- Multinational force in Iraq
. Multi-National Force - Iraq replaced the previous force, Combined Joint Task Force 7, on May 15, 2004.
The media in the U.S. has been known to use the term U.S.-led coalition to describe this force, as around 93% of the troops are from the United States. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/12/07/AR2007120702585.html List of 'Willing' U.S. Allies Shrinks Steadily in Iraq - washingtonpost.com ] ] The majority of nations that deployed troops confined their men to their bases due to widespread violence.
Also in Iraq, but not part of MNF-I, are the
United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, which is doing humanitarian work, but has a number of guards and military observers, and the NATO Training Mission - Iraq, training the Iraqi army and police force.
2003 invasion of Iraq
Four countries participated with troops during the initial invasion (termed the "Major Combat Operations phase"), which lasted from March 19 to May 1. These were the United States (250,000), United Kingdom (45,000), Australia (2,000), and Poland (194).
Occupation of Iraq
The United States deployed more than seven-eighths of the soldiers in the occupying coalition with the majority of other troops coming from the United Kingdom and the rest made up from several other allies. Their status as
Coalition Provisional Authority, or "Occupying Powers" under a United Nations resolutionchanged when the new government came to power on June 28, although they were still heavily influenced by the massive U.S. military and diplomatic presence in the country. [cite web | title = PART 1: A government with no military, no territory | work = Asia Times Online | url = http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/HC11Ak01.html | date = 11-03-2006 ]
On May 10, 2007, 144 Iraqi Parliamentary lawmakers signed onto a legislative petition calling on the United States to set a timetable for withdrawal. [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,271210,00.html Iraq Bill Demands U.S. Troop Withdraw] Associated Press, "
Fox News", May 10, 2007] On June 3, 2007, the Iraqi Parliament voted 85 to 59 to require the Iraqi government to consult with Parliament before requesting additional extensions of the UN Security Council Mandate for Coalition operations in Iraq. [ [http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1180960615762&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull Iraqi parliament wants say in extension of US-led forces] Associated Press, " The Jerusalem Post", June 5, 2007] Despite this, the mandate was renewed on December 18, 2007 without the approval of the Iraqi parliament. [cite news | title=Bush, Maliki Break Iraqi Law to Renew U.N. Mandate for Occupation | url=http://www.alternet.org/story/71144/ | publisher= AlterNet| author=Raed Jarrar | coauthors=Joshua Holland | date=2007-12-20 | accessdate=2008-06-12 ]
Mission objectives according to the US Military
MNF-Iobjectives as of May 2006 Fact|date=February 2007
* Iraq is at peace with its neighbours
* Iraq is an ally in the War on Terror
* Iraq has a representative government that respects the human rights of all Iraqis
* Iraq has a security force that can maintain domestic order and deny Iraq as a safe haven for terrorists
The government of Iraq enjoys broad international support, including from nations of the
Arab League. Jordan is assisting in training of the Iraqi Security Forces, and the United Arab Emirates have donated military equipment (bought from Switzerland), for example.
Iraq is, nominally, a pluralistic democracy. The US-influenced
Constitution of Iraq[cite web | title = Bremer vows no Sharia law in Iraq | work = Al Jazeera English | url = http://english.aljazeera.net/English/archive/archive?ArchiveId=1696 | date = 2004-02-18 ] guarantees freedoms of speech, assembly and religion, private ownership of property, privacy and equality before the law, as well as total immunity to all occupying troops in the country. The first parliamentary elections occurred in December, 2005.
As of September 2008, over 545,000
Iraqi Security Forceshave been trained. [http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/105801.pdf]
In November 2006, the
United Nations Security Councilvoted to extend the mandate of the multinational force in Iraq until the end of 2007. The move was requested by the Iraqi government, which said the troops were needed for another year while it built up its own security forces. [cite news | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6193880.stm | title=UN renews mandate for Iraq troops | publisher=BBC News |date=November 28, 2006] In December 2007, the Security Council unanimously approved resolution 1790, which extended the mandate for the "last time", until December 31, 2008. [cite press release | title=Security Council, 5808th Meeting | url=http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2007/sc9207.doc.htm | publisher= United Nations| date=2007-12-18 | accessdate=2008-06-12 ]
List of nations in the coalition
Troop deployment in Iraq 2003-present
More than 100,000 military personnel
* - As of August 2008, there were around 144,000 [ [http://www.dawn.com/2008/08/09/int1.htm Iraq proposes timetable for 2010 US withdrawal -DAWN - International; August 09, 2008 ] ] Army, Navy, Coast Guard, Air Force, and Marine Corps personnel deployed to the western, northern and central regions of Iraq. The latest figure includes the 28,500 troops sent to Iraq as part of the troop surge plan, which began in early 2007. An additional 30,000 troops are deployed in the Gulf region. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/iraq_orbat_es.htm Iraq - US Ground Forces End Strength ] ]
**As of September 2008, 4,152 American military personnel have been killed, including 3,100 losses as a result of enemy action. The remainder were killed in non-hostile incidents including a small number of drownings, illnesses and electrocutions, but mostly vehicle accidents, weapon accidents and suicides (at least 122 of the latter have been confirmed by the U.S. Department of Defense, as of 8/31/2007). As of 2008 at least 65,588 American military personnel have fallen ill, been wounded or injured: 36,943 of these requiring medical evacuation. One soldier is currently listed as captured. The Iraq war has caused considerable debate in the United States, with a majority of Senators demanding a timed withdrawal due to considerable casualties and a lack of progress. The US military itself has encountered some difficulties in sustaining such large deployments, and to this effect extended tours of duty and relaxed restrictions regarding volunteers with a criminal history under the so-called
Moral Waiver. [ [http://www.armymedicine.army.mil/news/releases/20070504mhat.cfm Mental Health Advisory Team IV Findings Released ] ] [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/14/us/14military.html?pagewanted=2&ei=5124&en=c8daf02623d6a853&ex=1329195600 Army Giving More Waivers in Recruiting - New York Times ] ]
More than 1,000 military personnel
* - 4,100 troops in Southern Iraq as of September 2008, leading the Multi-National Division (South East) which includes troops from several other countries. The deployment includes infantry, mechanized infantry and armored units as well as water-borne patrol personnel and a range of aircraft. On October 8, 2007, British Prime Minister
Gordon Brownannounced that the British contingent would be reduced to 4,500 from 5,500 by the end of the year, and cut further to 2,500 in Spring 2008. He added that 500 troops would be sent to bases in the Persian Gulfregion to fulfill a supporting role. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/10/08/europe/EU-GEN-Britain-Iraq.php?WT.mc_id=rssfrontpage Britain to cut troops in Iraq to 2,500 in 2008 - International Herald Tribune ] ] However, in early April 2008 the decision was made to postpone any further withdrawals, and to maintain the roughly 4000-strong contingent for the time being [http://www.fijitimes.com/story.aspx?id=85451] Britain delays Iraq pullout] .
**On September 2, 2007, British forces withdrew from their last base in Basra, re-locating to the international airport outside the city and thus handing over nominal control to Iraqi forces. [ [http://www.nysun.com/article/61783?page_no=1 British Troops Pull Out of Basra - September 2, 2007 - The New York Sun ] ] The development came amid outspoken misgivings regarding the British presence from both the Bush Administration and British military leadership.
**On December 16, 2007, British forces handed over official control of Basra province to the Iraqi authorities, amid accusations of increasing militia influence in the provincial capital. However, the changeover was little more than symbolic as the British have very little control over the region. [http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20071215/ap_on_re_mi_ea/iraq_turning_over_basra] After the invasion (which involved 45,000 British troops), approximately 8,500 troops were stationed in the south of the country, but 1,300 were withdrawn in early 2006. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/03/13/uk.iraq/index.html CNN.com - UK to pull 800 troops from Iraq - Mar 13, 2006 ] ] On February 20, 2007, the British government declared that British soldiers would begin a timetabled withdrawal from Iraq, and 1,600 personnel had returned from Iraq by the end of the month. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/meast/02/20/uk.iraq.troops/index.html Reports: UK to begin withdrawing Iraq troops - CNN.com ] ] Former Prime Minister
Tony Blairhad considered an expansion of up to 2,000 troops during 2004 to replace those of Spain and other departing nations, however, military commanders and former diplomats criticizing U.S. military tactics put that into question and the idea was eventually shelved. The UK has lost 176 soldiers in Iraq as of May 16, 2008: 136 in ambushes, engagements, bombings or other attacks (including the shooting down of a C-130 Herculestransport plane which killed 10 soldiers). Out of the remaining 40, the cause of death included accidents, ' friendly fire' incidents, illnesses, and suicide. Between January 1, 2003 and March 31, 2007, 1,747 British personnel were wounded; 844 of whom required aeromedical evacuation. See Operation Telicfor further information.
** On July 15, 2008, it was announced that Britain will deploy 120 additional troops to train the new Iraqi Army. [ [http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,24022539-38200,00.html Britain to send more troops to Iraq | NEWS.com.au ] ]
** On July 22, 2008, it was announced that Britain would maintain present levels of troops in Iraq through the end of 2008, but would expect to see significant reductions in the early months of 2009 [ [http://unian.net/eng/news/news-263117.html] ] . There was media speculation in the UK of a total withdrawal during 2010, before the predicted July 2010 UK election. PM
Gordon Browntalked about a "fundamental change of mission in the first months of 2009 as we make the transition to a long term bilateral partnership with Iraq, similar to the normal relationships which our military forces have with other important countries in the region.", "And the focus of the 4,100 UK forces still in southern Iraq is now on completing the task of training and mentoring the 1st Division of the Iraqi Army in Basra we have responded to changing needs and embedded over 800 UK personnel within the Iraqi command structure - at Divisional, Brigade and Battalion level." Brown mentioned other "military tasks," such as completing "the preparation of Basra airport for transfer to Iraqi control; and continuing to develop the capacity of the Iraqi Navy and Marines so they can protect Iraq`s oil platforms, territorial waters and Mm Quasar port --- all critical to Iraq`s economic future."
More than 100 military personnel
* - Approx 900 troops are currently based at Camp Echo in Diwaniyah and are primarily involved in training local security forces. Poland leads the
Multinational Division Central-Southwhich consists of forces from several other countries. Withdrawal preparations underway in September 2008 for planned departure in October. Formal withdrawal ceremony held on October 4th though troop withdrawal still underway during remains of October. It is unclear what effect the withdrawal of the Polish forces will have on the other forces deployed as part of Multinational Division Central-South.
** New Prime Minister
Donald Tusk, who had promised to withdraw Poland's troops as soon as possible throughout his election campaign, hoped to complete the withdrawal by mid-2008. However, but it was believed that conservative President Lech Kaczyński, a staunch supporter of the Polish mission in Iraq, would have delayed the withdrawal if he deemed it too hasty. [ [http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=40053 POLAND: It's Hard Saying Even Goodbye to Iraq ] ] A degree of compromise seems to have been found on December 21, 2007, when Kaczynski approved his government's withdrawal plan, albeit by an extended deadline of October 2008. [ [http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Top_News/2007/12/22/poland_to_pull_troops_from_iraq/4905/ Poland to pull troops from Iraq - UPI.com ] ]
**In accordance with the decision of the former Polish Minister of Defense
Jerzy Szmajdziński, the number of troops was reduced from 2,500 to 1,500 during the second half of 2005. Poland's former leftist government, which lost September 25, 2005 elections, had planned to withdraw the remaining 1,500 troops in January. However, Prime Minister Kazimierz Marcinkiewiczdeclared that he would decide after the Iraqi elections on December 15, whether to extend the mandate beyond December 31. [ [http://www.forbes.com/finance/feeds/afx/2005/12/05/afx2368699.html Poland to decide on Iraq troops after elections says prime minister - Forbes.com ] ] On December 22, Prime Minister Marcinkiewicz announced that he had asked President Lech Kaczyńskito keep Polish troops in Iraq for another year, calling it "a very difficult decision." [ http://edition.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/europe/12/27/poland.troops.ap/] On January 5, 2006, Polish troops handed over control of the central Babil province to U.S. troops and decided to remain on bases in Kut and Diwaniyah for the remainder of their mandate, [ [http://www.radio.com.pl/polonia/article.asp?tId=31510&j=2 Polskie Radio Online - Błąd ] ] cutting their contingent from 1,500 troops to 900 troops two months later, [ [http://today.reuters.com/News/CrisesArticle.aspx?storyId=N01201621 World Crises | Reuters.com ] ] and switching their main objective from patrolling their Den sector to the training of Iraqi security forces. Poland has lost 25 soldiers in Iraq. In addition, a Government Protection Bureau agent was killed in an October 2007 ambush while escorting the Polish ambassador (and former commander of Polish forces in Iraq) Edward Pietrzykthrough a Baghdad district. In July 2004, Al Zarqawireleased a statement threatening Japan, Poland and Bulgaria over their troop deployments. He demanded of the Polish government 'Pull your troops out of Iraq or you will hear the sounds of explosions that will hit your country.' Hours later Prime Minister Marek Belkadenied, and deputy Defence Minister Janusz Zemkesaid pulling out would be a 'terrible mistake.'
* - Fewer than 600; late 2008 and preparing for total withdrawal. On Sept 19 2008, Defense ministry spokesman Won Tae-jae told a news briefing that when the deployment was extended by one year in December 2007, it was on the condition that the pullout would be completed by the end of 2008. "And there is no change whatsoever to the plan that everyone in the (unit) would withdraw by the year end," he said. [http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSSEO7680920080919?feedType=RSS&feedName=worldNews] [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2008-09/19/content_7042769.htm]
**On October 23, 2007, South Korean President Roh Moo-Hyun had announced that the mandate would be extended for another year, although the size of the contingent will be halved to 600 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/2007/10/iraq-071023-voa01.htm] . ] . As of January 2008 South Korea had deployed 933 combat personnel under the
Zaytun Division, the date of the reduction to 600 and below was unclear.
* - 397 [ro icon [http://www.forter.ro/index.php?leg=irak Ministerul Apararii - Fortele Terestre Romane ] ] troops operating in three different zones (South-East, South Central, and Baghdad). They conduct a wide range of missions including prisoner interrogation at Camp Cropper and Camp Bucca in Baghdad; reconnaissance and surveillance missions (including the use of UAVs) in the Polish Sector; and training, patrolling and base security missions in the British Sector. The previous contingent numbered approximately 730 personnel, including 400 infantry, 100 military police, 150 de-miners, 30 medics, plus 50 intelligence officers stationed north of Baghdad. [ [http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2006-05-30-iraq-coalition_x.htm USATODAY.com - Coalition in Iraq continues to dwindle ] ] Romanian Prime Minister Calin Popescu Tariceanu announced on August 30, 2006 that, within two months, Romania would withdraw its troops from Iraq. However, on November 8, 2006, Romanian Defense Minister Sorin Frunzaverde stated that there was to be no scheduled withdrawal. [ [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-11/09/content_5306736.htm Xinhua - English ] ]
**The troops' presence in Iraq has become a contentious issue in domestic politics, with Prime Minister Calin Popescu Tariceanu calling for their return home, while President Traian Basescu, who is commander in chief, decided they should stay. [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/04/14/europe/EU-GEN-Romania-Iraq.php Armored vehicle carrying Romanian troops in Iraq rolls over; 4 injured - International Herald Tribune ] ] One Romanian soldier died in a Kuwaiti hospital, ten days after shooting himself in the head, and another was killed in a roadside bombing (along with three Italians). Four were seriously injured on 14 April 2007 when their vehicle toppled over. On 21 September 2007, one soldier was killed and five more were wounded by an IED. [ [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-09/21/content_6766516.htm China View News] ] 130 more troops were temporarily deployed for UNAMI.
* - Approx 300; Australian involvement in Iraq (designated
Operation Catalystby the Australian military) as of July 2008 consists of around 300 troops divided amongst several specialized units, (current deployments include a security detachment (SECDET) composed of 110 troops protecting the Australian embassy in Baghdad, 95 liaison officers distributed throughout Iraq, a small number of Australian troops as part of the Coalition Counter IED Task Force, and 110 personnel who form a 'Force Level Logistic Asset', fulfilling a support role).
**A further 500 personnel jointly supporting operations in Iraq and Afghanistan (the latter falling under
Operation Slipper) are based elsewhere in the region. The largest contribution was previously the Overwatch Battle Group (West), a force of 515 soldiers based at Camp Terendak in Talil (Southern Iraq). On 30 November 2007, the newly-elected government of Australia announced the pullout of this contingent by early 2008. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7120242.stm BBC NEWS | World | Asia-Pacific | Iraq pledge by Australia PM-elect ] ] The Overwatch Battle Group (West)continued to operate until the end of its mandate, with about 500 troops pulling out of their base on the 1st of June. [ [http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22962169-601,00.html?from=mostpop Rudd makes surprise Iraq visit | The Australian ] ] [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSL0164801020080601 Australia Withdraws Troops From Iraq | Reuters] ] . The unit was previously known as the Al Muthanna Task Group, which had about 450 troops and was deployed on February 22, 2005 to reinforce Task Force Eagle, a British Army Battlegroup, which had recently replaced the Dutch forces in Al Muthana Province. [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iraq/1485627/Britain's-troops-take-the-strain-as-Dutch-pull-out.html] ] The attached Australian Army training team of between 60 and 95 troops was coincidentally withdrawn, and both units formally terminated operations on the 2nd of June.
**Jointly supporting Operations Catalyst and Slipper are periodic rotations of
Anzac class frigates in the Persian Gulf, currently the HMAS Stuart(~170 personnel), two Royal Australian Air ForceAP-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft (170 personnel) and three C-130 Herculestransport aircraft (155 personnel). [ [http://www.defence.gov.au/opcatalyst Australian Government, Department of Defence ] ] There have been several injuries but no deaths of Australian troops in Iraq attributed to hostile action, however, a SASRcommando was killed in a vehicle accident in Kuwait, and a soldier named Jacob Kovco, assigned to the Baghdad SECDET, died from an accidental discharge of his pistol. [ [http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/kovco-died-in-gun-bungle/2006/12/01/1164777779394.html Kovco died in 'gun bungle' - National - smh.com.au ] ] (See also: Australian contribution to the 2003 invasion of Iraq)
* - 280 troops from the 'Cuscatlan Battalion' under Polish command (Central South Iraq), based at Camp Delta in Kut. Their mandate was extended for the eighth time in January 2008. [ [http://www.boston.com/news/world/latinamerica/articles/2007/01/05/el_salvador_to_send_more_troops_to_iraq/ El Salvador to send more troops to Iraq - Boston.com ] ] The original contingent of 380 was reduced in August 2007, and further withdrawals are expected. [ [http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1186066397991&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull El Salvador reduces Iraq troop contingent to 300 | Jerusalem Post ] ] Salvadoran troops are involved in protecting their base, and also guard supply/aid humanitarian convoys. El Salvador has lost five soldiers in Iraq, four in hostile incidents and one in an accident. [ [http://www.newspress.com/Top/Article/article.jsp?Section=WORLD&ID=565064868601135129 Santa Barbara News-Press ] ]
* - Around 240 troops under U.S. command as of September 2008, stationed at
Mosulairport, where they man guard towers and conduct internal and external patrols. [ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-09/05/content_9773123.htm ] Albania increased it's deployment from 120 to 240 in September 2008. the new troops serve in another part of Iraq. [http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90853/6493565.html] Albania, along with Croatia, signed accession protocols with NATO in July 2008 after they were invited to join the 26-member alliance at a NATO summit in April 2008. Albania was one of the first countries participating in the invasion to send troops to Iraq: in April 2003, 70 personnel were deployed [ [http://www.dispatch.com/live/content/national_world/stories/2007/10/10/Iraq_coalition_1010.ART_ART_10-10-07_A3_CF855Q4.html?sid=101 The Columbus Dispatch : Coalition losing most non-U.S. troops ] ] In December 2006, Albanian Defence Minister Fatmir Mediu said that Albanian troops would stay in Iraq as long as United States forces remain there. [ [http://www.serbianna.com/news/2006/02341.shtml Serbianna.com | News Story ] ]
* - There are currently 155 Bulgarian troops (including 35 support staff) guarding the headquarters of the MEK at Camp Ashraf, 100km west of the Iranian border. This facility is home to 4,000 MEK militants and their massive munitions stocks. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/mek.htm Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO) ] ] This deployment was approved by the Bulgarian parliament on January 17, 2006, with the contingent being deployed on 29 March. The contingent was expected to remain for about a year. [ [http://www.turkishweekly.net/news.php?id=29780 JTW News - Bulgarian Unit Deployed at Camp Ashraf in Iraq ] ] Bulgaria withdrew its original contribution of about 485 soldiers in 2005, their objective had been guarding the city center of Diwaniyah, 13 of whom died: 7 in hostile circumstances, 5 in accidents, while one was shot dead by a U.S. soldier. In addition, two Bulgarian truck drivers working for companies serving coalition troops have been captured and killed in Iraq, with another ambushed and killed. Three Bulgarian pilots were killed when their Mi-17 transport helicopter (transporting a team of private military contractors) was shot down in April 2005.
100 or fewer military personnel
* - As of January 2008, 100 infantrymen in a company known as the 'Desert Lions', which is operating under Polish command. The role of the Mongolian contingent is to provide security at the main Polish base, Camp Echo, by manning guard towers and guarding entry points. Previously, it had been tasked with protecting a logistics base dubbed 'Camp Charlie' in Hillah. [ [http://cache.search.yahoo-ht2.akadns.net/search/cache?ei=UTF-8&p=mongolian+troops%2C+iraq%2C+2008&fr=yfp-t-501&u=www.centcom.mil/images/multimedia/cbdec07jan08.pdf&w=mongolian+troops+iraq+2008&d=Rer9zS72RDKO&icp=1&.intl=us Mongolian Contingent in Iraq Mongolian Contingent in Iraq An Afghan Education from the Ground Up ] ]
* - 88 troops under U.S. command as of September 2007. [ [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/09/56f88894-9f20-452b-a16c-b2bec24bac1b.html Iraq: As Third-Largest Contingent, Georgia Hopes To Show Its Worth - RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY ] ] There are conflicting reports as to their duties and whereabouts. It was initially reported that Azerbaijan's original 250-member unit was located in the city of Hadid, in the far north of Iraq. 100 soldiers were apparently sent on December 29, 2004, to reinforce the 150 soldiers already in the country. Their role had supposedly been providing security for the local Turkmen population and guarding important sites. However, on April 30, 2007, MNF-I declared that they were located in the vicinity of Haditha Dam in western Iraq, providing security for a nearby US Marine camp and patrolling the dam complex. One Azerbaijani soldier died in Iraq due to an unspecified cause. [ [http://news.trend.az/index.shtml?show=news&newsid=1234239&lang=EN Iraq-based Azerbaijani Peacekeeper Dies | TREND News] ]
* - 55 Royal Marines deployed in either late 2007 or 2008, guarding the command headquarters at Camp Victory in Baghdad. [ [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/16092.htm Tonga (04/08) ] ] [ [http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2007/Sep/03/ln/hawaii709030308.html Tonga troops prepare for Iraq duty - The Honolulu Advertiser - Hawaii's Newspaper ] ] . A separate contingent of 45 Royal Marines had previously operated in Iraq from early July 2004 to mid-December 2004, augmenting the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force by guarding Camp Blue Diamond in Anbar Province.
* - 50 Danish military personnel remain in Baghdad, Iraq, where they guard Danish diplomats and train Iraqi forces. By 21 December, 2007, the 55-member Danish air force contingent based in Basra had been completely withdrawn from Iraq. [ [http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=35647§ionid=351020201 Press TV - Denmark to pull air force out of Iraq ] ] Their task had been to operate a unit of four helicopters in support of British and Iraqi forces until December, [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/08/01/africa/ME-GEN-Iraq-Denmark.php Denmark hands over responsibilities to British military in Iraq - International Herald Tribune ] ] following the withdrawal of the original contingent in July 2007. The so-called
Dancon/Irakmission consisted of 430 troops operating under UK command (South-East Iraq), and included military police involved in the training of local security forces as well as infantry. They were based south of Basra at "Camp Danevang" in the British Shaiba Log Base. A separate unit of 35 troops temporarily served under UNAMI. On February 21, 2007, Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussenhad announced that the withdrawal of Danish 'combat' troops in Iraq would be completed by August 2007, [http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,,-6430163,00.html] however, on July 26, 2007, it was reported that 250 of the Danish troops had already withdrawn, at least two weeks ahead of schedule. [ [http://www.focus-fen.net/?id=n117912 FOCUS Information Agency ] ] The Danish government repeatedly guaranteed that its forces would remain as long as the Iraqi government requested. On April 28, 2007, the Danish military reported that it was in the process of temporarily deploying an unspecified number of special forces to 'resolve a special problem.' [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/04/28/europe/EU-GEN-Denmark-Iraq.php Denmark sends special forces to Iraq - International Herald Tribune ] ] Denmark has lost seven soldiers in Iraq; one to friendly fire, one in a vehicle accident, and five to hostile incidents, while several more have been wounded. In early 2006, the Iraqi insurgency released a statement calling for more attacks on the Danish army in the retaliation to the Danish cartoon controversy. [ [http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?F=1386709&C=europe DefenseNews.com - Denmark: We’re Staying the Course in Iraq - 12/05/05 13:24 ] ]
* deployed a total of 46 personnel divided into three units: a logistics platoon providing vehicles and drivers for supply convoys which run from Kuwait into the Polish sector of Iraq, an ordnance disposal engineer team attached to the Salvadoran contingent, and a medical unit at Camp Echo. On December 5, 2005, the Armenian government declared its intention to stay in Iraq for another year, [ [http://www.azg.am/?lang=EN&num=2005120601 Armenian peacekeepers to stay an extra year in Iraq] ] , and did the same on December 6, 2006. [cite news |title=Armenian defense minister to visit Iraq as Armenia is to extend small troop presence | url=http://library.aua.am/library/news/archive/2006_11-14.htm | publisher=The Associated Press | date=November 13, 2006 | accessdate=2007-02-20]
* - 77 special forces soldiers under U.S. command in Baghdad, conducting a wide range of missions including patrols, raids, training, and manning checkpoints. [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/09/17/europe/EU-Macedonia-US-Medals.php] In December 2006 Macedonia extended its mandate through June 2007. In 2007, it was announced that Macedonia would increase its contingent to 80 in 2008. [ [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L02491390.htm Reuters AlertNet - Macedonia ups Iraq force to boost NATO credentials ] ]
* - Currently, there are 37 Ukranian officers and
NCOs deployed, fulfilling liaision and advisory roles [ [http://www.mil.gov.ua/index.php?lang=en&part=peacekeeping&sub=iraq Ukranian Peacekeeping Personnel as a part of Multinational Forces in Iraq] ] . An independent contingent, consisting of 1,650 troops from the 5th Mechanized Brigade, was deployed to Kut(South Central Iraq) in late 2003. In May 2005, the brigade was replaced with the 81st Tactical Group, numbering around 900 troops. [ [http://www.mil.gov.ua/index.php?lang=ua&part=news&sub=read&id=5162 Новини Управління Прес-служби МО ] ] The deployment was then reduced continuously until the remaining 44 troops were pulled out along with the last of the vehicles on December 22, 2005 [ [http://edition.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/europe/12/27/poland.troops.ap/index.html] Dead link|date=March 2008] . This fulfilled a long-planned withdrawal pledged by President Viktor Yushchenkowho was sworn in on January 23, 2005, and executed a ruling by the Ukrainian legislative body, the Verkhovna Rada, which passed a motion for the withdrawal of combat troops. Defense Minister Anatoliy Hrytsenkooriginally announced that 30 Army officers, ten border service personnel, and ten Interior Ministry representatives would stay in Iraq, and that they would work at command facilities. Ukraine lost a total of 18 soldiers in Iraq: 12 in attacks, 3 in accidents, 2 in suicides and 1 as a result of a heart attack, while 32 were wounded or injured. Early in 2004, three Ukrainian engineers were taken hostage in Iraq but were freed shortly after.
* has deployed a total of 79 soldiers. This includes a unit of 30 men to destroy munitions and clear mines, in addition to 6 command personnel. The unit is based near Fallujah and operates alongside US Marines. In August 2008 Bosnia and Herzegovina sent another 49 soldiers to Iraq, their mission will be to guard
Camp Victoryin Baghdad.
* - 35 special forces troops known as the 'EstPla-11' unit under U.S. command in Baghdad. Their task is to conduct raids and combat patrols. Two soldiers were killed in Iraq in separate insurgent attacks.
* - 29 ordnance disposal engineers in
Kut, under Polish command. One was killed (09/01/2005) along with eight Ukrainians when a pile of booby-trapped munitions was detonated by insurgents.
* - 17 troops as of August 10, 2008 [ [http://www.army.cz/scripts/detail.php?id=6589 Ministry of Defence - MNF-I - Multi-National Force Iraq ] ] training Iraqi Army as part of Nato Training Mission, (reduced from about 300 troops and 3 civilians running a field hospital, first deployed in late 2003 under British command
Multi-National Division (South-East) (Iraq). On 5 December, 2007, the Czech parliament approved a government plan to withdraw 80 soldiers in summer 2008, leaving around 20 who will train Iraqi security forces. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/12/05/europe/EU-GEN-Czech-Iraq.php Parliament approves withdrawal of most Czech troops from Iraq in 2008 - International Herald Tribune ] ] After 2006, the goal changed from training Iraqi police to providing Force Protection to Contingency Operation Base (Basrah Air Station) at the vehicle checkpoints. One Czech soldier died in May 2003 from injuries sustained in a vehicle accident in Iraq.
* - 11 de-mining and ordnance disposal specialists under U.S. Command. On July 15, 2004, it was reported that Moldova had quietly halved its contingent from 24 to 12. It was widely believed that Moldova withdrew these remaining troops in February 2005, but they were replaced by a fresh contingent. A third rotation took place in February 2006.
* - Currently, three soldiers remain in the country, presumably fulfilling a liaison role with other members of the Coalition. [ [http://www.mod.gov.lv/Nacionalie%20brunotie%20speki/Misijas/Iraka.aspx Latvijas Republikas Aizsardzības ministrija ] ] Latvian troops were initially deployed to Kirkuk (under U.S. command) for a year, then transferred to Camp Charlie in Al Hillah, followed by Camp Delta in Al Kut. Finally, the Latvians were stationed at Camp Echo in Ad Diwaniyah where they conducted external security patrols. On June 18, 2007, all but 7 of Latvia's 125 troops left Iraq. During their final posting, three Latvian soldiers were killed in action.
* - Currently, there is one Singapore Armed Forces officer in Baghdad [ [http://www.radaronline.com/features/2007/06/iraq_coalition_of_the_willing_poland_romania_singapore.php Features : Radar Online : Head Count ] ] . 161
Republic of Singapore Navy(RSN) personnel onboard RSS "Endurance" returned on 31 January 2004 after a two-month deployment. [cite web | title=SAF's LST Returns from Middle East | work=MINDEF | url= http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2004/jan/31jan04_nr.html | accessdate=2007-04-21] The amphibious transport dock conducted logistical tasks, such as replenishing supplies for other naval vessels in the Persian Gulf, conducted patrols, and served as a platform for helicopter missions and maritime boarding operations missions by teams from other coalition countries. [cite web | title=SAF Deploys LST and C-130 to Assist in Reconstruction of Iraq | work=MINDEF | url= http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2003/oct/27oct03_nr.html | accessdate=2007-04-21] A Republic of Singapore Air Force(RSAF) C-130 transport aircraft with a crew of 31 returned on 4 April 2004 after a two-month deployment. During its deployment, the C-130 detachment transported supplies to coalition forces. [cite web | title=SAF C-130 Aircraft Returns from the Gulf | work=MINDEF | url= http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2004/apr/04apr04_nr.html | accessdate=2007-04-21] A RSAF KC-135 tanker aircraft with a crew of 33 returned on 11 September 2004 after a three-month deployment, during which the KC-135 provided air-to-air refueling for coalition forces. [cite web | title=SAF KC-135 Returns from Gulf | work=MINDEF | url= http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2004/sep/11sep04_nr.html | accessdate=2007-04-21] Another RSN amphibious transport dock, RSS "Resolution", returned on 19 March 2005 with 180 personnel after a three-month deployment, [cite web | title=SAF LST Returns from Persian Gulf | work=MINDEF | url= http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2005/mar/19mar05_nr.html | accessdate=2007-04-21] while another RSAF KC-135 returned on 17 September 2005 with 35 personnel after a three-month deployment. [cite web | title=SAF KC-135 Aircraft Returns from the Gulf | work=MINDEF | url= http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2005/sep/17sep05_nr.html | accessdate=2007-04-21] In the RSN's final mission, the amphibious transport dock RSS "Resolution" returned on 27 May 2006 after a three-month deployment. [cite web | title=SAF Ship Returns from Persian Gulf | work=MINDEF | url= http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2006/may/27may06_nr.html | accessdate=2007-04-21] This deployment saw the ship taking on the expanded role of taking charge of coalition and Iraqi Navy ships to defend Iraq's oil platforms. [cite web | title=A taste of home after successful Gulf deployment | work=MINDEF | url= http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/publications/cyberpioneer/news/2006/May/29may06_news4.html | accessdate=2007-04-21]
Nations no longer participating in ground operations
* - Following the outbreak of war between Georgia and Russia on August 8, 2008,
Mikheil Saakashvilisaid that Georgia was pulling its entire 2,000-strong contingent of troops from Iraq. [cite news
title= Peace bid as Ossetia crisis rages
accessdate=2008-08-09] During the 10th and 11th of August the US Air Force airlifted the whole contigent out of Iraq [cite news
title= U.S. takes Georgian troops home from Iraq
publisher=Air Force Times
accessdate=2008-08-12] . Georgia had 2,000 troops deployed near the Iranian border as of October 8, 2007. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/09/world/europe/09georgians.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin Russia on Its Mind, Georgia Flexes Its Muscle in Iraq - New York Times ] ] Politicians had already stated that the contingent would be reduced to 300 in summer 2008. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/12/07/AR2007120702585_2.html List of 'Willing' U.S. Allies Shrinks Steadily in Iraq - washingtonpost.com ] ] Georgia's contribution to the Coalition originally consisted of 300 special forces troops under U.S. command in Baqouba, who guarded two bridges as well as American Forward Operating Bases 'Caldwell', 'Warhorse' and 'Gabe'. 550 more troops were deployed in June 2005 for UNAMI, although these were placed under U.S. command on a dangerous 'Middle Ring Security' mission in the
Green Zone. [ [http://georgia.usembassy.gov/releases/2005/release20050228Iraq.htm Press Releases, Statements & Transcripts - Embassy of the U.S. in Georgia ] ] On March 9, 2007, Georgian President Mikhail Saakashviliannounced his plans to increase total Georgian troop strength in Iraq to 2000, by sending an extra 1,200 troops and moving those already in Iraq to join the new unit. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6433289.stm BBC NEWS | Europe | Georgia to double troops in Iraq ] ] As of July 2008, five Georgian soldiers had died in Iraq (one in a vehicle accident, one committed suicide, while three died in combat) and 19 were wounded. [ [http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=18470] Online Magazine - Civil Georgia ] ]
* - On January 27, 2007, Slovak Prime Minister
Robert Ficoannounced that all but 11 of the 110 Slovak troops (primarily engaged in destroying ordnance) operating under the US-led Coalition had been transferred from Diwaniyain Iraq to Kuwait. They arrived home the following month. The remaining troops were sent to perform liaison duties at the Multinational Forces HQ in Baghdad: nine were withdrawn in stages, [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/10/04/europe/EU-GEN-Slovakia-Iraq.php Slovakia to withdraw its last 2 soldiers in Iraq - International Herald Tribune ] ] while the last two returned by the end of the year. [zh icon [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-12/12/content_7232211.htm Slovakia leaves Iraq, sends more troops to Kosovo, Afghanistan_English_Xinhua ] ] 4 Slovak soldiers were killed by mortars and roadside bombs during their deployment in Iraq.
* - The remaining 50 members of the Lithuanian contingent arrived home on August 9, 2007. [ [http://www.boston.com/news/world/europe/articles/2007/08/09/lithuanian_troops_welcomed_home/ Lithuanian troops welcomed home - Boston.com ] ] Lithuania originally deployed 120 troops to Iraq, approximately 50 under Polish command near
Hillah(designation: LITDET), where they guarded Camp Echo; and an equal number under Danish command near Basra(designation: LITCON), where they conducted joint patrols with the Danish troops. [ [http://usiraq.procon.org/viewadditionalresource.asp?resourceID=699#lithuania U.S./Iraq ProCon | Coalition | Coalition Country Detail | Page 2 ] ] The remainder served at various command centers throughout the country. The unit in the Polish sector was withdrawn during the course of 2006. Nine Lithuanian soldiers remain in Iraq under NTM-I.
* - On September 21, 2006, Italian forces handed over Dhi Qar province in southern Iraq to newly-trained Iraqi security forces, thus ending their military mission: "The Italian contingent is going back. The mission is accomplished — the security of the province is in your hands", Minister of Defence
Arturo Parisisaid to Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20060921/ap_on_re_mi_ea/iraq_italy] Dead link|date=March 2008] About a month earlier, on August 23, the Italian contingent stood at 1,600 troops. The 'Garibaldi Brigade' served its final four month tour of duty between May and September 2006, and included mechanized infantry, helicopters and Carabinieriin South Central Iraq, based around Nasiriyah. The original contingent consisted of about 3,200 troops, but on July 9, 2005, former PM Berlusconi announced that Italian soldiers would gradually be withdrawn in groups of 300. New Prime Minister Romano Prodihad pledged to withdraw the troops in his first speech to the senate and called the war "a grave mistake that has complicated rather than solved the problem of security". [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,,1778041,00.html Prodi condemns Iraq war as 'grave mistake' | Iraq | Guardian Unlimited ] ] [ [http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/CC7BDEF3-289F-4287-8987-4E2E2F07D4A7.htm Al Jazeera English - Archive - Italian Leader Seeks Iraq Troop Pullout ] ] Shortly after, on May 26, 2006, Italian foreign minister Massimo D'Alema announced that the Italian forces would be reduced from 1,800 to 1,600 by June. On June 8, he said Italy's military presence in Iraq would end before 2007. [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20060526/ap_on_re_eu/italy_iraq] Dead link|date=March 2008] The Military of Italyhave lost 34 soldiers in Iraq.
* - See:
Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group
* - 140 of 150 troops (engineers and mine clearers) withdrawn on June 30, 2004 citing growing domestic opposition and the need for the troops elsewhere; the 10 remaining liaison officers had been withdrawn by August 2006. The Bondevik II government insists the troops were never part of the invasion force, citing a UN humanitarian mandate. This does not seem to have come to the attention of the international community, as Al-Qaeda has included Norway in videotaped threats on at least two occasions, and U.S. organizations have included Norway on their lists of participating nations. The actual status of Norwegian engineering and administrative personnel past and present is still a matter of domestic controversy, in part because troops serving in a war zone are entitled to better pay.
* - had 128 military policemen under Italian command (South East Iraq). Troops were withdrawn on February 10, 2005, two days ahead of schedule.
* - An independent contingent of 1,345 troops (including 650 Dutch Marines, three or four Chinook helicopters, a military police unit, a logistics team, a commando squad, a field hospital and
Royal Netherlands Air ForceAH-64 attack helicopters) was deployed to Iraq in 2003, based in Samawah(Southern Iraq). On June 1, 2004, the Dutch government renewed their stay through 2005. The Algemeen Dagbladreported on October 21, 2004, that the Netherlands would pull its troops out of Iraq in March 2005, which it did, leaving half a dozen liaison officers until late 2005. The Dutch Government reportedly turned down an Iraqi Government request to extend the Dutch contingent for another year. The Netherlands lost 2 soldiers in separate attacks.
* - 230 troops left in February 2004, no replacement, attributed to financial reasons. While in Iraq, the troops were under Spanish command.
* - had 1,300 troops (mostly assigned to policing duties) in
Najafand commanded the troops of Honduras, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, and of Nicaragua. Newly elected Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapaterofulfilled one of his campaign pledges and declared the end of the mission on April 28, 2004 with the withdrawal of the last 260 troops. While in Iraq, Spain lost 11 military personnel: ten killed in insurgent attacks and one in an accident. Already during the mandate of the previous pro-invasion executive, Spanish permanent representative Inocencio Ariasraised questions about the legitimacy of the Iraq war.
* - 368 troops withdrawn by the end of May 2004 along with Spain's contingent, citing that the troops were sent there for reconstruction, not combat. While in Iraq, the troops were under Spanish command (South East Iraq).
* - 302 troops withdrawn by the end of May 2004, shortly after Spain and Honduras withdrew their contingents, citing growing domestic opposition and the fall from power of PRD candidate Hipolito Mejia and the election of center-left PLD candidate Leonel Fernandez to the presidency in 2004. Dominican troops were under constant mortar attacks but suffered no casualties. While in Iraq, the troops were under Spanish command (South East Iraq).
* - 60 medics, engineers and other troops were withdrawn on July 14, 2004 in response to the kidnapping of a truck driver. When the hostage takers' demands were met (Filipino troops out of Iraq), the hostage was released. While in Iraq, the troops were under Polish command (Central South Iraq). During that time, several Filipino soldiers were wounded in an insurgent attack, although none died.
* - Withdrawal of the last 100 troops from Thailand's 423-strong humanitarian contingent was completed on September 10, 2004, in accordance with Thailand's mandate in Iraq, which expired in September. Prime Minister
Thaksin Shinawatrahad previously announced an early withdrawal if the situation became too dangerous. Thailand lost 2 soldiers in Iraq in an insurgent attack.
* - Hungary's contingent of 300 transportation troops had begun arriving home in Budapest from Iraq on December 22, 2004, reported by the AFP. All of Hungary's troops were reported by the Defence Ministry to have left Iraq by the end of that day. While in Iraq, one Hungarian soldier was killed in an insurgent attack.
* - Two rotations of 61 military engineers, known as Task Force Rake, operated in Iraq from September 26, 2003 to September 25, 2004. [ [http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/PO0409/S00218.htm Scoop: FAQs Re Light Engineer Group To Iraq ] ] [ [http://www.army.mil.nz/?CHANNEL=OPERATIONS&PAGE=Iraq+-+UNMOVIC NZ Army - Welcome ] ] They were deployed to undertake humanitarian and reconstruction tasks consistent with
UN Security Council Resolution 1483; they were not part of the invading force. While in Iraq the unit was under British command (South East Iraq) and was based in Basra.
* - Iceland had a total of 3 troops, including 2
Explosive Ordnance Disposalexperts, a medical advisor, and some transport experts assigned to the Danish unit immediately after the occupation began; they have since been withdrawn.
Coalition members that never participated in ground operations
The original list of coalition members provided by the White House [ [http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/iraq/news/20030327-10.html Who are the coalition members?] ] included several nations that did not intend to participate in the actual fighting. Some of them, such as
Marshall Islands, Micronesiaand Palau, do not have standing armies. However, through the Compacts of Free Association, the Marshall Islands, Solomon Islands, Kiribatiand the Federated States of Micronesia, citizens of those countries are guaranteed US national status and therefore are allowed to serve in the US military. The members of these island nations have deployed in a combined Pacific force consisting of Guamanian, Hawaiian and American Samoan reserve units. They have been deployed twice to Iraq. The government of one country, the Solomon Islands, listed by the White House as a member of the coalition, was apparently unaware of any such membership and promptly denied it. [ [http://www.tomdispatch.com/post/527/follow_up_the_coalition_of_the_willing_to_be_paid_minus_two Perrott, A.: "Coalition of the Willing? Not us, say Solomon islanders". The New Zealand Herald, March 27, 2003.] .]
In early March 2007, MNF-I announced [cite news|title=Coalition operations on YouTube |publisher=Multi-National Force - Iraq |date=March 17, 2007 |url=http://www.mnf-iraq.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=10672&Itemid=128] that the coalition had launched an official
YouTube[http://www.youtube.com/mnfiraq channel] . [ [http://www.youtube.com/MNFIRAQ YouTube - MNFIRAQ's Channel ] ] The channel's videos have over a million views. [cite news|title=US military takes Iraq war to YouTube |work= BBC News |date=May 11, 2007 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6639401.stm]
The stated purpose of the YouTube channel is to "document action as it appeared to personnel on the ground and in the air as it was shot." The clips posted to the site are edited for "time, security reasons, and/or overly disturbing or offensive images."
Private security companies
In addition to regular troops there are 35,000-120,000 [cite news|title=Private Security Company Association of Iraq |publisher=PSCAI |date=September 1, 2006 |url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060504224200/http://www.pscai.org/index.html (from May 4, 2006 web archive)] Failed verification|date=May 2007 private military contractors in Iraq. One such example is
Blackwater USA, which has been discussed often in recent news. These contractors fit into two categories--those with DoD taskings, and those with taskings through State Dept and the Iraqi government for VIP protection. The former can be considered part of the Coalition. The latter are a special category. These latter contractors also differ from military troops and contractors as they are outside a Uniform Code of Military Justice, and follow a separate system of legal accountability through registration with the Iraqi Ministry of Interior. PSCs are regulated under CPA Memorandum 17, which has been endorsed by the Government of Iraq.
As of 3 April 2007, at least 390 contractors have been killed in Iraq: the vast majority of them security personnel killed in ambushes or bombings. These include at least 120 Americans, 40 Britons, 21 South Africans, 17 Fijians, 5 Canadians as well as smaller numbers of fatalities from various other nations. Significant numbers of translators, engineers, truck-drivers and other workers have been killed including around 40 Americans, 34 Turks, 12 Nepalis, 9 Filipinos, 6 Bulgarians and 5 Jordanians; amongst others.
Incentives given by the U.S. to coalition members
Many nations received monetary and other incentives from the United States in return for sending troops to or otherwise supporting the Iraq war. [http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/armtwist/2003/0511alliesrewarded.htm US Pays Back Nations That Supported War - UN Security Council - Global Policy Forum ] ] [The Boston Globe, October 10, 2003.] Below is a partial list of some of the incentives offered to coalition members:
*Turkey - Turkey was offered approximately $8.5 billion in loans in exchange for sending 10,000 peacekeeping troops in 2003. Even though the US did say the loans and the sending of troops to Iraq were not directly linked, it also said the loans are contingent upon "cooperation" on Iraq. [http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/1008/p01s02-woiq.html "Turks pitch in: new troops to Iraq"]
*Singapore - In May 2003 the Bush Administration signed a free trade agreement with Singapore, the first with an Asian country. In announcing the deal, President Bush hailed Singapore as "a strong partner in the war on terrorism and a member of the coalition on Iraq."
Asia Timescolumnist Jeffrey Robertson argued was a reward for Singapore's support of the Iraq invasion. [ [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/05/20030506-11.html President Signed U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement ] ] [ [http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Asian_Economy/GG12Dk01.html Asia Times Online :: Global Economy ] ]
* Australia: In 2004 the Bush Administration "fast tracked" a free trade agreement with Australia. The Sydney Morning Herald called the deal a "reward" for Australia's contribution of troops to the Iraq invasion. [ [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2004/08/20040803-1.html President Bush Signs U.S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement ] ] [ [http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/15/1089694452858.html US House approves free trade pact - News - www.smh.com.au ] ]
*Great Britain: As of 2006,
the Independentreported that British companies have received at least £1.1bn contracts for reconstruction work in postwar Iraq. [ [http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/article350959.ece The War Dividend: The British companies making a fortune out of conflict-riven Iraq - Middle East, World - Independent.co.uk ] ]
In addition to direct incentives, critics of the war have argued that the involvement of other members of the coalition was in response for indirect benefits, such as support for NATO membership or other military and financial aid. Almost all of the Eastern European nations involved in the Coalition have either recently joined or are in the process of joining the US-led NATO alliance (namely Bulgaria, Georgia, Albania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Romania and Slovakia). [ [http://usiraq.procon.org/viewadditionalresource.asp?resourceID=699 U.S./Iraq ProCon | Coalition | Coalition Country Detail | Page 2 ] ] , the exceptions being Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic which joined NATO in 1999. Estonian Foreign Minister
Urmas Paet, for example, said on April 21 that Estonian troops had to remain in Iraq due to his country's "important partnership" with the United States. [ [http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?F=1722324&C=europe/ DefenseNews.com - Estonia Should Keep Troops in Iraq in 2007: Official - 04/21/06 12:06 ] ]
At least one country, Georgia, is believed to have sent soldiers to Iraq as an act of repayment for the American training of security forces that could potentially be deployed to the break-away regions of
South Ossetiaand Abkhazia. [ [http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0517/p08s01-woeu.html US quietly puts down roots in Georgia | csmonitor.com ] ] Indeed, Georgian troops that were sent to Iraq have all undergone these training programs. [ [http://www.estripes.com/article.asp?article=37342&archive=true U.S. Army Europe to train more Georgian troops] , " Stars and Stripes" European edition, 27 June 2006] El Salvador's President Antonio Sacahas been accused of deploying troops in return for membership in the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), [ [http://www.coha.org/2006/08/21/el-salvador-dispatches-additional-contingent-to-iraq/ El Salvador Dispatches Additional Contingent to Iraq - Council on Hemispheric Affairs ] ] and as a member of the right-wing ARENAparty that was supported heavily by the United States during the El Salvador Civil War, is certainly influenced by the United States.
Conversely, Greece's non involvement (a poll indicated 90% against the Iraq Invasion), may have led to the US recognizing the Republic of Macedonia under its constitutional name. [cite web
title=Balkan Crisis Report: Macedonia Looks to US to Lean on Greece
publisher=Institute for war & Peace Reporting, citing"(BCR No 581, 28-Oct-05)"
quote=At a time of deep divisions within the EU, Macedonia backed the US-led invasion of Iraq and also sent troops there. It also supported the US position in the controversy within the EU over the International Criminal Court, ICC. As a reward, in November 2004 the US abandoned its former neutrality over the name dispute and recognized Macedonia under its constitutional name, the Republic of Macedonia.]
*Gulf War (1990–1991) Coalition
Coalition of the willing
United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq
NATO Training Mission - Iraq
* http://mnf-iraq.com Official site
* [http://www.icasualties.org/oif/ Site with Iraq news and detailed database of all Coalition and Contractor casualties in Iraq]
* [http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=8023&Cr=iraq&Cr1 Top UN envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello killed in terrorist blast in Baghdad] -
* [http://geocities.com/jdejoannis/Coalition Coalition Troop Deployment Data and Graphs] , Collected from various news sources.
* [http://craigmurrayfriends.blogspot.com/2007/05/british-casualty-trends.html British Casualty Monitor: Tracking the war in Iraq]
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