- Hard water
Hard water is the type of
waterthat has high mineralcontent (in contrast with " soft water"). Hard water minerals primarily consist of calcium(Ca2+), and magnesium(Mg2+) metal cations, and sometimes other dissolved compounds such as bicarbonates and sulfates. Calcium usually enters the water as either calcium carbonate (CaCO3), in the form of limestoneand chalk, or calcium sulfate(CaSO4), in the form of other mineral deposits. The predominant source of magnesium is dolomite(CaMg(CO3)2). Hard water is generally not harmful.
The simplest way to determine the hardness of water is the lather/froth test:
soapor toothpaste, when agitated, lathers easily in soft water but not in hard water. More exact measurements of hardness can be obtained through a wet titration. The total water 'hardness' (including both Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions) is read as parts per millionor weight/volume (mg/L) of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the water. Although water hardness usually only measures the total concentrations of calcium and magnesium (the two most prevalent, divalentmetal ions), iron, aluminium, and manganesemay also be present at elevated levels in some geographical locations.
Hardness in water is defined as the presence of multivalent
cations. Hardness in water can cause water to form scales and a resistance to soap. It can also be defined as water that doesn’t produce lather with soap solutions, but produces white precipitate (scum).Example :
2C17H35COONa + Ca++ → (C17H35COO)2Ca + 2Na+
Types of hard water
In the 1960's, scientist Chris Gilby discovered that hard water can be categorized by the ions found in the water. A distinction is also made between 'temporary' and 'permanent' hard water.
Temporary hardness is caused by a combination of calcium ions and bicarbonate ions in the water. It can be removed by boiling the water or by the addition of lime (
calcium hydroxide). Boiling promotes the formation of carbonate from the bicarbonate and precipitates calcium carbonate out of solution, leaving water that is softer upon cooling.
The following is the equilibrium reaction when
calcium carbonate(CaCO3) is dissolved in water:
CaCO3(s) + H2CO3(aq) Unicode|⇋ Ca2+(aq) + 2HCO3-(aq)
Upon heating, less CO2 is able to dissolve into the water (see
Solubility). Since there is not enough CO2 around, the reaction cannot proceed from left to right, and therefore the CaCO3 will not dissolve as rapidly. Instead, the reaction is forced to the left (i.e. products to reactants) to re-establish equilibrium, and solid CaCO3 is formed. Boiling the water will remove hardness as long as the solid CaCO3 that precipitates out is removed. After cooling, if enough time passes the water will pick up CO2 from the air and the reaction will again proceed from left to right, allowing the CaCO3 to "re-dissolve" into the water.
For more information on the solubility of calcium carbonate in water and how it is affected by atmospheric carbon dioxide, see
Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. It is usually caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium sulfates and/or chlorides in the water, which become more soluble as the temperature rises. Despite the name, permanent hardness can be removed using a
water softeneror ion exchange column, where the calcium and magnesium ions are exchanged with the sodium ions in the column.
Hard water causes scaling, which is the left over mineral deposits that are formed after the hard water had evaporated. This is also known as
limescale. The scale can clog pipes, ruin water heaters, coat the insides of tea and coffee pots, and decrease the life of toilet flushing units.
Similarly, insoluble salt residues that remain in hair after shampooing with hard water tend to leave hair rougher and harder to untangle. [ [http://www.bodyandfitness.com/Beauty/Health&Beauty/healthyhair.htm#damage Body And Fitness Healthy Hair Tips] ]
In industrial settings, water hardness must be constantly monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in
boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that comes in contact with water. Hardness is controlled by the addition of chemicals and by large-scale softening with zeoliteand ion exchange resins.
It is possible to measure the level of hard water by obtaining a free water testing kit. These are supplied by most water softening companies. There are several different scales used to describe the hardness of water in different contexts.
* mmol/L (millimoles per litre)
* mg/L calcium carbonate equivalent
* grains/gallon (gpg)
1 gr/U.S. gal = 17.11 mg/L
* Parts per million weight/volume (ppm "w"/"v" or ppm "m"/"v")
* Various obsolete "degrees":
** Clark degrees (°Clark)/English degrees (°E)
conversion to mg/L calcium: divide by 0.175
One degree Clark corresponds to one grain of calcium carbonate in one Imperial gallon of water which is equivalent to 14.28 parts calcium carbonate in 1,000,000 parts water.
** Deutsche Härte (German hardness) (°dH)
conversion to mg/L calcium: divide by 0.14
One degree German corresponds to one part calcium oxide in 100,000 parts of water.
** French degrees (°f) (letter to be written in lowercase to avoid confusion with degree Fahrenheit — not always adhered to)
conversion to mg/L calcium: divide by 0.25
One degree French corresponds to one part calcium carbonate in 100,000 parts of water.
** American degrees
One degree American corresponds to one part calcium carbonate in 1,000,000 parts water (1 mg/L or 1 ppm)
** Degrees of general hardness (
One degree of general hardness corresponds to 10 mg of calcium oxide or magnesium oxide per litre of water
Because it is the precise mixture of minerals dissolved in the water, together with the water's
pHand temperature, that determines the behaviour of the hardness, a single-number scale does not adequately describe hardness. Descriptions of hardness correspond roughly with ranges of mineral concentrations:
* Soft: 0–20 mg/L as calcium
* Moderately soft: 20–40 mg/L as calcium
* Slightly hard: 40–60 mg/L as calcium
* Moderately hard: 60–80 mg/L as calcium
* Hard: 80–120 mg/L as calcium
* Very Hard >120 mg/L as calcium
Several indices are used to describe the behaviour of calcium carbonate in water, oil, or gas mixtures. [ [http://220.127.116.11/technicallibrary/corrdoctors/Modules/NaturalWaters/Frames.htm Corrosion by water ] ]
Langelier Saturation Index (LSI)
Langelier Saturation Index(sometimes Langelier Stability Index) is a calculated number used to predict the calcium carbonate stability of water. It indicates whether the water will precipitate, dissolve, or be in equilibrium with calcium carbonate. Langelier developed a method for predicting the pH at which water is saturated in calcium carbonate (called pHs). The LSI is expressed as the difference between the actual system pH and the saturation pH.
LSI = pH - pHs
If the actual pH of the water is below the calculated saturation pH, the LSI is negative and the water has a very limited scaling potential. If the actual pH exceeds pHs, the LSI is positive, and being supersaturated with CaCO3, the water has a tendency to form scale. At increasing positive index values, the scaling potential increases.
Langelier saturation index is defined as:
LSI = pH (measured) - pHs
* For LSI > 0, water is super saturated and tends to precipitate a scale layer of CaCO3
* For LSI = 0, water is saturated (in equilibrium) with CaCO3 . A scale layer of CaCO3 is neither precipitated nor dissolved
* For LSI < 0, water is under saturated and tends to dissolve solid CaCO3
In practice, water with an LSI between -0.5 and +0.5 will not display enhanced mineral dissolving or scale forming properties. Water with an LSI below -0.5 tends to exhibit noticeably increased dissolving abilities while water with an LSI above +0.5 tends to exhibit noticeably increased scale forming properties.
It is also worth noting that the LSI is temperature sensitive. The LSI becomes more positive as the water temperature increases. This has particular implications in situations where well water is used. The temperature of the water when it first exits the well is often significantly lower than the temperature inside the building served by the well or at the laboratory where the LSI measurement is made.
Ryznar Stability Index (RSI)
The Ryznar stability index (RSI) uses a database of scale thickness measurements in municipal water systems to predict the effect of water chemistry.
Ryznar saturation index (RSI) was developed from empirical observations of corrosion rates and film formation in steel mains.
Ryznar saturation index is defined as:
RSI = 2 pHs – pH (measured)
* For 6,5 < RSI < 7 water is considered to be approximately at saturation equilibrium with calcium carbonate
* For RSI > 8 water is under saturated and, therefore, would tend to dissolve any existing solid CaCO3
* For RSI < 6,5 water tends to be scale forming
Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI)
The Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI) uses slightly different parameters to quantify the relationship between the saturation state of the water and the amount of limescale deposited.
Other indices include the Larson-Skold Index [T.E., Larson and R. V. Skold, Laboratory Studies Relating Mineral Quality of Water to Corrosion of Steel and Cast Iron, 1958 Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL pp.  - 46: ill. ISWS C-71] , the Stiff-Davis Index [Stiff, Jr., H.A., Davis, L.E., A Method For Predicting The Tendency of Oil Field Water to Deposit Calcium Carbonate, Pet. Trans. AIME 195;213 (1952).] , and the Oddo-Tomson Index [Oddo,J.E., Tomson, M.B.,Scale Control, Prediction and Treatment Or How Companies Evaluate A Scaling Problem and What They Do Wrong, CORROSION/92, Paper No. 34, (Houston, TX:NACE INTERNATIONAL 1992).] .
World Health Organizationsays that "there does not appear to be any convincing evidence that water hardness causes adverse health effects in humans."World Health Organization [http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/en/hardness.pdf Hardness in Drinking-Water] , 2003]
Some studies have shown a weak inverse relationship between water hardness and
cardiovascular diseasein men, up to a level of 170 mg calcium carbonate per litre of water. The World Health Organizationhas reviewed the evidence and concluded the data were inadequate to allow for a recommendation for a level of hardness.
In a review by František Kožíšek, M.D., Ph.D. National Institute of Public Health, Czech Republic there is a good overview of the topic, and unlike the WHO, sets some recommendations for the maximum and minimum levels of calcium (40-80 mg/L) and magnesium (20-30 mg/L) in drinking water, and a total hardness expressed as the sum of the calcium and magnesium concentrations of 2-4 mmol/L.František Kožíšek [http://www.szu.cz/chzp/voda/pdf/hardness.pdf Health significance of drinking water calcium and magnesium] , February 2003]
Other studies have shown weak correlations between cardiovascular health and water hardness. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=7233165&query_hl=8&itool=pubmed_docsum Studies of water quality and cardiovascular diseas... [Sci Total Environ. 1981 - PubMed Result ] ] [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=12803370 Cardiovascular mortality and calcium and magnesium... [Eur J Epidemiol. 2003 - PubMed Result ] ] [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=9888277 Magnesium and calcium in drinking water and death ... [Epidemiology. 1999 - PubMed Result ] ]
Very soft water can corrode the metal
pipesin which it is carried and as a result the water may contain elevated levels of cadmium, copper, leadand zinc.
It is often desirable to soften hard water, as it does not readily form lather with soap. Soap is wasted when trying to form lather, and in the process, scum forms. Hard water may be treated to reduce the effects of scaling and to make it more suitable for laundry and bathing.
A water softener, like a fabric softener, works on the principle of
cationor ion exchangein which ions of the hardness minerals are exchanged for sodiumor potassiumions, effectively reducing the concentrationof hardness minerals to tolerable levels and thus making the water softer and gives it a smoother feeling. [ [http://www.howstuffworks.com/question99.htm How does a water softener work?] at Howstuffworks.com]
The most economical way to soften household water is with an ion exchange water softener. This unit uses
sodium chloride(table salt) to recharge beads made of the ion exchange resins that exchange hardness mineral ions for sodium ions. Artificial or natural zeolites can also be used. As the hard water passes through and around the beads, the hardness mineral ions are preferentially absorbed, displacing the sodium ions. This process is called ion exchange. When the bead or sodium zeolite has a low concentration of sodium ions left, it is exhausted, and can no longer soften water. The resin is recharged by flushing (often "back"-flushing) with saltwater. The high excess concentration of sodium ions alter the equilibrium between the ions in solution and the ions held on the surface of the resin, resulting in replacement of the hardness mineral ions on the resin or zeolite with sodium ions. The resulting saltwater and mineral ion solution is then rinsed away, and the resin is ready to start the process all over again. This cycle can be repeated many times.
The discharge of brine water during this regeneration process has been banned in some jurisdictions (notably California, USA) due to concerns about the environmental impact of the discharged sodium.
Some softening processes in industry use the same method, but on a much larger scale. These methods create an enormous amount of salty water that is costly to treat and dispose of.
Temporary hardness, caused by hydrogen carbonate (or
bicarbonate) ions, can be removed by boiling. For example, calcium hydrogen carbonate, often present in temporary hard water, is boiled in a kettle to remove the hardness. In the process, a scale forms on the inside of the kettle in a process known as "furring". This scale is composed of calcium carbonate.
Ca(HCO3)2 → CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O
Hardness can also be reduced with a lime-soda ash treatment. This process, developed by Thomas Clark in
1841, involves the addition of slaked lime(calcium hydroxide — Ca(OH)2) to a hard water supply to convert the hydrogen carbonate hardness to carbonate, which precipitates and can be removed by filtration:
Ca(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 → 2CaCO3 + 2H2O
The addition of sodium carbonate also softens permanently hard water containing
calcium sulfate, as the calcium ions form calcium carbonate which precipitates out and sodium sulfateis formed which is soluble. The calcium carbonate that is formed sinks to the bottom. Sodium sulfate has no effect on the hardness of water.
Na2CO3 + CaSO4 → Na2SO4 + CaCO3
Effects on Skin
Some confusion may arise after a first experience with soft water. Hard water does not lather well with soap and leaves a "less than clean" feeling. Soft water lathers better than hard water but leaves a "slippery feeling" on the skin after use with soap. For example, a certain water softener manufacturer contests that the "slippery feeling" after showering in soft water is due to "cleaner skin" and the absence of "friction-causing" soap scum.
However, the chemical explanation is that softened water, due to its sodium content, has a much reduced ability to combine with the soap film on your body and therefore, it is much more difficult to rinse off. [ [http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/jul2001/996090332.Ch.r.html With soft water, why can't we rinse off all the soap?] ] Solutions are to use less soap or a synthetic liquid body wash.
Hard water in Australia
Analysis of water hardness in major Australian cities by the Australian Water Association shows a range from very soft (Melbourne) to very hard (Adelaide).Total Hardness levels of Calcium Carbonate in mg/L are:
Canberra: 40 [ [http://www.actewagl.com.au/water/quality/hardness.aspx ACTewAGL: Dishwashers and Water Hardness] ] ; Melbourne: 10 - 26 [ [http://www.melbournewater.com.au/content/library/publications/reports/compliance_reports/public_health_compliance_quarter_1_(july-september_2006).pdf Melbourne Water Public Health Compliance Report - July-September 2006] ] ; Sydney: 39.4 - 60.1 [ [http://www.sydneywater.com.au/WaterQuality/TypicalDrinkingWaterAnalysis Sydney Typical Drinking Water Analysis] ] ;
Perth: 29 - 226 [ [http://www.watercorporation.com.au/_files/DWQ_AR_0506_withAppB.pdf Perth Drinking Water Quality Annual report 2005-06] ] ;
Brisbane: 100 [ [http://www.brisbane.qld.gov.au/BCC:BRISWATER::pc=PC_1397 Brisbane Drinking Water] ] ; Adelaide: 134 - 148 [ [http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/reporting/human/water/quality_table.html Adelaide Water Quality] ] ; Hobart: 5.8 - 34.4 [ [http://www.hobartcity.com.au/HCC.3539560:STANDARD::pc=DRINKING_WATER_QUALITY Hobart Drinking Water Quality] ] ;
Darwin: 31 [ [http://www.nt.gov.au/powerwater/docs/water_quality/2005/Water%20Quality.pdf Darwin Water Quality] ] .
Hard water in Canada
Prairieprovinces (mainly Saskatchewanand Manitoba) contain high quantities of calcium and magnesium, often as dolomite, which are readily soluble in the groundwater that contains high concentrations of trapped carbon dioxidefrom the last glaciation. In these parts of Canada, the total hardness in mg/L of calcium carbonate equivalent frequently exceed 200 mg/L, if groundwater is the only source of potable water. The west coast, by contrast, has unusually soft water, derived mainly from mountain lakes fed by glaciers and snowmelt. Some typical values are: Calgary165 mg/L, Saskatoon< 140 mg/L, Winnipeg77 mg/L, [ [http://winnipeg.ca/waterandwaste/water/testResults/Winnipeg.stm 2006 Winnipeg drinking water quality test results] ] Toronto121 mg/L, [ [http://www.toronto.ca/water/faq.htm City of Toronto: Toronto Water - FAQ] ] Vancouver< 3 mg/L, [ [http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/sewerage/pdf/washsmart.pdf GVRD Wash Smart - Water Facts] ] Charlottetown PEI 140 - 150 mg/L. [http://www.city.charlottetown.pe.ca/allaire/spectra/system/mediastore/Water_Report_2006.pdf]
Hard water in England and Wales
Information from the British [http://www.dwi.gov.uk/ Drinking Water Inspectorate] shows that drinking water in
Englandis generally considered to be 'very hard', with most areas of England, particularly the East, exhibiting above 200 mg/L for the calcium carbonate equivalent. Wales, Devon, Cornwalland parts of North-West England are softer water areas, and range from 0 to 200 mg/L Fact|date=February 2007. In the brewingindustry in England and Wales, water is often deliberately hardened with gypsumin the process of Burtonisation.
Hard water in the US
According to the
United States Geological Survey, 89.3% of US homes have hard water. The softest waters occur in parts of the New England, South Atlantic-Gulf, Pacific Northwest, and Hawaiiregions. Moderately hard waters are common in many of the rivers of the Tennessee, Great Lakes, Pacific Northwest, and Alaskaregions. Hard and very hard waters are found in some of the streams in most of the regions throughout the country. Hardest waters (greater than 1,000 mg/L) are in streams in Texas, New Mexico, Kansas, Arizona, and southern California. [Briggs, J.C., and Ficke, J.F.; "Quality of Rivers of the United States, 1975 Water Year -- Based on the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)": U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 78-200, 436 p. (1977)]
*Alcoa Chemical, [http://www.alcochemical.com/Alco/English/Markets/Water+Treatment/LSI+Calculator.htm Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) Calculator]
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