Cathepsin K

Cathepsin K

Cathepsin K, also known as CTSK, is a human enzyme controlled by a gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: CTSK cathepsin K| url =| accessdate = ]

Cathepsin K is a protease, which is defined by its high specificity for kinins, is involved in bone resorption. The enzyme's ability to catabolize elastin, collagen, and gelatin allow it to break down bone and cartilage. This catabolic activity is also partially responsible for the loss of lung elasticity and recoil in emphysema. Cathepsin K inhibitors, such as odanacatib, show great potential in the treatment of osteoporosis.

Cathepsin K expression is stimulated by inflammatory cytokines that are released after tissue injury.


Further reading

citations =
*cite journal | author=Motyckova G, Fisher DE |title=Pycnodysostosis: role and regulation of cathepsin K in osteoclast function and human disease. |journal=Curr. Mol. Med. |volume=2 |issue= 5 |pages= 407–21 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12125807 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Troen BR |title=The regulation of cathepsin K gene expression. |journal=Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. |volume=1068 |issue= |pages= 165–72 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16831915 |doi= 10.1196/annals.1346.018
*cite journal | author=Del Nery E, Chagas JR, Juliano MA, "et al." |title=Evaluation of the extent of the binding site in human tissue kallikrein by synthetic substrates with sequences of human kininogen fragments. |journal=Biochem. J. |volume=312 ( Pt 1) |issue= |pages= 233–8 |year= 1996 |pmid= 7492318 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Brömme D, Okamoto K |title=Human cathepsin O2, a novel cysteine protease highly expressed in osteoclastomas and ovary molecular cloning, sequencing and tissue distribution. |journal=Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler |volume=376 |issue= 6 |pages= 379–84 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7576232 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Gelb BD, Edelson JG, Desnick RJ |title=Linkage of pycnodysostosis to chromosome 1q21 by homozygosity mapping. |journal=Nat. Genet. |volume=10 |issue= 2 |pages= 235–7 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7663521 |doi= 10.1038/ng0695-235
*cite journal | author=Polymeropoulos MH, Ortiz De Luna RI, Ide SE, "et al." |title=The gene for pycnodysostosis maps to human chromosome 1cen-q21. |journal=Nat. Genet. |volume=10 |issue= 2 |pages= 238–9 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7663522 |doi= 10.1038/ng0695-238
*cite journal | author=Shi GP, Chapman HA, Bhairi SM, "et al." |title=Molecular cloning of human cathepsin O, a novel endoproteinase and homologue of rabbit OC2. |journal=FEBS Lett. |volume=357 |issue= 2 |pages= 129–34 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7805878 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Inaoka T, Bilbe G, Ishibashi O, "et al." |title=Molecular cloning of human cDNA for cathepsin K: novel cysteine proteinase predominantly expressed in bone. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=206 |issue= 1 |pages= 89–96 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7818555 |doi= 10.1006/bbrc.1995.1013
*cite journal | author=Velasco G, Ferrando AA, Puente XS, "et al." |title=Human cathepsin O. Molecular cloning from a breast carcinoma, production of the active enzyme in Escherichia coli, and expression analysis in human tissues. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=269 |issue= 43 |pages= 27136–42 |year= 1994 |pmid= 7929457 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Li YP, Alexander M, Wucherpfennig AL, "et al." |title=Cloning and complete coding sequence of a novel human cathepsin expressed in giant cells of osteoclastomas. |journal=J. Bone Miner. Res. |volume=10 |issue= 8 |pages= 1197–202 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8585423 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Bossard MJ, Tomaszek TA, Thompson SK, "et al." |title=Proteolytic activity of human osteoclast cathepsin K. Expression, purification, activation, and substrate identification. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=271 |issue= 21 |pages= 12517–24 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8647860 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Gelb BD, Shi GP, Chapman HA, Desnick RJ |title=Pycnodysostosis, a lysosomal disease caused by cathepsin K deficiency. |journal=Science |volume=273 |issue= 5279 |pages= 1236–8 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8703060 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Johnson MR, Polymeropoulos MH, Vos HL, "et al." |title=A nonsense mutation in the cathepsin K gene observed in a family with pycnodysostosis. |journal=Genome Res. |volume=6 |issue= 11 |pages= 1050–5 |year= 1997 |pmid= 8938428 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Littlewood-Evans A, Kokubo T, Ishibashi O, "et al." |title=Localization of cathepsin K in human osteoclasts by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. |journal=Bone |volume=20 |issue= 2 |pages= 81–6 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9028530 |doi=
*cite journal | author=McGrath ME, Klaus JL, Barnes MG, Brömme D |title=Crystal structure of human cathepsin K complexed with a potent inhibitor. |journal=Nat. Struct. Biol. |volume=4 |issue= 2 |pages= 105–9 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9033587 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Rood JA, Van Horn S, Drake FH, "et al." |title=Genomic organization and chromosome localization of the human cathepsin K gene (CTSK). |journal=Genomics |volume=41 |issue= 2 |pages= 169–76 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9143491 |doi= 10.1006/geno.1997.4614
*cite journal | author=Gelb BD, Shi GP, Heller M, "et al." |title=Structure and chromosomal assignment of the human cathepsin K gene. |journal=Genomics |volume=41 |issue= 2 |pages= 258–62 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9143502 |doi= 10.1006/geno.1997.4631
*cite journal | author=Gomes RA, Juliano L, Chagas JR, Hial V |title=Characterization of kininogenase activity of an acidic proteinase isolated from human kidney. |journal=Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. |volume=75 |issue= 6 |pages= 757–61 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9276160 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Thompson SK, Halbert SM, Bossard MJ, "et al." |title=Design of potent and selective human cathepsin K inhibitors that span the active site. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=94 |issue= 26 |pages= 14249–54 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9405598 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Gelb BD, Willner JP, Dunn TM, "et al." |title=Paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 1 revealed by molecular analysis of a patient with pycnodysostosis. |journal=Am. J. Hum. Genet. |volume=62 |issue= 4 |pages= 848–54 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9529353 |doi=


External links


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