- Husayn ibn Ali
name = Husayn ash-Shahīd
given name = Husayn ibn ‘Alī
rank = Third
Second Nizārī Imām
subtitle = Abu ‘Abdillāh [Kitab al-Irshad, p. 198.]
birth = 3rd [Mohammad Hussein il’adeeb. "The brief history of the fourteen infallibles “peace be upon them”." Imtaul Asma, Pg. 187. Usud al-Ghaba 2/18. Ad-Dhariyatut Taahira, Pg. 101] or 5th [Tibrani, al-Mojam al-Kabir from manuscripts of Amirul Momineen Library. Tohfatul Azhar Zilaalul Anhaar from manuscripts at Imam Kashiful Ghita Public Library. Maqrizi, Khattat 2/285] Sha‘bān 4 AH [Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain (a.s.), Pg. 38. Tahdhib al-Asma 1/163. Maqatilut Talibeen, Pg. 84. Maqrizi, Khattat 2/285. Bustani, Dairatul Ma’rif 7/48. Jauharatul Kalaam Fi Madhis Saadaatil A’laam, Pg. 116. Al-Ifaadah Fil Tarikhul Aimmatil Saadah by Yahya bin al-Husain (died 424 A.H.) from photocopy at Imam Hakim Library. Ad-Dhariyatut Taahira from written manuscript at Amirul Momineen Public Library, Majma az-Zawaid 9/194. Usud al-Ghaba 2/18. Al-Irshad, Pg. 198]
≈ Jan. 8, 626 C.E.
death = 10th
≈ Oct. 10, 680 C.E.
birthplace = Madīnah [Wafa al-Wafa]
buried = Imām Husayn Mosque, Karbalā
duration = Before Imāmate: 46 years
(4 - 50 AH)
- 7 years with his grandfather
- 7 years with his mother Fātimah
- 36 years with his father ‘Alī
- 46 years with his brother Hasan
Imāmate: 11 years
(50 - 61 AH)
titles = *ash-Shahīd [Mohammad Hussein il’adeeb. "The brief history of the fourteen infallibles “peace be upon them”." Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi. "The Life of Imam Husain." p.58.]
*as-Sibt [Tohfatul Azhar wa Zilalul Anhar. Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi. "The Life of Imam Husain." p.58.]
*Sayyidush Shabābi Ahlil Jannah [Tirmidhi, Vol. II, p. 221 ; تاريخ الخلفاء، ص189 ]
Arabic:Leader of the Youth of Paradise)
*ar-Rashīd [Mohammad Hussein il’adeeb. "The brief history of the fourteen infallibles “peace be upon them”." Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi. "The Life of Imam Husain." p.58.]
Arabic:The Rightly Guided)
*at-Tābi li Mardhātillāh [Nurul Absar, Pg. 256, Jauhratul Kalam Fi Saadaatul A’laam, Pg. 116]
Arabic:The Follower of Gods Will)
*al-Mubārak [Mohammad Hussein il’adeeb. "The brief history of the fourteen infallibles “peace be upon them”." Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi. "The Life of Imam Husain." p.58.]
*at-Tayyib [Mohammad Hussein il’adeeb. "The brief history of the fourteen infallibles “peace be upon them”." Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi. "The Life of Imam Husain." p.58.]
*Sayyidush Shuhadā [Mohammad Hussein il’adeeb. "The brief history of the fourteen infallibles “peace be upon them”."]
Arabic:Master of the Martyrs)
*al-Wafī [Mohammad Hussein il’adeeb. "The brief history of the fourteen infallibles “peace be upon them”." Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi. "The Life of Imam Husain." p.58.]
*as-Sayyid [Mohammad Hussein il’adeeb. "The brief history of the fourteen infallibles “peace be upon them”." Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi. "The Life of Imam Husain." p.58.]
spouse = Shahrbānū bint
Umm Is'hāq bint Talha
father = ‘Alī
mother = Fātimah
children = ‘Alī ibn Husayn, ‘Alī al-Akbar, ‘Alī al-Asghar(‘Abdullāh), Sukayna/Ruqayya, Fātimah Sughrā.
Husayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib ( _ar. حسين بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب) (third of
Shaban4 AH / 8th January 626 AD, at Medina - tenth of Muharram61 AH / 10th October 680 AD, at Karbala) was the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammadand the son of Ali, the first Imam, and the fourth Caliph, and Muhammad's daughter Fatima Zahra. Hussein ibn Ali is revered as a martyr who fought tyranny, as the third Imam by most Shi’a Muslimscite encyclopedia | title=al-Hussein ibn 'Ali | encyclopedia=Encyclopedia Britannica Online | accessdate=2007-10-12] , and as the second Imam by the majority of IsmailiShi'a Muslims.Fact|date=January 2008
He refused to pledge allegiance to
Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph. He rose up to found a regime that would reinstate a “true” Islamic polity as opposed to what he considered the unjust rule of the Umayyads. As a consequence, Husayn was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbalain 680 (61AH) by Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan. [Gordon, 2005, pp. 144-146] The anniversaryof his martyrdom is called Ashuraand it is a day of mourning and religious observance for all Muslims. Revenge for Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad caliphate and gave impetus to the rise of a powerful Shia movement.
Birth and childhood
According to the most reports, Imam Husayn ibn Ali was born on 3
Sha'aban4 AH/10 January 626 CE. cite encyclopedia|last=Madelung |first=Wilferd | authorlink=Wilferd Madelung | title=HOSAYN B. ALI |year=| encyclopedia=Iranica | accessdate=2008-01-12|location=|publisher=|url=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v12f5/v12f5036b.html]
He and his brother Imam Hassan were the only descendants of Prophet Muhammad who remained alive. Many of the accounts about Prophet Muhammad's treatment of his grandsons and his great love for them deal with them together and at times confuse them. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that "whoever loves them [his grandsons] loves me and whoever hates them hates me" and "al-Hasan and al-Husayn are the sayyids of the youth of Paradise". The latter saying has been particularly important for Shias who used it in support of for the right of Muhammad's descendants to the imamate. Muhammad, according to other traditions, is pictured with his grandsons on his knees, on his shoulders, or even on his back during the prayer at the moment of prostrating himself.L. Veccia Vaglieri, (al-) Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, Encyclopedia of Islam ] According to Madelung, Muhammad loved them and declared them as his
Ahl al-Baytfrequently. The Quranhas accorded the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet an elevated position above the rest of the faithful. [Madelung (1997), pp. 14-16]
In addition to these traditions, a number of traditions also involve presence of angels. From a Muslim point of view, these traditions do not create any problem but to non-Muslims they as appear legends created under the Shi'i influence.
The Incident of Mubahala
hadithcollections, it is narrated that during the 9th - 10th year after hijra an Arab Christian envoy from Najran(currently in northern Yemenand partly in Saudi Arabia) came to Muhammad to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning Jesus. [cite quran|3|61|style = ref] After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to Adam's creation [cite quran|3|59|style = ref] , Muhammad called them to Mubahala (Cursing), where each party should ask God to destroy the lying party and their families. Muhammad, to prove to them that he is a prophet, brought his daughter Syedda Fatimah(Taiba,Tahira) and his surviving grandchildren, Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain ibn Ali, and Ali ibn Abi Taliband came back to the Christians and said this is my family ( Ahl al-Bayt) and covered himself and his family with a cloak. [See:* Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of virtues of Ali, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1871, the end of tradition #32
* Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p654
* Madelung, 1997, pp. 15 and 16] The Christian envoy, the traditions add, declined to take part in Mubahala and chose instead to pay tribute.
Husayn and caliphate
Ali's followers, Shia, proclaimed that his eldest son Hassan, who was the successor to Ali's Imamate should be the caliph and the Islamic tradition must not be discarded again. Muawiyah had fought Ali for the leadership of the empire and now prepared to fight Hassan. After a few inconclusive skirmishes between the armies of Hassan and Muawiyah, Hassan reminded his followers of Ali's position that Imamate is sufficient for successorship of the prophet and that leading the Muslim state was not a criterion. Thus, to avoid agonies of another civil war, he signed a treaty with Muawiyah and relinquished the control of what had turned into an Arabian kingdom; while not having pledged his allegiance to Muawiyah. Even after taking such a stance, Hassan was poisoned and killed in 669 by Muawiyah. This left Husayn as the head of the Alids, the successor to Hassan's Imamate.
Husayn and Rashidun
At the time of the siege of the caliph
Uthman's residence in Medina by rebels from Egypt, when Uthman asked Ali to join the defender of his house, Ali sent Hassan and Husayn. When Uthman asked Husayn if he thought he would be able to defend himself against the rebels, he demurred, and Uthman sent him away.
During Ali's caliphate, the brothers Hassan, Husayn,
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, and their cousin 'Abd Allah ibn J'afarappear as his closest assistants within his household. Muawiyah era
When Imam Hassan ibn Ali agreed to a peace treaty with
Muawiyah I, the first Umayyad caliph, he left Kufaand went to Medinawith his brother Imam Husayn. [Madelung (1997), p0. 324 and 325] Imam Husayn stayed in Madina until Muawiyah died in 680.
He lived under the most difficult outward conditions of suppression and persecution. This was due to the fact that, first of all, religious laws and regulations had lost much of their weight and credit, and the edicts of the Umayyad government had gained complete authority and power. Secondly, Mu'awiyah and his aides made use of every possible means to put aside and move out of the way the Household of the Prophet and the lovers of Imam Ali and his sons and thus obliterate the name of Ali and his family.Tabatabaei, (1979), p.196] Muawiyah I ordered for public curses of 'Ali and his major supporters including Imam Husayn and his brother.
According to Shia and Sunni belief Imam Husayn became the third Imam for a period of ten years after death of his brother Imam Hassan in 669. All of this time but the last six months coinciding with the caliphate of Mu'awiyah.
Muawiyah designated his son,
Yazid I, as his successor before his death in 680CE.Halm (2004), p.13]
The significance of Husayn's allegiance
Yazid realized that unless Husayn, the grandson of the prophet and the legitimate successor to Hassan, submits to his command, his caliphate would not be deemed legitimate due to the clause in Hassan's treaty with Muawiyah which forbade Muawiyah from appointing a successor to himself. Thus, he tried several times to force Husayn into pledging allegiance to him.
Yazid had claimed that Islam was no more than a game of the Hashimites to attain temporal power and in the face of such a claim, had the grandson of the prophet of Islam submitted to Yazid, it would conclusively affirm Yazid's position about genuineness of Islam.
When Yazid I became caliph he forced Husayn ibn Ali and
Abd Allah ibn Zubayrto pledge alliance with him, but they refused and migrated from Madinah to Meccain that year. Dakake (2007), pp.81 and 82] cite encyclopedia | title=Battle of Karbala | encyclopedia=Encyclopedia Britannica Online | accessdate=2007-10-13|url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9044710/Battle-of-Karbala]
Yazid perceived Husayn's refusal to pay allegiance as a danger to his throne. He plotted to kill the grandson of the prophet during the Hajj, in the precincts of the Holy Kaaba, thus defiling and desecrating it (killing a person in Mecca is prohibited in Islam).
In order to avoid this sacrilege, Husayn took along his wifes, children, a few friends and relatives and headed towards Kufa to fulfill the responsibility of the bearer of Imamate and to fulfill his destiny as was prophesied by his grandfather, Mohammad.
On his way, he was offered military support by the tribe of Banu Tayy as well as sanctuary in their hills from where he could (if he wanted to) safely lead a revolt and overthrow Yazid. But Husayn refused the offer and continued his journey with his few companions.cn|date=July 2008
Battle of Karbala
: "See also:
Husayn in his path toward Kufa encountered the army of
Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, led by al-Hurr al-Riyahi (a top commander in the Umayyad army who later changed sides).
When he clashed with them quotedfact|date=January 2008:
At the Battle of Karbala it is recorded that seventy two people were martyred. [ [http://www.al-islam.org/short/sorrows/names.htm Names of Martyrs at Karbala ] ] On his way toward Kufa, Husayn encountered the army of
Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, which was led by Hurr. When he clashed with them he quotedFact|date=January 2008:
"... Don't you see that the truth is not put into action and the false is not prohibited? The believer has got to be fond of meeting his God justly. So I do not consider the death but blessedness and living with the oppressors other than abjectness."
Part of his speech on
"... Lo and behold; an ignoble (i.e
ibn Ziyad), son of other ignoble (i.e. Ziyad ibn Abihi), has entangled me in a bifurcation, between either unsheathing the swords or accepting abjectness. And far be it that we accept abjectness. Allah abominates that for us, plus his prophet, believers, the chaste pure gentlewomen, those who do not accept oppression as well as the souls who do not submit to meanness abominate it. They disapprove that we prefer obedience of scrooges to the best sites of murder. Beware; I assault you together with this family while they are few and when the helpers deserted. ... "
October 10680(Muharram 10, 61 AH), he and his small group of his followers and family members, who were between 108 and 136 men of Husayn ibn Ali(the grandson of Muhammad). [ [http://www.porsojoo.com/en/node/70869 در روز عاشورا چند نفر شهید شدند؟] ] [ [http://www.velaiat.com/shshow.asp?rsabs=43&id=kash فهرست اسامي شهداي كربلا] ] , fought with a large army of perhaps 4000 men under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad, son of the founder of Kufah. Husayn and all of his men were killed and beheaded. The bodies were left three days without burial and all the heads and whomever was left from Husain's family were taken as prisoners to al-Sham (Syria and Lebanon today) to Yazid. [http://www.al-islam.org/history/history/marsiyya.html Battle of Karbala] ]
Today, the death of Hussein ibn Ali is commemorated during every
Muharram, with the most important of these days being its tenth day, Ashura.
Husayn's body is buried in Karbala, near the site of his death. Most accounts say that his head was later retrieved and interred with his body. The
Imam Husayn Shrinewas later built over his grave; it is now a holy site of pilgrimage for Shia Muslims.
Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali
Day of Ashurais commemorated by the Shi‘a as a day of mourning for the martyrdomof Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammadat the Battle of Karbala. In some countries and regions such as Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, India, Bahrain, Trinidad and Tobagoand Jamaica Commemoration of Husayn ibn Alihas become a national holiday and all ethnic and religious communities participate in it.
It is especially mourn on the first ten days of Muharram, first month of the Islamic calendar, and ends by the 10th day. Although, the mourning continues through the whole month and well into Safar till eighth rabi-ul-awal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.
Shi'a views of Husayn
Shi'ahs regard Hussein as an
Imam(lord of the spiritual kingdom) and a martyr. He is believed to be the third imam. He set out on his path in order to save Islam and the Ummah from annihilation at the hands of Yazid. According to Shi'a belief he was a willing sacrifice to religious necessity, and Shi'as view Hussein as an exemplar of courage and resistance against tyranny. Ashura, a day of mourning and self-reflection, is held in honor of his suffering.
As a reward for Hussein's suffering, he will be allowed to intercede for the faithful on the day of judgment. [Margaretha T. Heemskerk, "Suffering", Encyclopedia of the Qur'an ]
The saying, "Every day is Ashura, every land is Karbala," is a reminder to live one's life as Hussein did on Ashura, with total sacrifice to Allah and for others. This saying also signifies "We must always remember, because there is suffering everywhere".
Ali ibn Abu Talib
Hassan ibn Ali
Abbas ibn Ali
Battle of Karbala
Day of Ashura
Imam Hussain Shrine
See the articles and books of
Battle of Karbala, Day of Ashura, Mourning of Muharramand Maqtal Al-Husaynin the relevant articles.
* [http://www.aimislam.com/ashura/literature.html English Literature on Imam Al-Hussain]
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9041622 Hussein ibn 'Ali] an article of Encyclopædia Britannica.
* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v12f5/v12f5036b.html Hussein ibn 'Ali] by Wilferd Madelung, an article of Encyclopædia Iranica.
* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v12f5/v12f5036c.html Hussein ibn 'Ali in popular Shiism] by Jean Calmard, an article of Encyclopædia Iranica.
* [http://www.twelveimams.net Twelve Imams]
* [http://www.al-islam.org/nutshell/files/husaynviews.pdf Imam Hussein in the eyes of non-Muslims]
* [http://www.al-islam.org/kaaba14/6.htm The Third Imam]
* [http://www.al-islam.org/short/sorrows/names.htm Martyr Of Karbala]
* [http://www.islamonline.net/English/ArtCulture/2004/03/article06.shtml On Difference & Understanding: Al-Husayn: the Shiite Martyr, the Sunni Hero]
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