surfing Record| accessdate=2006-04-17] The Gloucester Harbour Trustees, as competent harbour authority for this part of the river, explicitly advise against this pastime.
In September 2005, several hundred surfers gathered in
Newnham on Severnto celebrate 50 years since the first recorded attempt at surfing the Severn Bore and to view the première of Longwave by Donny Wright, [cite web| url=http://www.thelongwave.com| title=Longwave| accessdate=2007-09-13] a historical film documenting the evolution of the sport since its inception in 1955.
A huge tidal range and high level of surrounding industry and population have long made the Severn Estuary and
Bristol Channela focus for tidal energy schemes and ideas. Plans for a Severn Barrage— running 16 km (10 miles) across the Bristol Channel from Lavernock Pointnear to and south west of Cardiffto Brean Downnear and just south west of Weston-super-Marein Somerset— would generate a massive 8640 MW when the tide flows, and have been discussed for several decades now. The power generated would come from a lake of convert|185|sqmi|km2|0 with a potential energy depth of convert|14|m|ft|0. Tidal power only runs for around ten hours a day, but by using the enclosed lake as a reservoir of potential energy more hours of operation could be achieved. Other energy sources, such as wind and solar power, also create electricity at times that do not always match when it is needed. Excess power could be stored by pumping water uphill, as is already done at a variety of other installations in the UK.
The UK Government shelved the plans in the late 1980s due largely to cost issues and local environmental concerns. However, this was before recent huge rises in the price of energy, and before
Global Warminghad started to be taken seriously. In April 2006 the Welsh Assemblyapproved the idea of utilising the tidal power, but the RSPB has raised serious concerns about the effect on the mud flats, that have European Environmental protection status, and the UK government Energy Review published later in the year did not endorse the scheme. [cite web| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/south_east/4927744.stm| title=Backing for Severn barrage power| author=BBC News| date=21 April 2006|accessdate=2006-12-09]
Opinion is still divided on the benefits of a proposed barrage. John Hutton,
Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, announced a further feasibility study on 25 September 2007. The proposal for a hydro-electric barrier to generate 8.6 GW and meet five percent of Britain's power needs, is being opposed by environmental groups. [cite web |url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article2531329.ece |title=Severn Barrage study alarms campaigners |accessdate=2007-09-26 |format= |work=Times Online | date= 25 September 2007] [cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/7013068.stm |title=New study for Severn energy plan |accessdate=2007-09-26 |format= |work= BBC News| date= 25 September 2007]
A 6 mile (10 km) stretch of the
Severn valleyin Shropshire, known as the Ironbridge Gorge, was designated a World Heritage Siteby UNESCOin 1986. Its historic importance is due to its role as the centre of the ironindustry in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution. Ironbridge gets its name from the bridge across the Severn, built in 1779, which was the first cast-iron arch bridge ever constructed.
The sides of the estuary are also important feeding grounds for
waders, notably at the Bridgwater BayNational Nature Reserve and the Slimbridge Wildfowl Trust.
Rivers of the United Kingdom
Severn Waylong-distance footpath
Severn Area Rescue Associationorganises rescue lifeboats from Wyre Forest to Beachley
Mercia Inshore Search and Rescueare based at Upton-upon-Severn
* The Severn Valley, an area straddling Shropshire and Worcestershire
Severnside, a term with various different uses
Seven Natural Wonders" - 2005 TV programme where the River was described as one of the wonders of the West Country.
* [http://www.severntales.co.uk Tales of the River Severn] From source to sea along Britain's longest river
* [http://www.portishead-lifeboat.org.uk Portishead and Bristol Lifeboat]
* [http://www.itvlocal.com/central/news/?player=CEN_News_26&void=113448/ ITV Local footage] ITV's
Keith Wilkinson (reporter)and Jennifer Binns canoeingthe Severn
* [http://www.severn-bore.co.uk The Severn Bore]
* [http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/regions/midlands/434823 Environment Agency - Severn Bore and Trent Aegir]
* [http://www.boreriders.com Surfing The Severn Bore] note warning in text from Gloucester Harbour Trustees
* [http://www.abandonedcommunities.co.uk/woodend.html Woodend, a hamlet washed away by the River Severn]
* [http://www.waterscape.com/canals-and-rivers/river-severn Official site, waterscape.com]
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