- Particle detector
In experimental and applied
particle physicsand nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify high-energy particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator. Modern detectors are also used as calorimeters to measure the energy of the detected radiation. They may also be used to measure other attributes such as momentum, spin, charge etc. of the particles.
Detectors designed for modern accelerators are huge, both in size and in cost. The term "
counter" is often used instead of "detector", when the detector counts the particles but does not resolve its energy or ionization. Particle detectors usually can also track ionizing radiation (high energy photons or even visible light). If their main purpose is radiation measurement, they are called "radiation detectors", but as photons are also (massless) particles, the term "particle detector" is still correct.
Examples and types
Many of the detectors invented and used so far are ionization detectors (of which
gaseous ionization detectors and semiconductor detectors are most typical) and scintillation detectors; but other, completely different principles have also been applied, like Cherenkov light and transition radiation.
* Wilson cloud chamber,
Detectors for Radiation Protection
Electroscope(miniature electroscopes are used as portable dosimeters)
Commonly used detectors for Particle and Nuclear Physics
Time of flight detector
Cherenkov detector, Aerogel detector
RICH (Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector)
Transition radiation detector
Scintillation counterand associated Photomultiplieror Photodiode/ Avalanche photodiode
Gaseous ionization detectors
Ionization chamber, Proportional counter, Geiger-Müller tube
Drift chamber, Jet chamber
MicroStrip Gas Chamber( MSGC)
Multiwire Proportional Chamber( MWPC)
Resistive Plate Chamber
Spark chamber, Wire chamber
Time projection chamber(TPC)
Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon Detectorcoupled Superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (ZIP detectors)
Modern detectors in particle physics combine several of the above elements in layers much like an
Installations of particle detectors
**for the LHC
**for the LEP
*** Aleph [http://teachers.web.cern.ch/teachers/archiv/HST2001/detectors/trackdata/ALEPH.htm]
*** Delphi [http://delphiwww.cern.ch/]
*** Opal [http://opal.web.cern.ch/Opal]
**for the SPS
***The COMPASS Experiment
*** [http://hepweb.rl.ac.uk/ppUKpics/POW/pr_980624.html Gargamelle]
*** [http://na49info.cern.ch NA49]
*** [http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/particles/fermidet.html CDF]
*** [http://www-d0.fnal.gov/ D0]
*** [http://www.star.bnl.gov STAR]
**for the [http://www.slac.stanford.edu/grp/ad/ADPEPII/ADPEPII.html PeP-II]
**for the [http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/experiments/slc.html SLC]
*** [http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/detectors.html SLD]
** [http://meco.ps.uci.edu/ MECO] from
List of particles
External articles and references
* "Radiation detectors". H. M. Stone Productions, Schloat. Tarrytown, N.Y., Prentice-Hall Media, 1972.
* [http://rd11.web.cern.ch/RD11/rkb/titleD.html The Particle Detector BriefBook]
* [http://www.lns.cornell.edu/~adf4/cloud.html How to Build a Cloud Chamber]
last=Grupen | first=C.
title=Physics of Particle Detection
booktitle=AIP Conference Proceedings, Instrumentation in Elementary Particle Physics, VIII
pages=3–34 | volume=536
publisher=Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Co.
date=June 28-July 10 1999 | location=Istanbul
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