- Super Proton Synchrotron
Caption=An Oak Ridge employee on the SPS
beamlineThe Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a 6.9 km long [ [http://ab-dep-op-sps.web.cern.ch/ab-dep-op-sps/SPS_Presentation.htm SPS Presentation at AB-OP-SPS Home Page] ] particle acceleratorat CERN. Originally specified as a 300 GeV protonmachine, the SPS was actually built to be capable of 400GeV, an operating energy it achieved on the official commissioning date of 17 June1976. However, by that time this energy had been exceeded by Fermilab, who reached an energy of 500 GeV on May 14of that year.
The SPS was designed by a team led by Sir John Adams KBE FRS, CERN director-general of what was then known as Laboratory II,
The SPS has been used to accelerate
antiprotons, electrons and positrons (for use as the injector for CERN's LEPelectron-positron collider) and heavy ions.And, most notably as a proton-antiproton collider (as such it was called ) from 1981to 1984, when its beams provided the data for the UA1and UA2experiments, which resulted in the discovery of the W and Z bosons, earning a Nobel Prizefor Carlo Rubbiaand Simon van der Meerin 1984.
The SPS is now used as the final pre-injector for high-intensity proton beams for CERN's
Large Hadron Collider, which began preliminary operation on 10 September 2008, accelerating protons from 26GeV to 450GeV. Operation as pre-injector will still allow continuation of the ongoing fixed target research program, where the SPS is used to provide 400 GeV protons beams for a number of active fixed-target experiments, notably COMPASS and NA48.The SPS will also be used to produce a neutrinostream to be detected at the Italian Gran Sassolaboratory, 730 km from CERN.
The SPS has served as an ideal testbench for the new concepts in accelerator physics. In 1999 it served as an observatory for the
electron cloud phenomenon. [ [http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/AccelConf/e00/PAPERS/THP1B16.pdf observation of e-cloud] ] In 2003, SPS was the first machine where the Hamiltonianresonance driving terms were directly measured. [ [http://www.tdx.cesca.es/TESIS_UV/AVAILABLE/TDX-0219104-131907//rogelio.pdf Measurement of resonance driving terms] ] And in 2004, experiments to cancelthe detrimental effects of beam encounters (like those in the LHC) werecarried out. [ [http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/AccelConf/e04/PAPERS/WEPLT045.PDF wire compensation] ]
PS upgrade: The Super-SPS
It has been proposed that the
Large Hadron Colliderwill require an upgrade,to considerably increase its luminosity, by 2015. This would require upgrades to the entire pre-injector chain, including the SPS.The improvements to the SPS would most likely focus on increasing theextraction energy of the Super-SPS up to 1 TeV [ [http://paf.web.cern.ch/paf/Presentations/PAF_15Sep05-Scandale-INJ-highlights.pdf Super-SPS] ] .
Notes and references
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