- International response to the War in Darfur
While there is a general consensus in the
international communitythat ethnic groupshave been targeted and that crimes against humanityhave therefore occurred, there has been debate in some quarters about whether genocidehas taken place. In May 2006, the International Commissionof Inquiry on Darfur organized by United Nations"concluded that the Government of the Sudan has not pursued a policy of genocide ... [though] international offences such as the crimes against humanity and war crimes that have been committed in Darfur may be no less serious and heinous than genocide." [http://www.ohchr.org/english/darfur.htm Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General] , United Nations International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, 18 September 2004] Eric Reeves, a researcher and frequent commentator on Darfur, has questioned the methodology of the commission's report. [https://ssl.tnr.com/p/docsub.mhtml?i=w060501&s=reeves050506 Darfur 101] by Eric Reeves( The New Republic) 5 May 2006. "... a U.N. Commission of Inquiry (COI) report on Darfur concluded in January 2005 that there was 'insufficient evidence of genocidal intent' on the part of the NIF, though the commissioners' reasoning was embarrassingly flawed and the failure to conduct forensic investigations at all sites of reported mass ethnic murders was inexcusable. In addition, the COI badly confused the issues of motive and intent, deployed evidence in conspicuously contradictory fashion, and misrepresented the consequences of genocidal violence and displacement in Darfur."]
United Statesgovernment, non-governmental organizations(NGOs) and individual world leaders have chosen to use the word "genocide" for what is taking place in Darfur. "(See Declarations of genocide, below)" Most notably, in passing the Darfur Peace and Accountability Actof 2006, the US government codified specific economic and legal sanctions on the government of Sudan as a result of its findings of genocide.
International attention to the Darfur conflict largely began with reports by the advocacy organizations
Amnesty Internationalin July 2003 and the International Crisis Groupin December 2003. However, widespread media coverage did not start until the outgoing United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Sudan, Mukesh Kapila, called Darfur the "world's greatest humanitarian crisis" in March 2004. [Prunier, pp. 124-148] A movement advocating for humanitarian interventionhas emerged in several countries since then.
The on-going conflict in
Darfur, Sudan, which started in 2003, was declared a "genocide" by United States Secretary of State Colin Powellon September 9, 2004in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. [ [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/sudan_09-09-04.html POWELL DECLARES KILLING IN DARFUR 'GENOCIDE'] , The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, Sep. 9, 2004] Since that time however, no other permanent member of the United Nations Security Councilhas followed suit. In fact, in January 2005, an International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, authorized by UN Security Council Resolution 1564of 2004, issued a report to the Secretary-General stating that "the Government of the Sudan has not pursued a policy of genocide."PDFlink| [http://www.un.org/News/dh/sudan/com_inq_darfur.pdf Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General] |1.14 MB, January 25, 2005, at 4] Nevertheless, the Commission cautioned that "The conclusion that no genocidal policy has been pursued and implemented in Darfur by the Government authorities, directly or through the militias under their control, should not be taken in any way as detracting from the gravity of the crimes perpetrated in that region. International offences such asthe crimes against humanity and war crimes that have been committed in Darfur may be no less serious and heinous than genocide." [ [http://www.cbc.ca/story/world/national/2005/02/01/newdarfur-report050201.html Sudan's mass killings not genocide: UN report] , CBC News, 1 February 2005]
International Criminal Court
As Sudan has not ratified the
Rome Statutethe International Criminal Court can not investigate crimes that may have taken place in Darfur unless the United Nations Security council asks them to under Article 13.b of the Rome Statute ("A situation in which one or more of such crimes appears to have been committed is referred to the Prosecutor by the Security Council acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations"). [Charles Wright. [http://www.middletemple.org.uk/Downloads//Sudan.pdf Two Views of the Sudan] , The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, Trinity 2004, Issue 37. p. 3] [Thomas Rose [http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2008/07/17/f-vp-rose.html The gamble to prosecute Sudan's leader over Darfur] , CBC News, 18 July 2008] [Staff. [http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/africa/07/14/darfur.charges/index.html Sudanese president charged with genocide] CNN, 15 July 2008]
In March 2005, the Security Council formally referred the situation in Darfur to the Prosecutor of the
International Criminal Court, taking into account the report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, authorized by UN Security Council Resolution 1564of 2004, but without mentioning any specific crimes. [PDFlink| [http://www.icc-cpi.int/library/cases/N0529273.darfureferral.eng.pdf Security Council Resolution 1593 (2005)] |24.8 KB] Two permanent members of the Security Council, the United Statesand China, abstained from the vote on the referral resolution. [ [http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2005/sc8351.doc.htm SECURITY COUNCIL REFERS SITUATION IN DARFUR, SUDAN, TO PROSECUTOR OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT] , UN Press Release SC/8351, Mar. 31, 2005] As of his fourth report to the Security Council, the Prosecutor has found "reasonable grounds to believe that the individuals identified [in the UN Security Council Resolution 1593] have committed crimes against humanity and war crimes," but did not find sufficient evidence to prosecute for genocide. [PDFlink| [http://www.icc-cpi.int/library/organs/otp/OTP_ReportUNSC4-Darfur_English.pdf Fourth Report of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to the Security Council pursuant to UNSC 1593 (2005)] |597 KB, Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Dec. 14, 2006.]
In April 2007, the Judges of the ICC issued arrest warrants against the former Minister of State for the Interior,
Ahmad Harun, and a Militia Janjaweedleader, Ali Kushayb, for crimes against humanity and war crimes. [ [http://www.icc-cpi.int/library/organs/otp/ICC-OTP-ST20080605-ENG.pdf Statement by Mr. Luis Moreno Ocampo, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to the United Nations Security Council pursuant to UNSCR 1593 (2005)] , [http://www.icc-cpi.int/ International Criminal Court] , 5 June 2008] The Sudan Government says that the ICC had no jurisdiction to try Sudanese citizens and that it will not hand the two men over to its custody. [Staff. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/6402363.stm Sudan defiant on Darfur suspects] BBC, 27 February 2007]
July 14, 2008, prosecutors at the International Criminal Court(ICC), filed ten charges of war crimesagainst Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir, three counts of genocide, five of crimes against humanityand two of murder. The ICC's prosecutors have claimed that al-Bashir "masterminded and implemented a plan to destroy in substantial part" three tribal groups in Darfur because of their ethnicity. The ICC's prosecutor for Darfur, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, is expected within months to ask a panel of ICC judges to issue an arrest warrant for al-Bashir.
The evidence was submitted to 3 judges who will decide whether to issue an
arrest warrantin the coming months. 300,000 people have died and 5 million people were forced from their homes, and still under attack from government-backed janjaweed militia. [ [http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5gMU9_nxHnfBspo342jYG0nXyx7-gD91TRRCO0 Sudan president charged with genocide in Darfur] , " Associated Press".] If formally charged, al-Bashir would become the first sitting head of statecharged with genocide. [cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7500437.stm |title= Bashir move bold but problematic |accessdate=2008-07-15 |publisher= BBC News|date=2008-07-14 ] Bashir has rejected the charges and said, "Whoever has visited Darfur, met officials and discovered their ethnicities and tribes ... will know that all of these things are lies." [cite web |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSL1417202620080714 |title=ICC prosecutor seeks arrest of Sudan's Bashir |accessdate=2008-07-15 |publisher= Reuters|date=2008-07-14 ]
It is suspected that al-Bashir would not face trial in The Hague any time soon, as Sudan reject's the ICC's jurisdiction. Payam Akhavan, a professor of international law at
McGill Universityin Montrealand a former war crimes prosecutor, says although he may not go to trial, "He will effectively be in prison within the Sudan itself...Al-Bashir now is not going to be able to leave the Sudan without facing arrest." [cite news |title=Sudanese president charged with genocide |url=http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2008/07/14/bashir-icc-charges.html |publisher= CBC News|date=2008-07-14 |accessdate=2008-07-15 ]
Peacekeeping and military response
The Sudanese army on
March 28 2007denied reports circulated over raids carried out by French paratroopers against Darfur villages. [ [http://www.kuna.net.kw/NewsAgenciesPublicSite/ArticleDetails.aspx?id=1719850&Language=en Sudan army denies French paratroopers" attack against Darfur village ] , Kuwait News Agency, 28 March 2007] Senegalhonoured on April 12 2007five of its soldiers killed in Sudan's Darfur and said it could quit the African Unionpeacekeeping force there unless it was better equipped and protected. [ [http://signonsandiego.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=SignOnSanDiego.com+%3E+News+%3E+World+--+Senegal+may+quit+AU+Darfur+force+if+it+left+weak&expire=&urlID=21924411&fb=Y&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.signonsandiego.com%2Fnews%2Fworld%2F20070412-0848-senegal-au-darfur.html&partnerID=621 Senegal may quit AU Darfur force if it left weak] , The San Diego Union-Tribune, 12 April 2007]
Logisticsis one of the major obstacles in Darfur that hinders successful deployment of the UNAMIDpeace-keeping force and the humanitarian organisations that strive to bring peace, security and a relief of human suffering to the region. The vast region has no major surfaced road network. It is nearly 1300 km from Sudan’s one and only international sea port at Port Sudan and 700 km from the international airport at Khartoum. Transporting aid to and around the region is hard enough, but during the summer months it is nearly impossible as heavy rains descend and destroy the dirt roads and fill the wadis, leaving many areas inaccessible. Cargo is often held up at customs as documentation requirements are often changed and cargo retained at the docks until varying amounts of government officials have inspected it.
During 2007-2008, 22% of transport companies discontinued their services to Darfur due to insecurity. [UNJLC,www.unjlc.org/sudan/transport/land/UNJLC_SDN_KRT_RapidTransportMarketAssessment_080212.pdf ] Banditry has increased throughout the conflict, as many of the small rebel factions have turned to it to finance their operations. 51% of the incidents occur along the Ed Daein to Zalingei route, in which both goods, the trucks and drivers have been captured and kidnapped along the way. [Ibid] The goods have been sold for profit, while the vehicles, the main prize, have been incorporated into the bandits' operations, with the kidnapped drivers used to maintain the vehicles. Truck-jackings have become an increasing problem to logistics as not only have the local contractors increased their prices, but many now have to wait for the government to provide armed escorts along the major routes. These escorts are infrequent and are on offer only when the manpower can be spared. The UN forces currently do not have the permission or the forces to operate the long convoys in and out of Sudan, creating a large backlog of aid piling up at the end of the surfaced road in El Obeid, waiting for a convoy to take them the rest of the way. A 6 or 7 day journey is now taking over 3 weeks due to these restrictions.
UNJLC, WFPand CARE Internationalhave joined forces to create a common pipeline for the different UN agencies and NGOs to transport their procured goods to the Darfur region. During the months of May and June 2008, they offered theses services for free, to help the NGOs stockpile their materials so that they would have enough to outstand the rainy season.Fact|date=August 2008 These services were limited however, and only really applicable for non-food items. Humanitarian organisations that require more constant delivery of goods and delicate materials such as medical supplies and food supplements have been faced with the dilemma of having to fly their materials in, due to the rains. UNHAShas only a few planes and is overstretched due to lack of funding. Many organisationswho? are having to resort to hiring local air freight contractors, which alone is very expensive. Some organisations who cannot afford the high prices use the larger multimodal companies which offer a midway to the fast and expensive air freight, and the cheap and very slow land freight. Fact|date=August 2008
The Sudanese logisitcs companies that are still operating areFact|date=August 2008:
Azza Transport, Ababeel aviation, Air Taxi Sudan.
Land freight =
Raiba logistics, Keer-MISC ltd, Delta logistics,
Rapid Response Services
tatements from world leaders
18 February, 2006US President George W. Bushcalled for the number of international troops in Darfur to be doubled. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/17/AR2006021701935.html Bush Calls For More Muscle In Darfur ] ]
17 September, 2006, British Prime Minister Tony Blairwrote an open letter to the members of the European Union calling for a unified response to the crisis. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/5353348.stm BBC NEWS | Politics | Blair's Darfur letter in full ] ]
Declarations of genocide
The following notable individuals and institutions have declared the conflict in Darfur a
genocide(organized chronologically by first statement):
International Association of Genocide Scholars, 19 February 2004[http://www.isg-iags.org/actionalerts/20050219.html Darfur: Not Another Hotel Rwanda!] "action alert", Institute for the Study of Genocideand the International Association of Genocide Scholarswebsite, 19 February 2004]
Committee on Conscienceof the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 June 2004[http://www.ushmm.org/conscience/alert/darfur/staring_genocide_in_the_face/main.php?print=y In Sudan, Staring Genocide in the Face] by Jerry Fowler, Committee on Conscience, staff director, US Holocaust Memorial Museum( The Washington Post) 6 June 2004]
United States Congress( House Concurrent Resolution 467), 22 June 2004, passed 422-0 in the House and by unanimous voice vote in the Senate, declaring state-sponsored genocide by the proxy militias known as Janjaweed. Therefore each member of the 108th United States Congresshas technically declared that the situation in Darfur is a genocide. All but three members of the 109th United States Congressvoted in favor of the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act, a law signed by President Bush in October 2006 that restated the findings of genocide. Additional individual statements by members of the US Congress are noted below. [http://usinfo.state.gov/is/Archive/2004/Jul/26-233176.html U.S. Congress Terms Situation in Darfur "Genocide"] by Charles W. Corey (US State DepartmentWashington File) 23 July 2004] [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3921451.stm Excerpts: US Congress resolution on Darfur] , BBC 23 July 2004]
* US Sen.
Russell Feingold, 22 July 2004[http://feingold.senate.gov/%7Efeingold/statements/04/07/2004722959.html Statement of Senator Russ Feingold From the Floor of the U.S. Senate On the Situation in Darfur, Sudan] , Office of Russell Feingold, 22 July 2004]
* US Secretary of State
Colin Powell, 9 September 2004[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A8364-2004Sep9.html U.S. Calls Killings In Sudan Genocide] by Glenn Kessler and Colum Lynch ( The Washington Post) 10 September 2004]
* US President
George W. Bush, 9 September 2004[http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2004/09/20040909-10.html President's Statement on Violence in Darfur, Sudan] ( The White House) 9 September 2004] Restated declaration in June 2005 [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/01/AR2005060101725.html In Break With U.N., Bush Calls Sudan Killings Genocide] by Jim VandeHei ( The Washington Post 2 June 2005] and in a meeting with activists from the Save Darfur Coalition, 28 April 2006[http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/04/20060428-5.html President Meets with Darfur Advocates] transcript ( White House) 28 April 2006]
Jewish World Watch, 16 September 2004, in a [http://www.vbs.org/rabbi/hshulw/global.htm sermon] by Rabbi Harold M. Schulweis.
* US Sen.
John Kerry, prior to 16 September 2004[http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/elections/chad.sudan/index.html Chad/Sudan: A Question of Genocide] by Amy Costello ( PBSFrontline) 16 September 2004]
Anti-Defamation League[ [http://www.adl.org/sudan/ ADL Darfur Resource Center] ]
* US Sen.
Joseph Lieberman, 2 March 2005[http://lieberman.senate.gov/newsroom/release.cfm?id=232714&& Lieberman Calls for Sanctions on Sudan Until it Stops Darfur Genocide] , Office of Joseph Lieberman, 2 March 2005]
Armenian Assembly of America, 2 March 2005[ [http://www.aaainc.org/fileadmin/aaainc/pdf/2005/03-02-05__2005-021_Armenian_Assembly_Joins_Community_Groups_in_Urging_President_Bush_to_Reaffirm_the_Armenian_Genocide.pdf ARMENIAN ASSEMBLY JOINS COMMUNITY GROUPS IN URGING PRESIDENT BUSH TO REAFFIRM THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE] ]
* US Sen. and Senate Majority Leader
Bill Frist, 15 April 2005[http://frist.senate.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Speeches.Detail&Speech_id=186&Month=4&Year=2005 FRIST STATEMENT ON SHOOTING OF USAID WORKER] , Office of Bill Frist, 15 April 2005]
American Jewish Committee, 6 May 2005[ [http://www.ajc.org/site/apps/nl/content2.asp?c=ijITI2PHKoG&b=1531911&ct=873999 Press Releases - American Jewish Committee ] ]
Jacob Blaustein Institute for the Advancement of Human Rights, July 2005 [http://www.ajc.org/atf/cf/%7B42D75369-D582-4380-8395-D25925B85EAF%7D/halt_genocide_darfur.pdf]
* US Sen.
Barack Obama, 22 July 2005[http://obama.senate.gov/blog/050722-darfur_and_the_un/index.html Darfur and the U.N.] , Office of Barack Obama, 22 July 2005]
Genocide Intervention Network, 21 November 2005[http://www.genocideintervention.net/about/press/releases/2005/11/21/darfur-peace-and-accountability-act-passes-senate-after-citizen-pressure/ Darfur Peace and Accountability Act Passes Senate After Citizen Pressure] , press release, Genocide Intervention Network, 21 November 2005]
* Israeli ambassador to the U.N.,
Itzhak Levanon, 27 January 2006[ [http://geneva.mfa.gov.il/mfm/web/main/document.asp?DocumentID=91452&MissionID=3 AT THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL DAY OF COMMEMORATION IN MEMORY OF THE VICTIMS OF THE HOLOCAUST] ]
* US Sen.
Hillary Clinton, 16 March 2006[http://clinton.senate.gov/news/statements/details.cfm?id=252800 Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton Calls on President Bush to do More to End the Genocide in Darfur] , Office of Hillary Clinton, 16 March 2006]
* French foreign minister
Philippe Douste-Blazy, 6 September 2006[http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article17471 French FM speaks of Darfur "genocide" for first time] , Sudan Tribune 7 September 2006]
Assembly of the Republicof Portugal, 4 May 2007[ [http://ps.parlamento.pt/?menu=intervencoes&id=1580&leg=X Voto de condenação pelo genocídio no Darfur] , Socialist Party, 4 May 2008]
Physicians for Human Rights(date unknown) [https://ssl.tnr.com/p/docsub.mhtml?i=w060501&s=reeves050506 Darfur 101] by Eric Reeves( The New Republic) 5 May 2006]
U.S. Committee for Refugees(date unknown)
Africa Action(date unknown)
Justice Africa(date unknown)
Africa Confidential(date unknown)
Yad Vashem(date unknown)
Genocide Watch(date unknown)
American Israel Public Affairs Committee[ [http://www.aipac.org/Publications/AIPACAnalysesMemos/United_Nations_and_Israel.pdf The United Nations and Israel] "...despite numerous other world emergencies such as the genocides in Rwanda and Darfur."]
The following institutions have not declared the conflict in Darfur a genocide (related statements included):
United Nations: Stated that mass murders of civilians have been committed by the Janjaweed, but not genocide [ [http://www.un.org/News/dh/sudan/com_inq_darfur.pdf#search=%22un%20report%20darfur%20genocide%22 Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General (PDF)] , United Nations, 25 January 2005]
African Union: In the 2004 the Chair of the AU's PSC said that "abuses are taking place. There is mass suffering, but it is not genocide." [ [http://www.dfa.gov.za/docs/2004pq/pq99.htm Position and Response of the African Union on the Darfur Crisis as being Genocide] Press release of the South African Department of Foreign Affairs 4 November 2004.] [ [http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/sudan/2005/0210aurole.htm The UN Report on Darfur: What Role for the AU?] "Pambazuka" 20 February 2004]
Amnesty International: "The grave human rights abuses ... cannot be ignored any longer, nor justified or excused by a context of armed conflict." [ [http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/ENGAFR540082004 Darfur: "Too many people killed for no reason"] , Amnesty International, 3 February 2004.]
Médecins sans Frontières: Director Jean-Hervé Bradolcalled the term genocide "inappropriate" and deputy emergency director Dr. Mercedes Tatysaid "I don't think that we should be using the word 'genocide' to describe this conflict. Not at all. This can be a semantic discussion, but nevertheless, there is no systematic target -- targeting one ethnic group or another one. It doesn't mean either that the situation in Sudan isn't extremely serious by itself." ["Thousands die in Sudan as world defines genocide", The Financial Times 5 July 2004, cited in " [http://usa.mediamonitors.net/headlines/the_bush_administration_darfur_and_genocide_placing_votes_before_peace_in_sudan The Bush Administration, Darfur and "Genocide": Placing Votes Before Peace in Sudan] ," by David Hoile, Media Monitors Network, 11 September 2004.]
2003 to mid-2004
The United Nations has an [http://www.un.org/News/dh/dev/scripts/darfur_formatted.htm extensive timeline] for this time period. Key points:
March 2003: Fighting breaks out in Darfur between government forces and rebels. Refugees start fleeing into Chad
January 2004: Aid agencies' response begins in earnest to help thousands of displaced
April 2: UN says "scorched-earth" campaign of ethnic cleansing by Janjaweed militias against Darfur's black African population is taking place
May 4: UN officials describe Darfur as one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world
May 7: Two human rights reports find Sudanese government and Arab militias carrying out massive human rights violations which "may constitute war crimes and/or crimes against humanity"
In early July 2004, Annan and then-
United StatesSecretary of State Colin Powellvisited Sudan and the Darfur region, and urged the Sudanese government to stop supporting the Janjaweed militias. Annan described the trips as constructive.
The African Union (AMIS) and
European Unionhave sent monitors [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3868793.stm Annan warns of Sudan catastrophe] (BBC) 6 July, 2004] (as of 5 July 2004) to observe the cease-fire signed on 8 April 2004; [http://www.darfurinformation.com/cf_ceasefire.asp Sudan government and rebels sign Darfur cease-fire] by Abakar Saleh, The European - Sudanese Public Affairs Council, 8 April, 2004] however, the Janjaweed's attacks have not stopped, as noted by the United States [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3621347.stm Sudan 'breaking Darfur ceasefire'] (BBC) 13 April, 2004] and more recently Human Rights Watch. [http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/08/11/darfur9217.htm Darfur: New Atrocities Disprove Khartoum’s Claims] , Human Rights Watch11 August, 2004]
According to the
BBCin July, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3875277.stm France opposes UN Sudan sanctions] (BBC) 8 July, 2004] analysts estimate that at least 15,000 soldiers would be needed to put an end to the conflict.
22 July, 2004, the United States Senateand House of Representatives passed a joint resolution declaring the armed conflict in the Sudanese region of Darfurto be genocideand calling on the Bush administration to lead an international effort to put a stop to it.
30 July, the United Nations gave the Sudanese government 30 days to disarm and bring to justice the Janjaweed, in UN Security CouncilResolution 1556; if this deadline is not met in 30 days, it "expresses its intention to consider" sanctions. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3940527.stm UN resolution on Darfur: Full text] (BBC) 30 July, 2004] The Arab Leagueasked for a longer term and warned that Sudan must not become another Iraq. Resolution 1556 also imposed an arms embargoon the Janjaweed and other militia. [http://www.britishembassy.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1084277288152 DFID Information note on the humanitarian situation i Darfur, Sudan October 2004] British Embassy, Khartoum, October 2004]
From the Sudanese government's point of view, the conflict is simply a skirmish. The Sudanese president,
Omar Hassan al-Bashir, said, "The international concern over Darfur is actually a targeting of the Islamic statein Sudan." Sudan has warned Britain and the United States not to interfere in the internal affairs of the East African country saying it will reject any military aid, while asking for logistic support.
=August 2004= " In August 2004, the African Union sent 150
Rwandan troops in to protect the ceasefire monitors; however, "their mandate did not include the protection of civilians." [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3562096.stm Rwandan soldiers arrive in Sudan] (BBC) 15 August, 2004] Rwandan President Paul Kagamedeclared that "if it was established that the civilians are in danger then our forces will certainly intervene and use force to protect civilians"; however, such an effort would certainly take more than 150 troops. They were joined by 150 Nigerian troops later that month. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3568766.stm Sudan refugees report new attacks] (BBC) 16 August, 2004] [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3580696.stm Nigeria go-ahead for Darfur force] (BBC) 19 August, 2004] Peace talks, which had previously fallen apart in Addis Ababaon July 17, were resumed on August 23in Abuja. The talks reopened amid acrimony, with the SLA accusing the government of breaking promises [http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2004-08-19-sudan-darfur_x.htm Sudanese rebels will attend peace talks on Darfur] ( Associated Press/ USA Today) 19 August, 2004] that it made for the little-respected April ceasefire.
The UN's 30 day deadline expired on
August 29, after which the Secretary Generalreported on the state of the conflict. According to him, the situation "has resulted in some improvements on the ground but remains limited overall". In particular, he notes that the Janjaweed militias remain armed and continue to attack civilians (contrary to Resolution 1556), and militia disarmament has been limited to a "planned" 30% reduction in one particular militia, the Popular Defense Forces. He also notes that the Sudanese government's commitments regarding their own armed forces have been only partially implemented, with refugees reporting several attacks involving government forces. PDFlink| [http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/01_09_04darfursecurity.pdf Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to paragraphs 6 and 13 through 16 of Security Council Resolution 1556 (2004)] United Nations Security CouncilDraft 30 August, 2004] He concludes that: :Stopping attacks against civilians and ensuring their protection is the responsibility of the Government of Sudan. The Government has not met this obligation fully, despite the commitments it has made and its obligations under resolution 1556 (2004). Attacks against civilians are continuing and the vast majority of armed militias has not been disarmed. Similarly, no concrete steps have been taken to bring to justice or even identify any of the militia leaders or the perpetrators of these attacks, allowing the violations of human rights and the basic laws of war to continue in a climate of impunity. After 18 months of conflict and 30 days after the adoption of resolution 1556 (2004), the Government of Sudan has not been able to resolve the crisis in Darfur, and has not met some of the core commitments it has made. and advises "a substantially increased international presence in Darfur" in order to "monitor" the conflict. However, he did not threaten or imply sanctions, which the UN had expressed its "intention to consider" in Resolution 1556.
September 9, 2004, then-US Secretary of State Colin Powelldeclared to the US Senate that genocidewas occurring in Darfur, for which he blamed the Sudanese government and the Janjaweed. This position was strongly rejected by the Sudanese foreign affairs minister, Najib Abdul Wahab. The United Nations, like the African Unionand European Union, have not declared the Darfur conflict to be an act of genocide. If it does constitute an act of genocide, international law is considered to allow other countries to intervene.
September 9, 2004, the US put forward a UN draft resolution threatening Sudan with sanctions on its oil industry. This was adopted, in modified form, on September 18, 2004as Resolution 1564 (see below.)
September 13, 2004, WHO published a Darfur mortality survey, which was the first reliable indicator about deaths in Darfur. It reported that 6,000–10,000 people were dying each month in Darfur. Many were related to diarrhoea, but the most significant cause of death was violent death for those aged 15–49. The Darfur mortality rates were significantly higher than the emergency threshold, and were from 3 to 6 times higher than the normal African death rates.
September 18, 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1564, pressuring the Sudanese government to act urgently to improve the situation by threatening the possibility of oil sanctions in the event of continued noncompliance with Resolution 1556 or refusal to accept the expansion of African Unionpeacekeepers. [http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2004/sc8191.doc.htm Security Council declares intention to consider sanctions to obtain Sudan's full compliance with security, disarmament obligations on Darfur] Adopting Resolution 1564 (2004) by Vote of 11-0-4, Calls on Secretary-General to Set Up Commission of Inquiry to Investigate Human Rights Violations. Press Release SC/8191, Security Council 5040th Meeting (PM), 18 September, 2004] Resolution 1564 also established an International Commission of Inquiryto look into human rights violations, and to determine whether genocide was occurring. In the wake of this resolution, the peacekeeper force was to be expanded to 4,500 troops. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3748732.stm Darfur troops to arrive week late] (BBC) 17 October, 2004]
September 30, 2004, during the first of three U.S. presidential debates, Jim Lehrer, the moderator, asked why neither candidate had discussed committing troops to Darfur. Senator John Kerryreplied that "one of the reasons we can't do it is we're overextended," but agreed that he'd use American forces "to some degree to coalesce the African Union." President Bush cited aid committed to the region and agreed that action should be taken through the African Union. Both candidates agreed that what was happening in Darfur was genocide. (WikiSource Transcript), 30 September, 2004]
October 15 2004, World Health Organizationofficial David Nabarroestimated that 70,000 people had died of disease and malnutrition in Darfur since March.
October 17, 2004in a meeting between leaders of Libya, Sudan, Egypt, Nigeriaand Chad, the idea of foreign intervention was rejected. They stated that they believe it to be a purely African matter. Egyptian presidency spokesman Magued Abdel Fattah said that the international community should "provide Sudan with assistance to allow it to fulfil its obligations under UN resolutions (on Darfur) rather than putting pressure on it and issuing threats."
The African Union had expected to have 3,000 additional troops in place in the region sometime in November, but cited lack of funds and 'logistical difficulties' in delaying this deployment, waiting on the AU's
Peace and Security Councilto meet on October 20and decide on the expanded duties and numbers of the force. It was decided that these AU troops, from both Nigeria and Rwanda, will be deployed by October 30.
The United Nations pledged $100 million dollars to support the force, about half of the $221 million cost to keep them deployed for a year. The
European Unionmobilised the remainder, an additional EUR 80 million on October 26from their African Peace Facilityto support the deployment and operations of the 3144-strong AU observer mission which will monitor the implementation of the cease-fire agreement. [http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/04/1306&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en EU mobilises an additional € 80 million from African Peace Facility to support enlarged African Union observer mission in Darfur, Sudan] European UnionPress release IP/04/1306, 26 October, 2004]
Peace talks between Sudan and Darfur rebels were scheduled to resume on
October 21in Abuja, Nigeria. However, rebels showed up late and the talks did not begin until October 25. Two more rebel groups now want in on the negotiations, and an existing cease-fire agreement is considered shaky. The talks are still in progress, but a humanitarian agreement is expected to be hammered out during the course of the talks.
November 2the United Nations reports that Sudanese troops have raided the Abu Sharif and Otash refugee camps near Nyala in Darfur, moving a number of inhabitants and denying aid agencies access to the remaining inhabitants inside. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3974289.stm Sudan army 'forcing out refugees'] (BBC) 3 November, 2004] Meanwhile, the Abujatalks continued, with attempts made to agree on a no-fly zoneover Darfur in addition to a truce on land and a disarmament of the militias. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3985025.stm Sudan talks halt over no-fly zone] (BBC) 5 November, 2004]
A third UN resolution is being considered, calling for a speedy end to the conflict. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3987773.stm Darfur peace push in new UN text] (BBC) 6 November, 2004]
November 9the Sudanese government and the two leading rebel groups, the Justice and Equality Movement(JEM) and the Sudan Liberation Movement(SLM), signed two accords aimed toward short-term progress in resolving the Darfur conflict. The first accord established a no-fly zoneover rebel-controlled areas of Darfur—a measure designed to end the Sudanese military's bombing of rebel villages in the region. The second accord granted international humanitarian aid agencies unrestricted access to the Darfur region. The accords were the product of African Unionsponsored peace talks in Abujathat began October 25. Delegates stated that a later round of negotiations expected to begin in mid-December would work on a longer-term political accord. The talks may have produced the breakthrough accords because of a looming meeting of the UN Security Council, which many expected would have imposed oil sanctions on the Sudanese government if progress had not been made. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3996859.stm 'Breakthrough' deal for Darf] (BBC) 9 November, 2004] [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38097-2004Nov9.html Sudan, Rebels Reach Accord On Darfur] — Government Approves No-Fly Zone, Access to Aid. By Emily Wax, Washington Post, Nyala, Sudan, 9 November, 2004]
November 9accords, violence in Sudan continued. On November 10—one day after the accords—the Sudanese military conducted attacks on Darfur refugee villages in plain sight of UN and African Union observers. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4000705.stm Eyewitness: Terror in Darfur] (BBC) 10 November, 2004] [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A41010-2004Nov10.html After Accord, Sudan Camp Raided] — Shelters Reportedly Destroyed and Residents Beaten. By Emily Wax, Washington Post, Old Al-Jeer Sureaf, Sudan, 10 November, 2004] On November 22, alleging that Janjaweed members had refused to pay for livestock in the town market of Tawila in Northern Darfur, rebels attacked the town's government-controlled police stations. The Sudanese military retaliated on November 23by bombing the town. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A8611-2004Nov23.html Violence Fractures Cease-Fire In Sudan] — Darfur Town Bombed Following Rebel Attacks. By Emily Wax, Washington Post, Khartoum, 23 November, 2004]
The International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur hand their report to the Secretary General on
January 25. [http://www.un.org/News/dh/sudan/com_inq_darfur.pdf Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General] Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1564 of 18 September 2004. Geneva, 25 January, 2005] The Commission found that the Government of the Sudan and the Janjaweed are responsible for serious violations of international human rights and humanitarian law amounting to crimes under international law. But the Commission stopped short of calling it genocide. The Commission identified 51 individuals responsible for the violation of human rights and recommended immediate trial at the International Criminal Court.
March 7, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan spoke to the UN Security Council requesting that the peacekeepingforce in Darfur be increased to support the 2000 African Uniontroops already deployed. [http://www.voanews.com/english/2005-03-04-voa62.cfm Annan Urges Security Council to Take Action on Darfur] By Barbara Schoetzau, Voice of America, New York, 7 March, 2004] A resolution for the deployment of an additional 10,000 peacekeepers has been delayed by the failure of the Security Council to agree on the mechanism to be used to try war criminals and the application and extent of sanctions. [http://www.boston.com/news/world/europe/articles/2005/03/17/stalemate_delays_sudan_peacekeeping_troops/ Stalemate delays Sudan peacekeeping troops] — US, Europe disagree over how war crimes should be prosecuted. By Farah Stockman, Boston Globe, 17 March, 2005] A number of Security Council members want war criminals to be tried by the International Criminal Court; the United States refused, however, to support that proposition. An African-run tribunal has been proposed as a countermeasure, and proposals have been made for trials to be held in Tanzaniaand Nigeria. The current resolution has also been criticized, as it is unclear as to whether the peacekeepers will be deployed to Darfur or to monitor peace in the south of Sudan. On March 24a peacekeeping force was approved to monitor peace in the south of Sudan, however the Security Council still remains deadlocked over Darfur. [http://www.voanews.com/english/2005-03-25-voa6.cfm UN to Send 10,000 Peacekeepers to Southern Sudan] By Peter Heinlein, Voice of America, United Nations, 25 March, 2005]
March 29 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1591was passed 11–0. [ from Wikisource] The Resolution strengthened the arms embargo and imposed an asset freeze and travel ban on those deemed responsible for the atrocities in Darfur. It was agreed that war criminals will be tried by the International Criminal Court. [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/IRIN/80fc145a4a03a65c12b6a7747d65c34c.htm SUDAN: UN envoy tours Darfur; ICC receives list of war-crimes suspects] From Integrated Regional Information Networksvia Reuters, Nairobi, 5 April, 2005]
The United Nations released a new estimate of 180,000 who have died as a result of illness and malnutrition in the 18 months of the conflict. It has not attempted to estimate the number of violence-related deaths. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4349063.stm UN's Darfur death estimate soars] (BBC) 14 March, 2005]
April 5it was reported that the UN has given the ICC the names of fifty-one people suspected of war crimes. The list may include high government officials of Sudan. The Sudanese Government has said it will not hand over the suspects.
The sealed list, presented to the International Criminal Court, was drawn up following an investigation by the UN into claims of killings, torture and rape committed by Government forces and militias in the Darfur region. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, backed by huge protests against the UN in Sudan's capital of Khartoum, snubbed the UN resolution passed on March 29 to bring the suspects to trial before the court, adding that he "shall never hand any Sudanese national to a foreign court."
April 29it was reported [http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/terrorwar/analysis/2005/0429sudan.htm Official Pariah Sudan Valuable to America’s War on Terrorism] — Despite once harboring Bin Laden, Khartoum regime has supplied key intelligence, officials say. Global Policy Forum. By Ken Silverstein, Los Angeles Times, 29 April, 2005] that the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush had forged a "close intelligence partnership" with the Sudanese government despite their presence on the U.S. list of state sponsors of international terrorismand the declaration of genocide in Darfur by that administration's former Secretary of State, Colin Powell.
Muammar al-Gaddafihas somewhat championed the cause of African unity. This sentiment has led him to invite the leaders of Sudan, Nigeria, Egypt, Chad and Eritrea to a summit in Tripoliregarding the conflict in Darfur.
The two main rebel groups in Darfur, the
Sudan Liberation Movementand the Justice and Equality Movement, announced they wanted to resume peace talks. Previous negotiationswere to be disbanded in favor of new dialogue hoping to solve their differences.
It seems that a possible hinge of the negotiations is compliance or refusal of handing over war crime suspects to organizations such as the
International Criminal Courtin The Hague. Medecins Sans Frontieresdoctor Paul Foreman was arrested by Sudanese authorities over the publication of a report detailing hundreds of rapes in Darfur. [http://www.rte.ie/news/2005/0530/darfur.html MSF chief arrested for Darfur report] RTENews, 30 May, 2005]
Claims began to surface that the Bush administration's noticeable toning down of its description of the situation in Sudan - it stopped calling the Darfur conflict a genocide, and claimed that United Nations death toll estimates may be too high - was due to increased co-operation from Sudanese officials towards the
War on Terrorism. The claim asserted that Major General Salah Abdallah Gosh who is said to have been involved in training the Janjaweed, was flown to Washington for high-level talks with his United States counterparts, related to global terrorism [Reeves, Eric. [http://www.tnr.com/etc.mhtml?pid=2731 The current Khartoum government] "The New Republic" July 19 2005] .
The International Criminal Court announces an investigation into crimes against humanity related to the conflict that is taking place in Darfur.
Security in the region is improving, according to the commander of the African Union peacekeeping force. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4699285.stm Security in Darfur 'is improving'] By Jonah Fisher, BBC News,
el-Fashir, 20 July, 2005] There have been no major conflicts since January, and the numbers of attacks on villages has been dropping. There are currently around 3,000 troops there to keep the peace, and more are due to arrive in the coming months, expecting to reach 7,000 troops in September. In keeping with a decision made by the Peace and Security Council, Nigeriasent a battalion of 680 troops on Wednesday, July 13 2005with two more coming soon thereafter. Rwandawill send a battalion of troops, Senegal, Gambia, Kenyaand South Africawill send troops as well. Canadais providing 105 armoured vehicles, training and maintenance assistance, and personal protective equipment in support of the efforts of the African Union Mission in Sudan(AMIS). [http://www.sudantribune.com/article.php3?id_article=10831 Canada sends armoured vehicles for AU force in Sudan’s Darfur] Sudan TribuneCNW Telbec, Ottawa, 28 July, 2005]
July 10, Ex-rebel leader John Garang was sworn in as Sudan's vice-president. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4666701.stm Sudan ex-rebel joins government] (BBC) 10 July, 2005] A new constitution was adopted, and all parties should be represented more fairly. The United States Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellickhas applauded the political changes and the improving security. Kofi Annan and South African President Thabo Mbekiwatched the ceremony.
On August 1, newly-elected Sudanese vice-president
John Garang, a former leader of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), who was seen by many to be a crucial element of a Sudan that is free of genocide, died in a helicopter crash. This has sparked renewed concerns [http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/9120880E-0287-443C-9355-C0076B47F915.htm Garang: Rebel leader to vice-president] By Humayun Chaudhry, Aljazeera, 1 August, 2005] throughout the international community, of Sudan's ability to unite in the face of genocide.
The long-term implications of Garang's death are still unclear; and, despite the recently improved security, talks between the various rebels in the Darfur region are going slowly, with no sight of a final peace agreement.
On September 15, a series of African Union mediated talks began in
Abuja, Nigeria. Representatives of the Sudanese government and the two major rebel groups are participating in the talks, however the Sudan Liberation Movementfaction refused to be present and according to a BBCreporter the SLM "will not recognise anything agreed at the talks". [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4250384.stm Darfur talks start despite split] (BBC) 15 September, 2005]
After a government-supported
Janjaweedmilitia attacked the Aro Sharow refugee village on September 28, killing at least 32, the African Union on October 1accused both the Sudanese government and rebels of violating the ceasefire agreement. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4300526.stm Sudan accused over Darfur attacks] (BBC) 1 October, 2005] Associated Pressreports the African Union as condemning the government's "acts of 'calculated and wanton destruction' that have killed at least 44 people and displaced thousands over two weeks."
October 9, a rebel group abducted 18 members of an African Union peacekeeping team, but released most of them after negotiations. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4325822.stm Darfur rebels release AU hostages] (BBC) 10 October, 2005] [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/09/AR2005100901096.html Darfur Rebels Abduct African Union Team] Reuters, Khartoum, 9 October, 2005]
Following an increase in fighting in the region, on
October 13the UN announced that it will withdraw all non-essential staff from Darfur. West Darfur is reportedly too dangerous for aid-agencies to operate. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4339286.stm UN staff withdrawn from Darfur] By Jonah Fisher, BBC News, Khartoum, 13 October, 2005]
African Union peacekeepersby rebels led to the Sudanese government approving the deployment of 105 Grizzly armored personnel carriersdonated by Canadato aid African Union peacekeeping forces in the western region of Darfur. [http://www.voanews.com/english/2005-11-16-voa57.cfm Sudan Approves Deployment of Armored Personnel Carriers to Darfur] (VOA) 16 November, 2005]
18 November, the United States Senatepasses the Darfur Peace and Accountability Actby unanimous consent.
The seventh round of peace talks began on
An attack on the Chadian town of
Adrénear the Sudanese border led to the deaths of three hundred rebels. Sudan was blamed for the attack, which was the second in the region in three days. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4544352.stm Chad fightback 'kills 300 rebels'] (BBC) 20 December, 2005] The escalating tensions in the region led to the government of Chad declaring its hostility toward Sudan and calling for Chadian citizens to mobilise themselves against the "common enemy". [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4556576.stm Chad in 'state of war' with Sudan] By Stephanie Hancock, BBC News, N'Djamena, 23 December, 2005] (See Chad-Sudan conflict)
24 December, the United States Congressrejected Condoleezza Rice's request to restore $50 million in aid to the African Union that human rights groups say had been cut from the budget in November.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations called for $40 million to support its agricultural relief and recovery activities in Sudan in 2006, stressing that humanitarian assistance needs to be coupled with longer- term development aid to ensure lasting peace in the country. The appeal is part of the 2006 Work Plan for Sudan, which outlines the activities to be carried out by the UN and its partners in the country in the coming year. "FAO's role is particularly crucial given the importance of agriculture in the country," said Anne M. Bauer, Director, FAO Emergency Operations and Rehabilitation Division.
Save Darfur Coalition, representing over 160 humanitarian, faith-based, advocacy, and human rights organizations, launches its "Million Voices for Darfur" campaign to urge President Bush for a larger, more robust multinational peacekeeping force in Darfur.
February 3, 2006, as the United States began its month-long presidency of the United Nations Security Council, the U.S offered a motion to begin plans to send UN peacekeepersto Darfur. The Security Council agreed unanimously to begin the planning process to send the troops, with a final decision to come later. It called for a 12,000 to 20,000 troop presence in Darfur with the 7,000 African Union troops already there being given new weapons and being incorporated into the UN mission. Furthermore, they would have a greater mandate to protect civilians. Nevertheless, difficulties are expected to arise in finding states willing to contribute troops to the UN mission. Although the United States offered the motion, the U.S is not expected to contribute troops to the mission. Also, Omar al-Bashir, the leader of Sudan who is widely believed to be backing the Janjaweed militias in Darfur, has also frequently stated his opposition to UN peacekeepers in Sudan further complicating the problem. Assuming these problems are overcome, UN troops are still not likely to appear in Darfur for nearly a year.
5 April, the House passes the Darfur Peace and Accountability Actin a vote of 416 to 3.
A series of rallies [ [http://www.genocideinterventionfund.org/advocate/rally-apr06/ Advocate | Genocide Intervention Network ] ] were held to call for more aid and an increased role for international peacekeepers. The largest one was held on
30 Aprilin Washington D.C.on the National Mall, sponsored by the Save Darfur Coalition, American Jewish World Service, the Genocide Intervention Network, and dozens of others, where celebrities and lawmakers came together with nearly a hundred-thousand protesters. Students from at least 46 states attended the rally in Washington DC. [ [http://www.genocideintervention.net/about/press/releases/2006/04/30/thousands-of-students-rally-in-washington-for-action-on-darfur/ Thousands of students rally in Washington for action on Darfur] Genocide Intervention Networkpress release 30 April 2006]
Eric Reevesreleased a report arguing that the number of deaths in Darfur had likely surpassed 450,000. [ [http://www.sudanreeves.org/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=102 Quantifying genocide in Darfur] Reeves, Eric. "sudanreeves.org" 28 April, 2006] Osama bin Ladencondemned peacekeepers in Darfur, claiming they conducted atrocities against Muslims. The government of Sudan distanced themselves from his statements, but continued their vociferous condemnations of any potential deployment of UN troops. [ [http://www.genocideintervention.net/about/press/releases/2006/04/25/muslims-in-darfur-need-protection-not-jihad/ Muslims in Darfur need protection not jiahd] Genocide Intervention Networkpress release 25 April 2006]
In a speech commemorating the victims of the
Holocaust, Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellickconnected the victims of Naziaggression with those who died in Rwandaand continue to suffer in Darfur. [ [http://usinfo.state.gov/usinfo/Archive/2006/Apr/27-741390.html] (broken link)]
US Ambassador to the United Nations John Bolton presented a draft resolution calling for sanctions imposed on four people implicated in the continuing genocide in Darfur. [cite news|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/18/AR2006041801767.html|title=U.S. Seeks U.N. Sanctions Against Four in Sudan|date= 2006, April 19| publisher=The Washington Post|author=Colum Lynch]
May 5, 2006, the government of Sudansigned an accord with the Sudan Liberation Army(SLA). However, the agreement was rejected by two other, smaller groups, the Justice and Equality Movementand a rival faction of the SLA. cite news|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/05/AR2006050500305.html |title=Sudan, Main Rebel Group Sign Peace Deal |author=Kessler, Glenn and Emily Wax |date=2006, May 5 |publisher=The Washington Post] The accord was orchestrated by the U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Robert B. Zoellick, Salim Ahmed Salim(working on behalf of the African Union), AU representatives, and other foreign officials operating in Abuja, Nigeria. The accord calls for the disarmament of the Janjaweedmilitia, and for the rebel forces to disband and be incorporated into the army. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4978668.stm |title=Main parties sign Darfur accord |date=2006, May 5 |publisher=BBC News] [cite news|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/685364B5-AF39-47C0-A479-031FB50C5C63.htm|title=Main points of the deal |date=2006, May 6 |publisher=Aljazeera.Net] But the agreement, signed in Abuja, was rejected by a smaller SLM faction and the rebel Justice and Equality Movement.
Research by the UN indicated that violence in Darfur after the signing of the
Darfur Peace Agreementactually increased. Within days of the deal, most sides continued hostilities reaching new levels of violence. [cite news|url=http://www.cbc.ca/cp/world/060523/w052378.html|title=Darfur conflict has reached new level of violence, says UN report |date= 2006, May 23| publisher=The Canadian Press]
The African Union expressed willingness for the United Nations to replace them in peacekeeping duties in Darfur. The under-funded mission acknowledged the potential effectiveness of a fully-equipped UN force. However, there was no indication from Sudan’s government there would be permission for the entry of UN peacekeepers. [ [http://www.genocideintervention.net/about/press/releases/2006/05/19/20/ African Union commended for supporting UN force in Darfur]
Genocide Intervention Networkpress release 19 May 2006]
The humanitarian activist and rock singer
Bonovisited Darfur with an NBCreporter to raise awareness among the general public about the crisis.
One critic of United States involvement in Darfur, claims that U.S. promotion of
human rightsin Darfur is only intended to take attention away from Iraq, and make U.S. foreign policy appear to be more humanitarian than it actually is. [ [http://188.8.131.52/translate_c?hl=en&u=http://www.geostrategie.com/cogit_content/analyses/PourquoilesUSAsintressent-.shtml&prev=/search%3Fq%3DG%25C3%25A9ostrat%25C3%25A9gie%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D] ]
"I swear that there will not be any international military intervention in Darfur as long as I am in power. Sudan, which was the first country south of theAl Bashir further blamed Jewish participation for causing the possible UN military presence:
Saharato gain independence, cannot now be the first country to be recolonized." [cite news|url=http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=136&art_id=vn20060620233217477C996680|title=No Western troops in Darfur - president|date=2006, June 21 |publisher=Thestar.co.za]
"It is clear that there is a purpose behind the heavy
propagandaand media campaigns.... If we return to the last demonstrations in the United States, and the groups that organized the demonstrations, we find that they are all Jewish organizations." [cite news|url=http://www.israelnn.com/news.php3?id=105816|title=Sudanese President Blames Jews for International Intervention|date=2006, June 21 |publisher=Arutzsheva.com]
June 25, 2006, the Sudanese Foreign Ministry spokesman Jamal Ibrahim announced the imposing of a partial ban on UN operations in Darfur, after accusing the UN of violating an agreement on its mandate by giving the rebel leader Suleiman Adam Jamousa helicopter ride. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/5114216.stm|title=Sudan suspends UN work in Darfur |date=2006, June 25 |publisher=BBC]
On June 29, the
Save Darfur Coalition's "Million Voices for Darfur" campaign formally ended with Senate Majority Leader Bill Fristand Senator Hillary Clintonsigning the 1,000,000th and 1,000,001st postcards, which called on President Bush to support a stronger multinational peacekeeping force in Darfur. [ [http://www.savedarfur.org/newsroom/releases/senators_frist_and_clinton_sign_one_millionth_postcard/ Senators Frist and Clinton Sign One Millionth Postcard |Save Darfur ] ]
Deputy Secretary of State
Robert B. Zoellickannounced his resignation from the Bush administration. He served as the most outspoken voice against the Darfur genocide within the White House. Many anti-genocide organizations were concerned that his absence would lessen the administration’s resolve in remaining proactive against the killings in Darfur. [ [http://www.genocideintervention.net/about/press/releases/2006/06/19/deputy-secretary-of-state-leader-on-darfur-resigns-post/ Deputy Secretary of State, leader on Darfur, resigns post] Genocide Intervention Networkpress release 19 June 2006]
Japanese government announced that it would send $10 million in humanitarian aid for the victims of the genocide in Darfur. The assistance would reconstruct water supply facilities and medical supplies, among other things. [ [http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/VBOL-6QZFTP?OpenDocument Press Releases: Sudan, Emergency grant aid for humanitarian assistance to the Darfur region, Sudan, Contributions: Sudan, Emergency grant aid for humanitarian assistance to the Darfur region, Sudan ] ]
The Sudanese government launched new attacks against rebel positions in
West Darfur. [cite news|url=http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L29802784.htm|title=Sudan govt forces attack Darfur rebel bases-sources|date= 2006, July 29| publisher=Reuters|author=Opheera McDoom] The attacks were significant in that they were the first overt military operation conducted by the government since they signed the Darfur Peace Agreement. [cite news|url=http://www9.sbs.com.au/theworldnews/region.php?id=130519®ion=5|title=Darfur truce broken|date= 2006, July 309| publisher=BBC]
At the 2006 African Union summit held in
Banjul, Gambia, it was decided that AU peacekeepers would remain in Darfur until the end of 2006 at the request of the United Nations; however, a request to allow UN peacekeepers into the area was refused by Omar Hassan al-Bashir. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/5139504.stm|title=African troops staying in Darfur|date= 2006, July 2| publisher=BBC] Jan Pronk, head of the United Nations mission in Sudan, claims that fighting has worsened since a peace deal was signed two months ago, stating that "It's non-implementation of the text which is creating a problem, not the text." [cite news|url=http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L01420575.htm|title=Sudan expels Chadian military from Darfur AU force|date= 2006, July 1| publisher=Reuters]
Chadand Sudan worsened to the point where Sudanese officials insisted that all Chadian troops in the AU peacekeeping force leave immediately.
S. Res. 531 was introduced in the Senate by Sens.
Joseph Lieberman(D-CT), Conrad Burns(R-MT) and ten other bipartisan co-sponsors. The Lieberman-Burns Envoy Resolution urged President Bush to send a Presidential Special Envoy to Sudan to fully implement the Darfur Peace Agreement. [ [http://www.genocideintervention.net/about/press/releases/2006/07/17/bipartisan-legislation-calls-for-special-envoy-to-darfur/ Bipartisan legislation calls for special envoy to Darfur] Genocide Intervention Networkpress release 17 July 2006]
Increased fighting has hampered humanitarian groups in Darfur.
Oxfamtemporarily closed two of its offices in Northern Darfur following the capture of one of their employees. The aid agency also cited increasing insecurity and called on the international community to strengthen the African Union force. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/5163956.stm|title=Oxfam closes two Darfur offices|date= 2006, July 10| publisher=BBC]
Reuterspoll, consisting of over 100 humanitarian experts named Sudan as the world’s most dangerous spot for children. [cite news|url=http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?xfile=data/theworld/2006/July/theworld_July250.xml§ion=theworld|title=Sudan is most dangerous place for children: poll|date= 2006, July 10| publisher=Reuters]
At a UN donor conference in
Brussels, Assistant Secretary for African Affairs Jendayi Frazerstated that the United States would not fund the AU peacekeeping force past September 2006. This caused consternation amongst the anti-genocide movements in the United States, [ [http://www.genocideintervention.net/about/press/releases/2006/07/19/united-states-fails-to-support-peacekeepers-in-darfur/ United States fails to support peacekeepers in Darfur] Genocide Intervention Networkpress release 19 July 2006] as the UN peacekeeping force would be deployed at the earliest in January 2007. [cite news|url=http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/MCD255466.htm|title=INTERVIEW-No U.N. Darfur mission before Jan 2007 -official|date= 2006, June 12| publisher=Reuters|author=Opheera McDoom]
At the same conference, eight humanitarian groups, including
CARE International, Islamic Reliefand Oxfam International, insisted that AU troops in Darfur were bound to fail unless funding was dramatically increased. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/5189880.stm|title=New aid for AU Darfur peace force|date= 2006, July 18| publisher=BBC]
On July 31, UN Secretary-General
Kofi Annanproposed a UN peacekeeping force of roughly 24,000 for Darfur. In Annan's proposal, about 5,300 international police officers would deploy initially, followed by the main UN force. [cite news|url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20060801/wl_nm/sudan_darfur_un_dc&printer=1|title= Annan sees up to 24,000 UN peacekeepers for Darfur|date= 2006, July 31| publisher=Reuters|author=Irwin Arieff]
Tomo Križnar, a Slovenian special envoy to Sudan, will stand trial there on charges of espionage. He was arrested in July for not possessing the proper entry visa. He admits to entering the country illegally, but denies charges of spying. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5243216.stm|title=Slovene envoy on trial in Sudan|date= 2006, August 3| publisher=BBC]
National Foreign Trade Council, a group representing more than 300 multinational companies, challenged Illinois' ban on Sudan-related investments. The Illinois law removed about $1 billion in pensionfunds from companies operating in or doing business with Sudan. The NFTC's lawsuit will claim that this law is unconstitutional based on a previous U.S. Supreme Court ruling that struck down a Massachusettsban on investments in companies operating in Burma. [cite news|url=http://today.reuters.com/news/articleinvesting.aspx?type=bondsNews&storyID=2006-08-02T184958Z_01_N02241244_RTRIDST_0_FINANCIAL-SUDAN.XML|title=Lawsuit to challenge Illinois Sudan-investment ban| publisher=Reuters |date= 2006, August 2|]
August 17, the Genocide Intervention Networkreleased the first Darfur congressional [http://darfurscores.org/ scorecard] rating members of the United States Congresson legislative action relating to Darfur.
31 August, the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution calling for a UN peacekeeping force to expand from Southern Sudaninto Darfur, with the permission of the government of Sudan. [http://www.genocideintervention.net/educate/reports/un/unsc_20060831.pdf Resolution 1706 (PDF)] UN Security Council (file hosted on Genocide Intervention Networkwebsite), 31 August 2006] The resolution passed with 12 votes in favor and three abstentions, by China, Russiaand Qatar. The government of Sudan immediately announced its opposition to the expansion of the peacekeeping force. [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/africa/july-dec06/darfur_08-31.html U.N. Approves Peacekeeping Force in Darfur, Despite Sudan Opposition] , PBS NewsHour, 31 August 2006]
13 October, President Bush signed into law the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act, previously passed by the House and Senate. The bill restated the government's opinion that genocide was being committed, directed support to the African Unionpeacekeeping force in Darfur, endorsed assistance for the International Criminal Courtinvestigation and imposed some economic sanctions. Bush also signed a companion executive order specifying in detail these sanctions. [ Darfur Peace and Accountability Actfull entry]
In accord with mounting national and global concern over the situation in
Darfur, on April 18th President Bush gave a speech at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum criticizing the Sudanese government and threatened the use of sanctions if the situation does not improve. President Bush stated that "The time for promises is over — President Bashir must act", according to Bush failure to do so would result in sanctions barring all dollar transactions between the United States and Sudan and block interaction with 29 Sudanese businesses. [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/19/world/africa/19policy.html?ref=world Bush Presses Sudan on Darfur, Citing possible US sanctions] , New York Times, 18 April 2007]
The USA imposed stiff economic sanctions against Sudan on May 30th. It has added 31 additional companies to an already existing sanctions list, barring them from any dollar transactions within the United States financial system. Of those companies, 30 are controlled by the Sudanese government, and at least one is violating an embargo against shipping arms to Darfur. [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/29/world/africa/29sudan.html?_r=1&oref=slogin Bush to Tighten Fiscal Penalties Against Sudan] ,
New York Times, 29 May 2007] The US administration also targeted three individuals by blocking their overseas assets. Two of them are Sudanese government officials, Ahmad Muhammed Harun and Awad Ibn Auf (head of Sudan's military intelligence and security). The third person, Khalil Ibrahim, is the leader of the rebel Justice and Equality Movement. [http://www.economist.com/world/africa/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9248337 A little extra pressure: America beefs-up sanctions against Sudan] , The economist, 29 May 2007] Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice sought United Nations approval for an international resolution to impose a broad arms embargo against Sudan and to bar the Sudanese government from conducting any offensive military flights in Darfur. [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/05/29/ap/world/main2860369.shtml?source=search_story Bush to Tighten Fiscal Penalties Against Sudan New Sanctions Planned Against Sudan: President Bush Will Impose New Sanctions Against Sudan For Its Role In Darfur] , CBS News, 29 May 2007]
Oxfamannounced on June 17 that it is permanently pulling out of Gereida, the largest camp in Darfur, where more than 130,000 have sought refuge. The agency cited inaction by local authorities from the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM), which controls the region, in addressing security concerns and violence against aid workers. An employee of the NGO Action by Churches Togetherwas murdered in June in West Darfur. There has been a continuation of hijackings of vehicles belonging to the UN and other international organizations - something that is also making them think twice about staying in the region.cite news
title=SUDAN: Continuing violence in West Darfur claims NGO employee
28 July, Steven Spielbergsaid that he may no longer be involved with the 2008 Olympic Gamesif China does not do more to end the conflict. China responded saying that Steven Spielberg had never accepted the job to be "no longer" part of it.
By then end of July, the
US House of Representativeswas preparing legislation that would prohibit companies with ties to the Sudanese government from receiving federal contracts. [ [http://www.voanews.com/english/2007-07-31-voa9.cfm US Lawmakers to Step Up Economic Pressure on Sudan Over Darfur ] ]
31 July, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769was passed unanimously, creating a hybrid AU/UN peacekeeping operation in Darfur.
18 August, A Small Arms Survey research paper reported that while China continued to give the Sudanese government financial and military aid, global pressure and negative media attention ahead of China hosting the 2008 Olympic Games have pushed Beijing to use its influence in the area "more wisely". Chinese President Hu Jintaowarned the Sudanese President about Darfur in 2007. [ [http://africa.reuters.com/top/news/usnBAN854961.html News | Africa - Reuters.com ] ]
19 August, the Israeli government said that further refugees coming to Israel illegally from Darfur via Egypt would be expelled, prompting criticism from human rights groups. Israel has accepted 2,800 African refugees in recent years, 1,160 of them Sudanese and 400 of those from Darfur. The previous evening, Israel had expelled 50 African refugees of unspecified nationality back to Egypt. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,,-6861018,00.html] As the refugees had already found refuge in Egypt, they have for the most part been motivated by economic concerns and are seeking employment in Israel, although there have been complaints of ill treatment in Egypt. Israel had requested to Egypt to monitor the border for further migrants. At times, Egyptian security forces beat and shot at migrants trying to cross the border, killing some. Many others have been arrested. [http://africa.reuters.com/wire/news/usnL15393362.html] [http://www.usatoday.com/news/topstories/2007-08-19-1866279044_x.htm] [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/19/AR2007081900391.html] [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3433158,00.html] Israel has decided to offer asylum to 500 Darfurians who are already in the country, and donate $5 million to aid refugees of Darfur. [http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0906/p05s02-wome.html] [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3397639,00.html]
5 September, the Israeli newspaper, Haaretzreported that " Israelintends to grant citizenship to several hundred refugees from Darfur who are currently in the country." [Mualem, Mazal. [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/901138.html "Israel to grant citizenship to hundreds of Darfur refugees."] " Ha'AretzDaily Newspaper Israel". 5 September 2007. 5 September 2007.]
14 July, prosecutors at the International Criminal Court(ICC), filed ten charges of war crimesagainst Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir, three counts of genocide, five of crimes against humanityand two of murder. This marks the first time charges of genocide have been filed by the ICC against a sitting Head of State. The ICC's prosecutor for Darfur, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, is expected within months to ask a panel of ICC judges to issue an arrest warrant for al-Bashir.cite web |first= Peter |last=Walker|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jul/14/sudan.warcrimes1?gusrc=rss&feed=worldnews |title=Darfur genocide charges for Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir |accessdate=2008-07-15 |publisher= The Guardian|date=2008-07-14 ]
History of Sudan, for a broader view of the events that have caused the current conflict
Cases before the International Criminal Court#Darfur, Sudan
African Union Mission in Sudan
Save Darfur Coalition
Genocide Intervention Network
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
*"Acts and Legislation"
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1706, authorizing a UN peacekeeping force
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769, creating a hybrid UN-African Union peacekeeping force
Darfur Peace and Accountability Act
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