- Zizhi Tongjian
The Zizhi Tongjian (simplified Chinese: 资治通鉴; traditional Chinese: 資治通鑒; pinyin: Zīzhì Tōngjiàn; Wade–Giles: Tzu-chih T'ung-chien; literally "Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government") was a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, under the form of a chronicles. In 1065 CE, Emperor Yingzong of Song ordered the great historian Sima Guang (1019–1086) to lead with other scholars such as his chief assistants Liu Shu, Liu Ban and Fan Zuyu, the compilation of a universal history of China. The task took 19 years to be completed, and, in 1084, it was presented to his successor Emperor Shenzong of Song. The Zizhi Tongjian exposes Chinese history from -403 BCE to 959 CE, covering 16 dynasties and spanning across 1363 years, and contains 294 volumes (巻) and about 3 million Chinese characters.
The book chronologically narrates the history of China from the Warring States to the Five Dynasties (403 B.C.-959 C.E). The major contributor was Sima Guang, was active in each step, from collecting events and dates from various previous works, to drafting and publication.
Sima Guang left the traditional usage in Chinese historiography. Since almost 1,000 years and the Shiji, standard Chinese dynastic histories primarily divided chapters between annals (紀) of rulers, and biographies (傳) of officials. In Chinese terms, the book changed the format of histories from biographical style (紀傳體) to chronological style (編年體), which is better suited for analysis, activism and criticism. According to Wilkinson, "It had an enormous influence on later Chinese historical writing, either directly or through its many abbreviations, continuations, and adaptations. It remains an extraordinarily useful first reference for a quick and reliable coverage of events at a particular time."
The book consisted of 294 volumes, sweeping through 11 Chinese historical periods (Warring States, Qin, Western Han, Eastern Han, Three Kingdoms, Jin and the Sixteen Kingdoms, Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui, Tang, and Five Dynasties）. It was one of the largest historical magnum opus in history.
Hu Sansheng of the Yuan Dynasty added commentaries to Zizhi Tongjian.
Derivative and commented works
In the 12th century, Zhu Xi produced a reworked, condensed version of Zizhi Tongjian, known as Tongjian Gangmu, or Zizhi Tongjian Gangmu (通鉴纲目). This condensed version was itself later translated into Manchu language, upon the request of Qing Dynasty Kangxi Emperor. This Manchu version was itself translated into French by French Jesuit missionary Joseph-Anna-Marie de Moyriac de Mailla. His twelve-volume translation, "Histoire générale de la Chine, ou Annales de cet Empire; traduit du Tong-kien-kang-mou par de Mailla" was published posthumously in Paris in 1777-1783.
The Zhonghua Shuju edition contains textual criticism made by Yuan Dynasty historian Hu Sanxing.
Sections of Zizhi Tongjian pertaining to China's relations with the Xiongnu have been translated into English.
- Chen, Guangchong, "Zizhi Tongjian" ("Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government"). Encyclopedia of China (Chinese History Edition), 1st ed.
- Bo Yang. Modern Chinese Edition of Zizhi Tongjian. Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Co. Ltd, vol. 1 ISBN 957-32-0795-8 to vol. 72 ISBN 957-32-1810-0.
- De Crespigny, Rafe. (1973). "Universal Histories," in Essays on the Sources for Chinese History, Donald D. Leslie, Colin Mackerras, Wang Gungwu, eds., Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, pp. 64–70.
- Ji xiao-bin. (2003). "Mirror for Government: Ssu-ma Kuang's Thought on Politics and Government in Tzu-chih t'ung-chien," in The New and the Multiple, Thomas H.C. Lee, ed. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, pp. 1–32.
- Partington, James Riddick (1960). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons Ltd.
- Wilkinson, Endymion. 2000. Chinese History: a manual. Revised and enlarged ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 0-674-00249-0
- Yap, Joseph P. (2009). Wars With The Xiongnu, A Translation from Zizhi tongjian. AuthorHouse, Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.A. ISBN 978-1-4490-0604-4.
- Zizhi Tongjian "Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government" — Chinaknowledge
- Xu Elina-Qian, Historical Development of the Pre-Dynastic Khitan, University of Helsinki, 2005. 273 pages. 2.1 Introduction to the Sources on the Pre-dynastic Khitan (pp.19-23) > The Zizhi Tongjian, p.20
- Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling, Zizhi Tongjian Chapters 54-59 (157-189 BCE), translated and annotated by Rafe de Crespigny
- Zizhi Tongjian (original text in Guoxue)
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