- Architecture of Kansas City
The architecture of
Kansas City, Missouriand the metro area includes major works by many of the world's most distinguished architects and firms, including McKim, Mead and White; Jarvis Hunt; Wight and Wight; Graham, Anderson, Probst and White; Hoit, Price & Barnes; Frank Lloyd Wright; the Office of Mies van der Rohe; Barry Byrne; Edward Larrabee Barnes; Harry Weese; Skidmore, Owings and Merrill; and others.
The city was founded in the 1850s at the confluence of the Missouri and
Kaw Rivers and grew with the expansion of the railroads, stockyards, and meatpacking industry. Prominent citizens settled in the Quality Hillneighborhood and commissioned fine homes primarily in Italianate Renaissance Revivalstyle, which continued to be the major influence for new structures past the turn-of-the century. George Kessler's urban plan for Kansas City with its expansive park and boulevard system, inspired by the City Beautiful Movement, made a profound and lasting impact on the city.
The core of the downtown area developed in an early 20th century building boom that continued into the
Great Depression. The city has several buildings that place it among cities with the ten best examples of art decoarchitecture in the United States. [ [http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/ci/?id=kansascity-mo-usa Kansas City Buildings, Real Estate, Architecture, Skyscrapers and Construction Database ] ] Municipal Auditorium, the Kansas City Power and Light Building, and Jackson County Courthousehave been called "three of the nation's Art Deco treasures." [American Institute of Architects/Kansas City (2000), "American Institute of Architects Guide to Kansas City Architecture & Public Art", Kansas City, Missouri: Highwater Press. p. 23] J.C. Nichols, a prominent developer of commercial and residential real estate developed the Country Club Plaza(by Edward Buehler Delkand Edward Tanner), and was active in the promotion of lasting architectural landmarks such as Liberty Memorial( Harold Van Buren Magonigle), and Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art( Wight and Wight).
A second period of building growth occurred from the 1960s through the 1980s. During this time, Kansas City, Missouri gained much of its modern skyline, including
One Kansas City Place, which is currently the tallest building in Missouri (taller than the Gateway Archin St. Louis). Suburban growth spread into Johnson County, Kansaswith new homes and mid-rise office buildings.
After a period of significant decline, downtown Kansas City has been revived by several major new works of architectural design.
Sprint Centerarena (2007), the Power & Light Districtentertainment development (2007), the Block Building addition to the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art(2007), H&R Block World Headquarters (2006), 2555 Grand (2003), Charles Evans Whittaker Federal Courthouse (2000), Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art(1994), American Century Towers (1991 & 1994), Bartle Hall Convention Centerexpansion (1994), and the Stowers Institute for Medical Research(1994) are among the most prominent and recognizable.
skyscraper/ highrisein Kansas City was the New York Life Insurance Building (Kansas City), completed in 1890. It stands twelve floors tall at a height of 180 feet (54.8 m) and was the first local building with elevators. After the New York Life Building was completed, Kansas City followed the national trend of constructing a plethora of buildings above ten stories. Within fifty years of the building's construction, over fifty buildings over ten floors were built in and around downtown.
Louis S. Curtiss, among Kansas City's most innovative architects, designed the Boley Clothing Company Building, which is renown as "one of the first glass
curtain-wallstructures in the world." [American Institute of Architects/Kansas City (2000), "American Institute of Architects Guide to Kansas City Architecture & Public Art", Kansas City, Missouri: Highwater Press. p. 29] The six-story building also features cantileverfloor slabs, cast ironstructural detailing, and terra cottadecorative elements.
Art Deco, Terra Cotta and Gothic styles
Kansas City underwent an early skyscraper boom between 1920 and 1940. During this time, notable skyscrapers such as the Power and Light Building, Oak Tower, City Hall, the Jackson County Court House, the Bryant Building, and the Fidelity National Bank building were constructed. Today, many of these buildings are being renovated for various uses, from residential lofts to office spaces. Oak Tower was once a building filled with
terra cottaand gothic architecture. In an effort to modernize the then-40-year-old building in the 1970s, however, Southwestern Bell tore down and placed claddingover its gargoyles.
Frank Lloyd Wright Buildings
Frank Lloyd Wrightdesigned three buildings currently standing in the Kansas City area: the Frank Bott Residence (1950), the Clarence Sondern Residence (1940), and Community Christian Church (1940). [ [http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/1469/flw_mo.html Frank Lloyd Wright Building Guide: "Missouri Architecture"] ]
Community Christian Church
This Frank Lloyd Wright building sits across from the Country Club Plaza's main shopping district, located on Main at East 46th Street. In April 1940, Community Christian Church came to Wright and asked him to design a new building for them after a fire had destroyed their last church. Wright based his design on a
parallelogramincluding some features previously conceived for his last building for Johnson Wax Company, along with one additional unique feature: a spire of light. Due to high building costs, the scale of the church was reduced during construction. The auditorium was cut back from a planned 1,200 seats to 900 seats, many details were eliminated, and the building was sheathed in gunite, a form of lightweight concrete, over Wright's objections. The spire of light also could not be built and illuminated due to technical limitations of the times. However, the church was dedicated on January 4, 1942 and served the congregation well.
In 1994, the Spire of Light was finally completed as planned. The components are housed on the church roof inside of a perforated dome on the building's northwestern corner. The spire is created by four (4) 16"
xenonbulbs ignited by 40,000 volts of electricity, then, in combination with a parabolicreflector, produces 300 million candlepowerof illumination (per light, 1.2 billion cp total) in a near perfect column. [ [http://www.community-christian.org/steeple_facts.htm Community Christian Church.org: "Facts & Figures - Steeple".] ] The spire can be seen for miles around Kansas City, and reportedly can be spotted 10 miles north of the Plaza, depending on conditions. It has been calculated to stop at least 3 miles up above the earth, about half the maximum height at which jet airplanes fly. The spire of light is lit regularly on Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays, except religious holidays, and is one of the features of the annual Plaza lighting ceremony.
Tours of Community Christian Church are open to the public and free of charge. [ [http://www.community-christian.org/tour_info.htm Community Christian Church: "Tour Information".] ]
Modern and Post-Modern Architecture
Kansas City had a building boom in the 1970s based on
TWA's plans to use the city as the world hub for its new fleet of Boeing 747's and anticipated supersonic transports.
During this period
Kansas City International Airportwas built to TWA's specifications so that gates were within 100 feet of the street. Hallmark Cardsbegan construction of Crown Center. The city also built the Bartle Hallconvention center. Architect Helmut Jahn's first major work was the revolutionary design for Kemper Arenawhich had no columns blocking sight lines and was built in 18 months in time to attract the 1976 Republican National Convention.
The optimism of this era came to a crashing end when the Kemper Arena roof collapsed during a storm in 1979 (although no one was injured) and when skybridges at the new Hyatt Regency in Crown Center collapsed in the
Hyatt Regency walkway collapseon July 17, 1981in the worst engineering disaster in recorded history in terms of human lives. Both buildings were repaired and remain in use.
In addition to these disasters, TWA asked the city to extensively rebuild the terminals at the newly opened Kansas City International Airport so that it could have central checkpoints. The airport renovations had already come in at $100 million over budget, so the city refused. As a result, TWA moved its hub to St. Louis. In 2006, the city finally announced plans for a $250 million overhaul of the terminals to accommodate the security issues.
In the 1980s, the nation moved from the "modern" style of architecture (as inspired by architect
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe), building large, boxy structures, to a "postmodern" style. The two most noticeable postmodern buildings in the Kansas City skyline are the Town Pavilion(built in 1986) and One Kansas City Place(1988). One Kansas City Place is a taller, glass version of City Hall. The 632-foot-tall (192.6 m) structure is the tallest habitable structure in Missouri (even taller than the Gateway Archin St. Louis).
Original Kansas City Architecture
Kansas City's most profound influence on national architecture is the Kansas City-style of stadium that first originated with the
Kivett & Myers1967 design for the Truman Sports Complexfor the Kansas City Chiefsand Kansas City Royals. In an era when new stadiums were huge multiuse arenas, Kivett & Myers proposed baseballand footballhave their own arenas with dimensions most favorable to their sports and then covered with a rolling roof. Virtually all major league ballparks and stadiums since then have followed that model and most have been designed by one of two Kansas City architect firms that trace their stadium business roots to Kivett -- HOK Sport + Venue + Eventand HNTB. The firms' headquarters are a few blocks apart in downtown Kansas City.
The most distinctive feature of any modern Kansas City building is its use of
fountains. Kansas City calls itself the City of Fountains and has more than 200 fountains (with the claim that only Rome, Italyhas more fountains). The logofor the city is a fountain. Virtually every major building showcases a fountain; probably the most famous fountains are the ones at Kauffman Stadium. Even car dealerships get into the act, sometimes showing off their SUVs on top of a fountain.
downtown Kansas Cityhas undergone a virtual renaissance.Fact|date=January 2008 During the 1950s and 1960s, as many downtown residents moved south and north to Kansas City's sprawling suburbs, downtown's population dwindled. By the 1980s, downtown Kansas City consisted mostly of office towers, with few thriving neighborhoods remaining. Today, however, major downtown redevelopment has brought back thousands of residents; with them has come a need for more buildings and more density.
In the winter of 2004,
H&R Blockannounced the construction of its new headquarters, a 17-story tower downtown which was completed in early 2007. The tower serves as the anchor of a six-block entertainment district neighboring the Central Business District. This project hopes to bring additional entertainment, jobs and housing to downtown; the project includes five new skyscrapers. At least five to six other new skyscrapers have also been proposed for downtown.
Local architectural firms have major contracts with these and other new proposals. The two biggest are the Power and Light District, designed by Cordish Company of
Baltimore, Maryland, and the 18,500-seat Sprint Centerarena.
October 6, 2006, ground was broken on the future Kauffman Center for the Performing Artsa 316,000 square-foot performing arts center. It will serve the Kansas City Metropolitan Areaas host to three resident companies: the Kansas City Symphony, Ballet, and Opera. It is scheduled to open December 2009.
Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas Cityhas also completed building a new headquarters located southwest of the Crown Center.
Downtown Kansas City, Missouri"
Kansas City's skyline may not be as recognizable to many people in the same way as other as cities such as
St. Louis, Missouri, New York City, or Chicago, Illinois, but the blending of a century of architecture has made it a heralded skyline nonetheless.
The skyscrapers of Kansas City number 50 to 60 in the
Country Club Plazaas well as around 100 in the downtown area.
Historical Buildings under restoration
Along with downtown's redevelopment and revitalization, many older buildings are being restored to their former mystique.Below is a list of celebrated buildings from a variety of eras that have been or are being renovated.
Landmark Tower/One Park Place
This building is formerly known as the BMA (Business Men's Assurance Company) Building. It is located south of downtown at the intersection of Southwest Tfwy and 31st Street, directly across from the Fox 4 News building and towers, and on the same block as
Penn Valley skatepark.
Built in 1964, Landmark Tower was originally designed by architects at
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, who also designed the Plaza Center Building at 800 West 47th Street. Its structural grid, which is clad in white Georgian marble, is projected out in front of the actual building.
Landmark Tower also earned the First Honor Award in 1964 from the
American Institute of Architects. It was also featured in a 1965 exhibit by New York's Museum of Modern Art.
Renovation began in 2003. The only opposition occurred when developers wanted to build additional residential facilities inside the park adjacent to the tower. The developers from One Park Place have stated that the tower will hold between 150 and 200 residential units. Gastinger Walker Harden Architects is working with the developers on the renovations, respecting the original design, which was inspired by the "International" style.
"The View" is also known as the Vista Del Rio Apartments. Located at 600 Admiral Boulevard, it was originally completed in 1967. The architects of this building were John L. Daw & Associates. The Vista del Rio was the first multi-story exposed concrete structural frame building allowed by federal specifications. It was also the first federally approved high-rise to use sheetrock for internal walls. It was originally built to inspire urban renewal in the previously dilapidated area; however, after a period of misuse, the building itself fell into deep disrepair. After much of its glass had been removed, it began to be used by more "troublesome" citizens. By the 1990s, maintenance and care became so bad that graffiti appeared throughout the structure and, unfortunately, even human remains were found around the premises.
Many predicted the destruction of this neglected building, but at the beginning of current downtown redevelopment, its future became much brighter. The Vista Del Rio became the View, turning from a public nuisance to a magnet for people wishing anew to live downtown.
Fidelity Bank and Trust/909 Walnut
This building is located at 909 Walnut Street (formerly 911 Walnut Street), in the north portion of downtown's Central Business District. Constructed in 1931 (at the same time as the Power and Light Building), it is 35 stories tall.
Originally built to replace the Fidelity National Bank and Trust Building that had formerly existed on that site, it was designed by Hoit, Price and Barnes Architects, the same firm that designed the Power and Light Building. It won a local American Institute of Architects award in the 1930s during its construction. The twin towers that grace its top resemble those of famous buildings around the United States, such as
900 North Michiganin Chicago(built in 1989), or the Waldorf-Astoria Hotelin New York City(built in 1931).
The building once had a large clock in its north tower which has long since been removed.
In 2003, several proposals arose to turn this building into a residential tower. As of 2006, construction continues, but for the most part, the renovation is complete. The building now houses 150-180 residential units, complete with rooftop terraces for its two multimillion-dollar penthouses.
Buildings on National Register of Historic Places
*List of Registered Historic Places in Jackson County
*List of Registered Historic Places in Clay County
*List of Registered Historic Places in Platte County
List of crossings of the Missouri River
Recently completed buildings
*Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps - Kansas City
* [http://www.kcskyscrapers.com "KC Skyscrapers"]
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