Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union

Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union
native_name = Górnośląski Związek Metropolitalny
nickname = USMU
settlement_type = Agglomeration

imagesize = 100px
image_caption = The location of USMU
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = Poland
subdivision_type1 = Voivodship
subdivision_name1 = Silesia
subdivision_type2 = Council
subdivision_name2 = Zarząd GZM
government_footnotes =
government_type =
leader_title = Head of Council
leader_name = Piotr Uszok
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
established_title3 = Founding
established_date3 = 2007
start_date3 = 19th September 2007
unit_pref = Metric
area_total_km2 = 1304
population_as_of = 2007
population_total = 2.1 million (2007)
population_blank1_title = USIA Population
population_blank1_ = 3.5 million
population_density_km2 = 1643
latd=50° |latm=15' |lats= |latNS=N
longd=19° |longm=00' |longs= |longEW=E
area_code = 032
blank_name = Car Plates
blank_info = SD, SG, SH, SI, SJ, SK, SL, SM, SO, ST, SW, SY, SZ, SBE, SGL, SPI, SRS
blank1_name = Economy
blank1_info = service industry, business
blank2_name = Highway
blank2_info = E40 / A4:
E75 / A1:
blank3_name = Railway
blank3_info =Berlin-USMU
blank3_name = Airport
blank3_info = Katowice International Airport
Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union, USMU also known under official name: Metropolitan Association of Upper Silesia, MAUS ( _pl. Górnośląski Związek Metropolitalny) is a union of 14 adjacent cities in the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.

The Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union is the largest urban center in Poland. Its population is 2.2 million (2007), within a conurbation of 2.8 million (the Upper Silesian Industry Area), and with a greater metropolitan area of 3.5 million (the Upper Silesian Coal Basin). The union's share of Poland's Gross Domestic Product is 8% and the combined budget of the union's participants exceeds 6 billion PLN.

The union has been created by a local initiative, and the participation was voluntary. An overwhelming majority of the local population supports the formation of the union. The intent to form the union was formally stated by the presidents of the participating cities, who signed a declaration to this effect on January 9 2006 in Świętochłowice. The Union's registration was signed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration of the Republic of Poland (Polish: "MSWiA") on 8 June 2007 with city of Katowice as its seat [ [http://www.esil.pl/Rejestracja_Gornoslaskiego_Zwiazku_Metropolitalnego,wiadomosci,e,4906.html "www.esil.pl" - "Rejestracja Górnośląskiego Związku Metropolitalnego", 27.06.2007] ] .

In 2006 and 2007, the union planned to unite these cities in one official city "Silesia" [pl icon [http://www.dziennik.pl/Default.aspx?TabId=14&ShowArticleId=24596 dziennik.pl - "17 śląskich miast chce się połączyć w Silesię", 11 December 2006] ] .

The aim of the union is the creation of a strong metropolitan center with pooled resources, an internationally competitive profile and unified management of common infrastructure.

Goals of the union

The main goals of the union include the following:
*Arriving at a common development strategy for the cities comprising the union, in accordance with the current law governing planning and land use.
*Putting into effect projects embraced by a common development strategy of the constituent cities.
*Obtaining financial means from available domestic and foreign funding sources.
*Managing the roadways transferred to the union by its constituent communes (Polish: "gminy").
*Preparing motions having as their aim obtaining public means derived from the budget of the European Union.
*Stimulating the job market throughout the constituent cities of the union.
*Supporting innovative economic programs that increase the competitive standing of the cities in the world.
*Expressing opinions pertaining to legislative and decision-making processes in matters important to the union and affecting the union's activities.

The effects of the union's activity are to include: improvement in managing the agglomeration, strengthening its economic muscle and increased competitive standing of the constituent cities of the USMU, and also the coordination of public relations and promoting the constituent cities, as well as underscoring the importance of the region.



The Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union spans urban communities in the historical regions of Upper Silesia (south part of Silesia) as well as Lesser Poland's Zagłębie Dąbrowskie in Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland, within the northern portion of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, between the Vistula and Oder rivers.

Nine million people live within 100 km of Silesian Stadium at USMU center. Six European capitals are located within 600 kilometres from USMU: Berlin, Vienna, Prague, Bratislava, Budapest and Warsaw.


The climate of the area is continental humid. The average temperature is 8 degrees Celsius (average -1.7°C in January and up to average 17.7°C in July). Yearly rainfall averages 750 mm, the most rainy month being July. Weak winds prevail, averaging 2 m/s from West (Moravian Gate).

Constituent cities

The Upper-Silesian Metropolitan Union has been created by a local initiative, and the participation was voluntary. An overwhelming majority of the local population supports its formation. However, outside of the area, the formation of the union appears to have less support. Originally, 17 cities were to enter into the union, but owing to technicalities of the Polish law which could have prevented its legalization, only 14 of the 17 cities; that is, those with the legal status of an urban county, proceeded with forming the union.

The constituent cities in decreasing order by population are as follows:

The borders between the constituent cities have been for decades largely artificial, and in many cases absurd. For example one side of the street would belong to the one city, and the other to another.

Nationally, the union strives to address several problems, including:
* Poor recognition (e.g., often omitted from Polish maps [ [http://www.silesia-region.pl/wizja/pwr_ta.pdf Pozytywny wizerunek regionu Yrdem sukcesu oelskich firm ] ] )
* Gross under-investment (for example, by far the lowest per capita allocation of the EU development funds in Poland [http://bi.gazeta.pl/im/4/4370/m4370104.jpg.] ).


USMU is the centre of the largest urban agglomeration in Poland and one of largest in European Union (3.5 million). The area bloomed in XIX and early XX centuries thanks to the vibrant development of industry and numerous local resources. The conurbation (the Upper Silesian Industrial Region) consists of about 25 neighbouring cities, however the entire metropolitan area (the Upper Silesian Coal Basin) includes over 30 cities. Katowice is also in the middle of a 7-million megalopolis stretching from Cracow through Katowice to Ostrava.


USMU is an area of heavy concentration of industry, including coal, steel, energy, automotive, machinery and chemical. Over the last two decades, the service industry has become increasingly prominent.


USMU is still a prominent center of coal and metal industries and a site of about a dozen of coal mines (operated by

Business and commerce

Katowice is a large and dynamic business and trade fair centre. Tens of international exhibitions take place every year on the Katowice International Fair grounds and in the Spodek arena. Katowice is also the site of the second largest business centre in Poland (second to the Warsaw Business Centre). Skyscrapers are located along Chorzowska and Korfantego street in the city centre. The newest office buildings (A-class) in Katowice are the "Chorzowska 50" and "Altus Skyscraper". Several other large office buildings are currently under construction.

Katowice and USMU house "Katowice Special Economic Zone" (Katowicka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna).


Public Transport

The public transportation system of the area consists of four branches. Buses and trams are united in the KZK GOP. Additional services are operated by private companies and the state-owned railways (regional rail). Trolleybuses in Tychy are operated by MZK Tychy.


Silesian Interurbans - one of the largest tram systems in the World, in existence since 1894. The system spreads for more than 50 kilometers (east-west) and covers the following cities of the union and adjacent communities: Katowice, Będzin, Bytom, Chorzów, Czeladź, Dąbrowa Górnicza, Gliwice, Mysłowice, Ruda Śląska, Siemianowice Śląskie, Sosnowiec, Świętochłowice, and Zabrze.




The area lacks a good circular road system and most of the East-West and North-South traffic goes directly through the city centre.
*European route E40 (France - Belgium - Germany - Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union - Ukraine - Russia - Uzbekistan - Kazakhstan)
*European route E75 (Norway - Finland - Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union - Slovakia - Hungary - Serbia - Macedonia - Croatia - Crete)
*European route E462 (Czech Republic - Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union)
*Motorway A1 (Czech - Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union - Tricity / Baltic Sea)
*Motorway A4 (Germany - Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union - Ukraine)
* DK1 National Road
* DK11 National Road
* DK44 National Road
* DK78 National Road
* DK79 National Road
* DK81 National Road
* DK86 National Road
* DK88 National Road
* DK94 National Road


The USMU area is served by the Katowice International Airport, located some 30 km north of Katowice centre. With over 20 international and domestic destinations, it is by far the biggest airport in Silesia (~2 million passengers served in 2007). It is currently the third busiest airport in Poland and growing rapidly. In July 2007, Terminal B was added increasing the airport's capacity to 3.6 mln passengers per annum. Besides passenger traffic, the airport is also Poland's second largest by cargo, limited only by the size of the existing cargo terminal.

Airline carriers operating from the airport include: Air France, Centralwings, EuroLOT, LOT, Lufthansa and Wizz Air

There are proposals to convert the sport aviation-serving Katowice-Muchowiec Airport into a so-called city airport, a second international airport for smaller, business-oriented traffic.


tandard gauge railway

Train transportation in the region is inexpensive and fairly efficient. The main railroad station is the Katowice Central Station, with numerous regional, national and international passenger destinations. There are direct connections to Berlin, Hamburg, Vienna, Prague, Zilina (in Slovakia), Budapest, Kiev and Moscow.

There are two other major hubs (Gliwice and Sosnowiec) and tens of smaller stations.

The Silesian rail has a long and proud tradition, starting in 1846 when the first railroad reached the area (the Upper Silesia Railway, at that time called "Oberschlesische Eisenbahn"). Nowadays, USMU still contains some of the main railway nodes and exchange points of Silesia and Poland.

Broad gauge railway

Broad gauge railway line called Linia Hutnicza Szerokotorowa is notable for its ability to transport goods directly between the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union and the countries of the former Soviet Union.

Narrow gauge railway

Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union is an home of the longest network of the narrow gauge railway in Europe. Former industrial trains today provide a service for tourists from Bytom to the local 'lake district' and other attractions.

Water Transport

*Gliwice Canal links the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union (Gliwice Harbour) to the Oder River and thus to the waterway network across much of Germany and to the Baltic Sea.
*Klodnica Canal is no longer used to transport goods, but it is popular with leisure cruisers.


The area is one of the most important education centers of Poland (along with Warsaw). It is home to seven major universities and numerous smaller schools of higher education. The most important institutions of post-secondary education are:

# University of Silesia
# Silesian University of Technology
# University of Economics in Katowice
# University of Music in Katowice
# Medical University of Silesia
# University of Sports in Katowice
# University of Arts in Katowice
# AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków (department in Ruda Śląska)
# Polonia University of Częstochowa (department in Gliwice)
# University of Arts of Cracow (department in Katowice)
# Polish Academy of Sciences
# International Higher School of Political Sciences in Katowice
# International Higher School of Banking and Finances in Katowice
# Silesian International Business Higher School in Katowice
# Silesian Higher School of Computer Science in Katowice
# Silesian Higher School of Management in Katowice
# Upper Silesian Higher School of Trade in Katowice
# Upper Silesian Higher School of Pedagogy in Mysłowice
# Upper Silesian Higher School of Enterprise in Chorzów
# Higher School of Banking and Finances in Katowice
# Higher School of Humanistic Science in Katowice
# Higher School of Technical Science in Katowice
# Higher School of Computer Technologies in Katowice
# Higher School of Pedagogical TWP in Warsaw, the Institute of Pedagogy in Katowice
# Higher School of Social Skills in Poznan (department in Katowice)
# Higher School of Humanistic - Economic in Lodz (department in Katowice)
# Higher School of Marketing Management and Foreign Languages in Katowice
# Higher School of Management the Protection of Work in Katowice
# Higher School of Management and Marketing in Sosnowiec
# Higher School of Management and Social Sciences in Tychy
# Higher School of Art Applied in Sosnowiec
# Higher School of Strategic Planning in Dąbrowa Górnicza
# Higher School of Philosophical & Pedagogical in Kraków (department in Sosnowiec)
# Higher School of Trading in Ruda Śląska
# Higher School of Economy and Administration in Bytom
# Higher School of Business in Dąbrowa Górnicza
# Higher School of Banking in Poznań (department in Chorzów)
# Silesian Theological Seminar in Katowice
# Theological Seminar of Smaller Brothers in Katowice
# Teacher's College of Foreign Languages in Gliwice
# Teacher's College of Foreign Languages in Sosnowiec
# Teacher's College of Foreign Languages in Tychy
# Teacher's College of Foreign Languages in Zabrze
# Private Teacher's College of Foreign Languages in Katowice
# Private Teacher's Board of Foreign Languages in Bielsko (department in Katowice)
# Gliwice Higher School of Enterprise in Gliwice
# Polish-Japanese Higher School Computer Technology in Warsaw (department in Bytom)
# Higher School of Performance Arts in Bytom



*Silesian Theatre (Teatr Śląski)
*Rialto Cinetheater
*Ateneum Theatre
*Korez Theatre
*Cogitatur Theatre
*GuGalanger Theatre
*New Theatre
*Locus Theatre
*Small Theatre
*Silesian Theatre of Dance
*Teatr Rozrywki
*Teatr Zagłębia
*Teatr Iluzji
*Teatr Gry i Ludzie
*Teatr Dzieci Zagłębia
*Gliwicki Teatr Muzyczny


*Silesian Philharmonic (Filharmonia Śląska)
*Zabrze Philharmonic (Filharmonia Zabrzańska)
*Silesian Opera (Opera Śląska)
*Silesian Music Stage (Estrada Śląska)
*GuGalander Music Stage (Scena GuGalander)
*National Symphonic Orchestra of the Polish Radio


*Multikino ( 13 halls )
*Cinema City - Punkt rozrywki 44 ( 13 halls )
*Cinema City - Silesia City Center ( 13 halls )
*Cinema City - Ruda Śląska ( 8 halls )
*Cinema City - Sosnowiec ( 6 halls )
*Cinema City - Gliwice ( 13 halls )
*Helios Film Center Katowice ( 9 halls )
*Helios Film Center Sosnowiec ( 4 halls )
*Cinematographic Arts Center ( 2 halls )
*Cosmos II Cinema (Kino Kosmos II) ( 1 hall )
*Świadowid Cinema (Kino Światowid) ( 1 hall )
*Bałtyk Cinema (Kino Bałtyk) ( 1 hall )
*Marzenie Cinema (Kino Marzenie) ( 1 hall )
*Nowość Cinema (Kino Nowość) ( 1 hall )
*Oskar Cinema (Kino Oskar) ( 1 hall )
*Patria Cinema (Kino Patria) ( 1 hall )
*Roma Cinema (Kino Roma) ( 1 hall )
*Andromeda Cinema (Kino Andromeda) ( 1 hall )
*Amok Cinema (Kino Amok) ( 1 hall )
*Panorama Cinema (Kino Panorama) ( 1 hall )
*Theatre-cinema Tęcza (Kinoteatr Tęcza) ( 1 hall )
*Theatre-cinema X (Kinoteatr X) ( 1 hall )
*Theatre-cinema Rialto (Kinoteatr Rialto) ( 1 hall )
*Theatre-cinema Bałtyk (Kinoteatr Bałtyk) ( 1 hall )


*Silesian Museum (Muzeum Śląskie)
*Muzeum Historii Katowic (Katowice History Museum)
*Muzeum Górnośląskie (Upper Silesia Museum)
*Muzeum Zamek Piastowski
*Muzeum Archidiecezjalne
*Muzeum Misyjne OO. Franciszkanów (Museum of Misyjne OO. The Franciscan Monk)
*Muzeum Biograficzne P. Stellera
*Muzeum Prawa i Prawników Polskich
*Muzeum Najmniejszych Książek Świata Zygmunta Szkocnego
*Muzeum Górnictwa Węglowego
*Muzeum Sztygarka
*Muzeum Maszyn Biurowych
*Izba Śląska
*Centre of Polish Scenography
*Centralne Muzeum Pożarnictwa
*Sztolnia Czarnego Pstrąga
*Silesian center of refreshment and culture


*TVP 3 Katowice
*TVN24 - Katowice branch (TVN24 - oddział Katowice)
*Radio Katowice
*Radio Flash
*Radio Roxy FM
*Radio Planeta
*Dziennik Zachodni
*Gazeta Wyborcza - Katowice office
*Fakt (gazeta) - oddział Katowice
*Echo Miasta
*Metro (gazeta) Katowice
*Nowy Przegląd Katowicki

Ongoing performance series

*Rawa Blues Festiwal - Spodek
*Metalmania - Spodek
*Mayday - Spodek
* International Competition of Conductors by Fitelberg
* International Festival of Military Orchestras
* International Exhibition of Graphic arts "Intergrafia"
* The all-Polish Festival of the Director's Art the "Interpretations"
* Ars Cameralis Silesiae Superioris
* International Theatrical Festival "APART"
* International Conference of Dance and Festival of Dancing Art


*Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej BWA Al. Korfantego 6
*Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej Parnas ul. Kochanowskiego 10
*Galeria Sztuki Atelier 2 ul. Batorego 2
*Galeria Związku Polskich Artystów Plastyków ul. Dworcowa 13
*Galeria Architektury SARP ul. Dyrekcyjna 9
*Galeria Art-Deco pl. Andrzeja 4
*Galeria Fra Angelico ul. Jordana 39
*Galeria Akwarela ul. Mikołowska 26
*Galeria Marmurowa ul. Mikołowska 26
*Galeria Piętro Wyżej
*Galeria Sektor I
*Galeria Szyb Wilson

Nature & recreation


*Silesian Central Park (Wojewódzki Park Kultury i Wypoczynku)
*Kościuszko Park (Park im. Tadeusza Kościuszki)
*Forest Park of Katowice (Katowicki Park Leśny)
*Valley Three Ponds (Dolina Trzech Stawów)
*Zadole Park
*Bolina Park
*Skałka (Skałka)
*Dolomity Sportowa Dolina

Nature reserves

*Bagna Nature Reserve (Rezerwat przyrody Bagna)
*Dilina Żabnika Nature Reserve (Rezerwat przyrody Dolina Żabnika)
*Las Dąbrowa Nature Reserve (Rezerwat przyrody Las Dąbrowa)
*Las Murckowski Nature Reserve (Rezerwat przyrody Las Murckowski)
*Ochojec Nature Reserve (Rezerwat przyrody Ochojec)
*Oles Nature Reserve (Rezerwat przyrody Oles)
*Płone Bagno Nature Reserve (Rezerwat przyrody Płone Bagno)
*Sasanka Nature Reserve (Rezerwat przyrody Sasanka)
*Segiet Nature Reserve (Rezerwat przyrody Segiet)


Castles & palaces

*Castle in Gliwice ()
*Castle in Ruda Śląska ()
*Castle in Tarnowice ()
*Sielecki Castle ()
*Goldstein Palace ()
*Godula Palace ()
*Dietl Palace ()
*Ciechanowski's Palace ()
*Mieroszewski's Palace in Sosnowiec ()
*Mieroszewski's Palace in Będzin ()
*Rheinbaben Palace ()
*Wilhelm Palace ()
*Winckler Palace ()
*Schöen Palace in Sosnowiec ()
*Schöen Palace in Środula ()
*Palace in Załęże ()
*Palace in Siemianowice ()
*Palace in Świętochłowice ()

Historical churches

*Cathedral in Katowice
*Basilica in Piekary (sanctuary)
*St. Stephen's Church
*Kościół św. Trójcy, neogotycki z 1886 roku
*Kościół św. Jacka, neoromański z 1905 roku
*Kaplica św. Ducha, barokowa z 1721 roku
*Kościół św. Wojciecha, gotycki i barokowy z 1783 roku
*Kościół św. Barbary, neogotycki z 1852 roku
*Kościół św. Wawrzyńca z 1599 roku
*Kościół NMP i św. Antoniego z 1678 roku
*Kościół Wniebowzięcia NMP, gotycki z XV wieku, przebudowany w latach 1852-76
*Kościół św. Elżbiety, neogotycki z lat 1840-44
*Katedra św. Piotra i Pawła, neogotycka z lat 1896-1906
*Kościół św. Bartłomieja z XV wieku, według legendy założony w 1232 r. przez templariuszy
*Kościół św. Jerzego z XV wieku
*Kościół św. Krzyża z 1672 roku. W 1683 r. w czasie marszu na Wiedeń nocował tu król Jan III Sobieski.
*Kościół Wniebowzięcia Matki Bożej z 1493 roku, przebudowany XVII wieku
*Kościół Wszystkich Świętych, gotycki z XV wieku
*Kościół Podwyższenia Krzyża Świętego, barokowy z XVII wieku
*Kościół Niepokalanego Poczęcia NMP, neogotycki z lat 1869-70
*Kościół św. Piotra i Pawła, neogotycki z 1903 roku
*Kościół św. Michała Archanioła z 1510 roku
*Kościół św. Szczepana, noeogotycki z 1894 roku
*Kościół Zmartwychwstania Pańskiego, neoromański z lat 1856-58
*Kościół Narodzenia NMP, barokowy z XVIII wieku
*Kościół Świętego Krzyża z 1810 roku
*Kościół Matki Bożej z Lourdes, barokowy z 1806 roku
*Kościół Trójcy Przenajświętszej z końca XIX wieku
*Kościół św. Krzyża, neogotycki z 1881 roku
*Cerkiew Wiery, Nadziei i Lubowi z 1889 roku
*Katedra Wniebowzięcia NMP, neoromańska z lat 1893-98
*Kościół św. Marii Magdaleny, barokowy z 1782 roku
*Kościół św. Andrzeja, neoromański, z lat 1863-66
*Kościół św. Anny, neogotycki z 1900 roku
*Kościół św. Jana Chrzciciela, neogotycki z lat 1853-58

Other local landmarks

*Parachute Tower Katowice
*Gliwice Radio Tower
*FM- and TV-mast Kosztowy
*Silesian Insurgents Monument
*Błędów Desert
*Silesian Sejm


Polish 1st League:

*Ruch Chorzów - men football
*Górnik Zabrze - men football
*Polonia Bytom - men football
*Piast Gliwice - men football
*Olimpia Piekary - men handball

Other Leagues

*GKS Katowice - men's football team (Polish Cup winner: 1986, 1991, 1993; Polish SuperCup winner: 1991, 1995; 1st league in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 seasons)
*AZS AWF Katowice - women's handball team playing in Polish Ekstraklasa Women's Handball League
* 1. FC Kattowitz - football club, vice-champion in Poland: 1927; champion in Upper Silesia: 1907, 1908, 1909, 1913, 1922, 1945; 3 place in championships of south-east Germanys: 1922
*Śląsk Świętochłowice - men's football
*Szczakowianka Jaworzno - men's football
*Zagłębie Sosnowiec - men's football
*Naprzód Lipiny - men's football

Famous people

*Kurt Alder
*Marcin Baszczyński
*Ewald Cebula
*Gerard Cieślik
*Janusz Gajos
*Edward Gierek
*Jędrzej Giertych
*Maria Goeppert-Mayer
*Kurt Goldstein
*Damian Gorawski
*Jerzy Gorgoń
*August Hlond
*Otylia Jędrzejczak
*Henryk Kasperczak
*Jan Kiepura
*Wojciech Korfanty
*Jerzy Kukuczka
*Kazimierz Kutz
*Włodzimierz Lubański
*Franz Leopold Neumann
*Krzysztof Oliwa
*Lukas Podolski
*Miroslav Klose
*Daniel Podrzycki
*Roman Polko
*Jan Sawka
*Hanna Schygulla
*Władysław Szpilman
*Krzysztof Warzycha
*Ernest Wilimowski
*Sobiesław Zasada
*Aleksander Zawadzki
*Krystian Zimerman


ee also


External links

* [http://www.gzm.org.pl GZM Site]
* [http://www.euroregiony.pl/html/187.html Euroregiony]
* [http://samorzad.pap.com.pl/?bez_id=512100842080902&dzial=naszesprawy&poddzial=&d=512100842080902 www.samorzad.pap.com.pl]
* [http://katowice.naszemiasto.pl/wydarzenia/556152.html www.katowice.nasze miasto.pl]
* [http://www.dziennik.pl/Default.aspx?TabId=14&ShowArticleId=24596 17 śląskich miast chce się połączyć w Silesię]
* [http://pl.wikinews.org/wiki/Pomys%C5%82_utworzenia_najwi%C4%99kszego_miasta_w_Polsce_-_Silesii Pomysł powstania największego miasta w Polsce - Silesii]
*pl icon [http://www.um.gliwice.pl/index.php?id=15825/1 Statute of Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union]


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