- Napoleonic code
The Napoleonic Code, or "Code Napoléon" (originally called the "Code civil des Français") is the French
civil code, established under Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force on March 21, 1804. Even though the Napoleonic code was not the first legal code to be established in a European country with a civil legal system— it was preceded by the Codex Maximilianeus bavaricus civilis( Bavaria, 1756), the Allgemeines Landrecht( Prussia, 1794) and the West Galician Code, (Galicia, then part of Austria, 1797) — it is considered the first successful codificationFact|date=February 2007 and strongly influenced the law of many other countries. The Code, with its stress on clearly written and accessible law, was a major step in establishing the rule of law. Historians have called it "one of the few documents which have influenced the whole world." [Robert B. Holtman, "The Napoleonic Revolution" (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981)]
The Napoleonic Code was based on earlier French laws as well as
Roman law, and followed Justinian's " Corpus Juris Civilis" in dividing civil law into:
#acquisition of property.
Napoleon set out to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the
French Revolutionbecause the old feudal and royal laws seemed to be confusing and contradictory to the people. Before the Code, France did not have a single set of laws; laws depended on local customs, and often on exemptions, privileges and special charters granted by the kings or other feudal lords. During the Revolution the vestiges of feudalismwere abolished, and the many different legal systems used in different parts of France were to be replaced by a single legal code, whose writing Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérèshad been charged to lead. However, due to the turmoils of war and unrest, the situation did not much advance until Napoleon's era ensured more stability and Cambacérès, then Second Consulunder Napoleon, could work in a more serene manner.
Developing out of the various customs of France, notably the
Coutume de Paris, this recodification process was inspired by Justinian's codified Roman law. The development of the Code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system; it made laws much clearer. The reaction to the Civil Code and other subsequent codes resulted in considerable debate within France's legislative bodies.
ancien régime" France, law courts, known as the " Parlements", had often taken up a legislativerole by judges protesting royal decisions – to protest excesses of royal power or, in some occasions, in order to defend the privileges of the social classes to which the judges belonged. The latter was especially true in the final years before the Revolution. As a result, the French Revolution took a negative view of judges making law. This is reflected in the Napoleonic Code prohibiting judges from passing judgments exceeding the matter that is to be judged, because general rules are the domain of the law, a legislative, not judicial, power. In theory, there is thus no case lawin France. However, the courts still had to fill the gaps in the laws and regulations; thus a large body of jurisprudencewas born; while there is no rule of " stare decisis" (binding precedent), the decisions by important courts have become more or less equivalent to case law.
Contents of the code
The preliminary article of the Code established certain important provisions regarding to the
rule of law. Laws could only be applied if they had been duly promulgated, and if they had been published officially (including provisions for publishing delays, given the means of communication available at the time); thus no secret laws were authorized. It prohibited ex post factolaws (i.e. laws that apply to events that occurred before them). The code also prohibited judges from refusing justice on grounds of insufficiency of the law — therefore encouraging them to interpret the law. It, however, prohibited judges from passing general judgments of a legislative value, see above.
With regard to family, the Code established the supremacy of the husband with respect to the wife and children; this was the general legal situation in Europe at the time. It, however, allowed
divorceon relatively liberal basis compared to other European countries, including divorce by mutual consent. ["The "Code Napoléon": French Legislation on Divorce," "Exploring the European Past: Texts & Images", Second Edition, ed. Timothy E. Gregory (Mason: Thomson, 2007), 62-64.] Following chapters discuss various aspects of property.
Other French codes of Napoleon's era
Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeauhad presented a new criminal code to the national Constituent Assembly. [cite book|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=wOcvAAAAMAAJ
chapter=Livre III, Du Code Penal
title=Choix de rapports, opinions et discours prononcés à la tribune nationale] He explained that it outlawed only "true crimes" and not "phony offenses, created by superstition, feudalism, the tax system, and [royal] despotism." He did not list the crimes "created by superstition" (meaning the
Christianreligion), but these certainly included blasphemy, heresy, sacrilege, and witchcraft. All these former offenses were swiftly decriminalized.In 1810, a new criminal code was issued under Napoleon. As with the Penal Code of 1791, it did not contain provisions against religious crimes or same-sex acts.
Code of Civil Procedure
As the entire legal system was being overhauled, the Code of Civil Procedure was adopted in 1806.
The Commercial Code was adopted in 1807. [ [http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/html/codes_traduits/commercetextA.htm COMMERCIAL CODE (Legislative Part)] ]
Code of Criminal Instructions
In 1808, a "Code of Criminal Instruction" ("Code d'instruction criminelle") was published. This code laid out
criminal procedure. The " parlement" system from before the Revolution had been guilty of much abuse; the criminal courts established by the Revolution were a complex and ineffective system, subject to many local pressures. The genesis of this code resulted in much debate. The resulting code is the basis of the modern so-called " inquisitorial system" of criminal courts, used in France and many civil law countries — though, of course, it has significantly changed since Napoléon's days (especially, with improvements of the right of the defense).
The French Revolution's
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizenhad declared that suspects were presumed to be innocent until they had been declared to be guilty by a court of law. A concern of Bonaparte's was the possibility of arbitrary arrest, or excessive remand(imprisonment prior to a trial). Bonaparte remarked that care should be taken to preserve personal freedoms especially when the case was before the Imperial Court: "these courts would have a great strength, they should be prohibited from abusing this situation against weak citizen without connections." However, remand still was the normal procedure for suspects of severe crimes, such as murder.
The possibility for justice to endorse lengthy remand periods was one reason why the Napoleonic Code was criticized for "
de facto" presumption of guilt, particularly in common lawcountries. However, the legal proceedings certainly did not have " de jure" presumption of guilt; for instance, the juror's oath explicitly recommended that the jury did not betray the interests of the defendants, and took attention of the means of defense.
The rules governing court proceedings, by today's standards, probably gave too much power to the prosecution; it must be said, however, that criminal justice in European countries in those days tended to side with repression. For instance, it was only in 1836 that prisoners charged with a
felonywere allowed to have counsel (i.e. a lawyer) in England(the "Prisoners' Counsel Act") [ [http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/html/codes_traduits/commercetextA.htm COMMERCIAL CODE (Legislative Part)] ] . In comparison, article 294 of the Napoleonic Code of Criminal Procedure allowed the defendant to have a lawyerbefore the Court of Assizes (judging felonies), and mandated the court to appoint him a lawyer if he did not have one (failure to do so rendered the proceedings null).
Whether or not the
assize courts, whose task was to judge severe crimes, were to operate with a jurywas a topic of considerable controversy; Bonaparte supported judgment juries, and they were finally adopted. On the other hand, Bonaparte was opposed to the indictmentjury (" grand jury" in common lawcountries) and preferred to give this task to the criminal section of the Court of Appeal. Some special courts were created for the judgment of criminals who could intimidatethe jury.
Codes in other countries
Even though the Napoleonic Code was not the first civil code and did not represent the whole of his empire, it was one of the most influential. It was adopted in many countries occupied by the French during the
Napoleonic Warsand thus formed the basis of the private law systems also of Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Portugaland their former colonies. In the German regions on the left bank of the Rhine ( Rhenish Palatinateand Prussian Rhine Province) the Napoleonic code was in use until the introduction of the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuchin 1900 as the first common civil code for the entire German Empire.
Napoleonic Code was also adopted in 1864 in
Romania(with some modifications), which is still in force as of 2006 (articles 461 to 1914). Other codes with some influence in their own right were the Swiss, German and Austrian ones, but even there some influence of the French code can be felt, as the Napoleonic Code is considered the first successful codification. Thus, the civil law systems of the countries of modern continental Europe, with the exception of Russiaand the Scandinavian countries have, to different degrees, been influenced by the Napoleonic Code. (The legal systems of the United Kingdomother than Scotland, as well as Irelandand the Commonwealth, are derived from the English common law rather than from Roman roots. Scots law, though also a civil law system, is uncodified; it is strongly influenced by Romano-Dutch legal thought, and after the Act of Union 1707by English law.) The Code has thus been the most permanent legacy of Napoleon.
The term "Napoleonic code" is also used to refer to legal codes of other
jurisdictions that are influenced by the French Code Napoleon, especially the civil code of Quebec, which was derived from the Coutume de Paris, which the British continued to use in Canada following the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Most of the laws in Latin Americancountries are also heavily based in the Napoleonic Code, such as the Chilean Civil Codeand the Puerto Rican Civil Code. Despite being surrounded by Anglo-Saxon Common Law territories, Louisiana's civil code has kept its Roman roots and some of its aspects feature influences by the Napoleonic Code, but is based more on Roman and Spanish civil traditions. As a result, the bar exam and legal standards of practice in Louisiana are significantly different from other states, and reciprocity for lawyers from other states is not available. The Napoleonic Code was then put to an end in 1890.
The Napoleonic Code is famously referred to in
Tennessee Williams' play and Elia Kazan's filmed version of "A Streetcar Named Desire". Stanley Kowalskirefers to the Napoleonic Code to justify his right to Blanche & Stella DuBois' family estate of which he just learned was sold. He is convinced Blanche has used the proceeds from the sale of the estate to purchase expensive personal items, which is why he searches through her things. Generally, he interprets the Code as "What's yours is mine" because he's married to Stella. It is also referred to in James Clavell's "Whirlwind" (p155) as an excuse for consumption of alcohol on a Muslim (Iranian) oil rig; it being French managed and therefore subject to the "Code Napoleon". In the novel, and subsequent film, "Maurice" there is mention that nations with the Napoleonic code did not make homosexual relations between consenting adults in private a crime. It is also mentioned in episode 408 of " The West Wing", " Process Stories".
Concordat of 1801
*G.Levasseur, "Napoléon et l’élaboration des codes répressifs" ("Mélanges en homme à Jean Imbert", PUF, 1989 p.371): [http://ledroitcriminel.free.fr/la_science_criminelle/les_sciences_juridiques/la_loi_penale/theorie_generale/levasseur_napoleon.htm Legal analysis of the Code of Criminal Procedure] .
*( [http://ledroitcriminel.free.fr/la_legislation_criminelle/anciens_textes.htm "Code Pénal" and "Code d'Instruction Criminelle" ] ).
* [http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/government/c_code.html English Translation of the Code]
* [http://www.cambaceres.org/vie-poli/code-civ/cod-civi.htm Beginnings of Napoleonic Code]
* [http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k87199g Original French Text]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.