- Autonomous robot
Autonomous robots are
robots which can perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance. Many kinds of robots have some degree of autonomy. Different robots can be autonomous in different ways. A high degree of autonomy is particularly desirable in fields such as space exploration, where coication cleaning floors, mowing lawns, and waste water treatment.
factory robots are "autonomous" within the strict confines of their direct environment. It may not be that every degree of freedom exists in their surrounding environment but the factory robot's workplace is challenging and can often contain chaotic, unpredicted variables. The exact orientation and position of the next object of work and (in the more advanced factories) even the type of object and the required task must be determined. This can vary unpredictably (at least from the robot's point of view).
One important area of robotics research is to enable the robot to cope with its environment ether this be on land, underwater, in the air, underground, or in space.
A fully autonomous robot has the ability to
* Gain information about the environment.
* Work for an extended period without human intervention.
* Move either all or part of itself throughout its operating environment without human assistance.
* Avoid situations that are harmful to people, property, or itself unless those are part of its design specifications.
An autonomous robot may also learn or gain new capabilities like adjusting strategies for accomplishing its task(s) or adapting to changing surroundings.
Autonomous robots still require regular maintenance, as do other machines.
Examples of progress towards commercial autonomous robots
The first requirement for complete physical autonomy is the ability for a robot to take care of itself. Many of the battery powered robots on the market today can find and connect to a charging station, and some toys like Sony's "
Aibo" are capable of self-docking to charge their batteries.
Self maintenance is based on "proprioception", or sensing one's own internal status. In the battery charging example, the robot can tell proprioceptively that its batteries are low and it then seeks the charger. Another common proprioceptive sensor is for heat monitoring. Increased proprioception will be required for robots to work autonomously near people and in harsh environments.
*Common proprioceptive sensors are:Thermal:
Sensing the environment
Exteroception is sensing things about the environment. Autonomous robots must have a range of environmental sensors to perform their task and stay out of trouble.
*Common exteroceptive sensors are :
Electromagnetic spectrum: Sound:Touch:Smell, odor:Temperature:Range to things in the environment:Attitude (Inclination)
Some robotic lawn mowers will adapt their programming by detecting the speed in which grass grows as needed to maintain a perfect cut lawn, and some vacuum cleaning robots have dirt detectors that sense how much dirt is being picked up and use this information to tell them to stay in one area longer.
The next step in autonomous behavior is to actually perform a physical task. A new area showing commercial promise is domestic robots, with a flood of small vacuuming robots beginning with
iRobotand Electroluxin 2002. While the level of intelligence is not high in these systems, they navigate over wide areas and pilot in tight situations around homes using contact and non-contact sensors. Both of these robots use proprietary algorithms to increase coverage over simple random bounce.
The next level of autonomous task performance requires a robot to perform conditional tasks. For instance, security robots can be programmed to detect intruders and respond in a particular way depending upon where the intruder is.
Indoor position sensing and navigation
and [http://www.activrobots.com/RESEARCH/wheelchair.html autonomous wheelchair] [Principal Investigator: W. Kennedy, National Institutes of Health, NIH SBIR 2 R44 HD041781-02] both introduced in 2004, have the ability to create their own laser-based maps of a building and to navigate open areas as well as corridors. Their control system changes its path on-the-fly if something blocks the way. Rather than climb stairs, which requires highly specialized hardware, most indoor robots navigate handicapped-accessible areas, controlling elevators and electronic doors. [ [http://www.ccsrobotics.com/speciminder.htm Speci-Minder; see elevator and door access] ] With such electronic access-control interfaces, robots can now freely navigate indoors. Autonomously climbing stairs and opening doors manually are topics of research at the current time.
As these indoor techniques continue to develop, vacuuming robots will gain the ability to clean a specific user specified room or a whole floor. Security robots will be able to cooperatively surround intruders and cut off exits. These advances also bring concommitant protections: robots' internal maps typically permit "forbidden areas" to be defined to prevent robots from autonomously entering certain regions.
Outdoor autonomous position-sensing and navigation
Outdoor autonomy is most easily achieved in the air, since obstacles are rare.
Cruise missiles are rather dangerous highly autonomous robots. Pilotless drone aircraft are increasingly used for reconnaissance. Some of these unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are capable of flying their entire mission without any human interaction at all except possibly for the landing where a person intervenes using radio remote control. But some drone aircraft are capable of a safe, automatic landing also.
Outdoor autonomy is the most difficult for ground vehicles, due to: a) 3-dimensional terrain; b) great disparities in surface density; c) weather exigencies and d) instability of the sensed environment.
. [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,293390,00.html FOXNews.com - Weapons Makers Unveil New Era of Counter-Terror Equipment - Local News | News Articles | National News | US News ] ]
The Mars rovers
MER-Aand MER-Bcan find the position of the sun and navigate their own routes to destinations on the fly by:
* mapping the surface with 3-D vision
* computing safe and unsafe areas on the surface within that field of vision
* computing optimal paths across the safe area towards the desired destination
* driving along the calculated route;
* repeating this cycle until either the destination is reached, or there is no known path to the destination
DARPA Grand Challengeand DARPA Urban Challengehave encouraged development of even more autonomous capabilities for ground vehicles, while this has been the demonstrated goal for aerial robots since 1990 as part of the AUVSI International Aerial Robotics Competition.
Open problems in autonomous robotics
There are several open problems in autonomous robotics which are special to the field rather than being a part of the general pursuit of AI.
Energy autonomy & foraging
Researchers concerned with creating true
artificial lifeare concerned not only with intelligent control, but further with the capacity of the robot to find its own resources through foraging(looking for food, which includes both energyand spare parts).
This is related to autonomous foraging, a concern within the
sciences of behavioral ecology, social anthropology, and human behavioral ecology; as well as robotics, artificial intelligence, and artificial life.
Simultaneous localization and mapping
von Neumann machine
William Grey Walter
* [http://www.onlinetps.com Robotics Component Seller in India - Indian Website] Electronics components ,Sensors , Wheels , Motors etc. for Making Autonomous Robot
* [http://www.onlinetps.com Robotics Component Seller in India - Indian Website] विश्व की प्रथम विभिन्न-भारतीय तथा विदेशी भाषाओ की , ऑनलाइन इलेक्ट्रानिक्स एवं रोबोटिक्स कम्पोनेंट्स की शौपिंग वेबसाइट तथा रोबोटिक्स एवं इलेक्ट्रानिक्स सर्किट्स के शोकीनो हेतु जानकारियों भरी वेबसाइट
* [http://homepage.ntlworld.com/kinetic-arts/sculpture/automata.htm The Automata and Art Bots mailing list home page]
* [http://www.kluweronline.com/issn/0929-5593 Automonous Robots Journal]
* [http://www.grandchallenge.org/ DARPA Grand Challenge]
* [http://www.lawnbott.com Automonous Robotic Lawnmowers] - Lawnbott Robotic Mowers
* [http://www.friendlyrobotics.com Automonous Robotic Lawnmowers] - Robomow automatic lawn mowers
* [http://www.auvsi.org/ Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI)]
* [http://www.igvc.org Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC)]
* [http://www.isracast.com/tech_news/080405_tech.htm Guarding the fence - 2 Autonomous combat vehicles developed in Israel] - An article
* [http://www.qfix.de qfix robot kits] Robot kits for hobby and education
* [http://www.merlinsystemscorp.co.uk Creators of robots for people] Autonomous mobile robots.
* [http://www.robocupjunior.de RoboCupJunior]
* [http://www.lifl.fr/~decomite/caroll/caroll.html DIY Learning robot] Build your own autonomous learning programmable robot.
* [http://www.inl.gov/adaptiverobotics Adaptive Robotics] A look at Department of Energy applications using Autonomous Robots
* [http://www.mindmakers.org Mindmakers.org] An online organization for collaboration on broad, intelligent systems.
* [http://www.edinburghrobotics.com/html/products.html DevBot] Software development platform for autonomous mobile robots
* [http://www.robotinfo.net Robot Info (directory of robotics news, books, videos, magazines, forums and products)] .
* [http://www.robotlawnmowers.ie/how_the_robots_work.html How robot lawn mowers work]
* [http://www.ai.rug.nl/~gert/as/ Autonomous Perceptive Systems] Autonomous Systems research page at
University of Groningen
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.