- Pacer (train)
The 'Pacer' series was a project by
British Rail(BR) to create a train, with low running costs, for use on rural and suburban services. At the time, BR was under increasing financial pressure from the government including proposals to cut more rail lines. BR set a challenge to several companies to design a cheap, lightweight train similar to railbuses. Since then, 165 Pacer trains (totalling 340 carriages) have been built, with many of them continuing to be in service over 20 years later.
The Pacer series was the result of an experiment to see whether the possibility of using bus parts to create a
diesel multiple unitwas viable - the results of this are still undecided. The initial prototype, known as LEV-1, was a joint project by the British Rail Research Divisionand Leyland Motorsusing a bus body mounted on a modification of an existing freight vehicle underframe (HSFV1). This was followed by the two-car prototype class 140, which was built in 1984at the British Rail Engineering Derby works.
The prototype was joined by another 20 two-car units which formed the Class 141 fleet. The units were used mainly in
Yorkshire, operating on mainly suburban services. They had a capacity of 94 passengers per two-car set, and two Leyland TL11 engines gave a total of 410bhp, resulting in a top speed of 75 mph (121 km/h). The entire class underwent a technical upgrade in 1988 at the Hunslet-Barclayworks in Kilmarnock. The units were withdrawn from use between 1997 & 1999. They have since been sold to the Islamic Republic of Iran Railways[citeweb|url=http://www.msedv.at/rai/rolling.html|title=Rolling Stock of Iranian Railways] whilst a few remain in preservation. Because it used a standard Leyland Nationalbody, the Class 141 was narrower than the later Pacers, and could therefore accommodate only standard bus seating. The later Pacers had widened body panels to allow an increase in seating.
The next and largest Pacer class was the Class 142. This again was built by Leyland and BREL, in
1985. The body was based on a Leyland Nationalbus, built at Lillyhall, Workingtonin Cumbria. Many fixtures and fittings of the Leyland National could be found on the train. The new class had a greater capacity of 106 passengers per two-car set and the same engines were used. The first sets were used initially on Devonand Cornwallbranch lines and on commuter services in the Manchester area. The units from Cornwall were eventually moved to Manchester and the North-East, and the Class 142 has become a common sight on services across the North of England. The class was upgraded in the early 1990s to include more powerful engines, which gave a total power output of 460 bhp per two-car set. A number of trains were then modified for use on the Merseyside PTE city lines around Liverpool, which included dot-matrix route indicators, improved seating and Merseyrail PTE paintwork. This class moved into the control of First North Westernat privatisationand subsequently passed on to Northern Railand Arriva Trains Waleswho have since operated it. Eight units have now been withdrawn from service, replaced by a cascading of British Rail Class 158s.citeweb|url=http://www.northernrail.org/images/upload/Angel%20Trains%20leases%2030%20Class%20158%20diesel%20multiple%20units%20to%20….pdf|title=Angel Trains leases 30 Class 158 diesel multiple units to Northern Rail|date= March 13 2007|publisher= Northern Rail] First Great Western will receive up to 12 units to cover for refurbishment of their fleet and withdrawal of 12 Class 158 units for use by First ScotRail and East Midlands Trains. (Four 158s that were subleased from Northern Rail to First Great Western were also returned.)
Class 143 & Class 144
Around the same time of the Class 142 development, a Pacer railbus was being developed by Kilmarnock-based
Hunslet-Barclay. The train used a Walter Alexander bus body. The train was given the number Class 143 and entered service in 1985. Again with 2 205bhp motors giving a total output of 410 bhp and a top speed of 75 mph, the class originally had a capacity of 122 passengers. The class was used in the North East of England, before being transferred to Wales and was moved over to Wales & Westcontrol during privatisation. It then passed on to Wessex Trains, which became part of the Great Western franchise. The interior was completely changed in 2000, when the Valley Linesservice was introduced, with full back, coach-type seating installed throughout, along with improved fittings. This reduced seating capacity to 106 seats per set. A similar Class 144 train, a Walter Alexander body on BREL underframe, was introduced in 1987. A unit was formed of either a two-car set with 122 seats or a three-car set with a total capacity of 195 passengers and 690 bhp, though still limited to 75 mph. The trains were used in the North East, passing to Northern Spiritat privatisation, then Arriva Trains Northernand now Northern Rail.
Although the Pacer is economical, there are limitations to using bus parts for railway use. Instead of the more usual
bogies, Pacers use a basic four-wheel two-axle configuration. The lack of articulation can result in a rough ride, especially over points and around tight curves. Other performance problems include poor acceleration and poor reliability for some units. On a section of line between Northwich and Greenbank in Cheshire the speed limit is 20mph but could be raised to 50mph if Pacer trains were banned from the train line. The basic bus bench seating can also be uncomfortable, whilst the suspension has given rise to the nickname " Nodding donkeys" due to the up and down motion on uneven track. The inward-opening doors similar to those on buses can be unreliable and the two-step entrance make loading slower and hard for the elderly and those in wheelchairs.
Doubts were raised about safety after the Winsford crash, [citeweb|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/383785.stm|date=
July 2 1999|title=Safety fears over commuter trains|publisher= BBC News] which involved an empty First North WesternClass 142 colliding with a Virgin TrainsClass 87 and coaching stock at Winsford, Cheshireon the West Coast Main Line. [citeweb|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/375946.stm|title=Train driver averts disaster|date= June 23 1999|publisher= BBC News]
No railbuses have been produced in Britain since the Pacer classes.
Most Pacers are over 20 years old. Various train operating companies have investigated ways of trying to replace the Pacer, although little progress has yet been made.
Northern Railannounced that it would begin to withdraw around 20 of its Class 142s due to a stock cascade.
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