- Human bonding
Human bonding refers to the development of a close,
interpersonal relationshipbetween family members or friends. ["Webster’s New World College Dictionary" © 1996.] Bonding is a mutual, interactive process, and is not the same as simple liking.
The term is from the 12th century,
Middle Englishword "band" or "band", which refers to something that binds, ties, or restrains. In early usage, a bondman, bondwoman, or bondservant was a feudal serf that was obligated to serve his or her lord without pay. In modern usage, a bondsman is a person who provides bonds or suretyfor someone.
Bonding typically refers to the process of attachment that develops between romantic partners, close friends, or parents and children. This bond is characterized by
emotionssuch as affectionand trust. Any two people that spend time together may form a bond. Male bondingrefers to the establishment of relationships between men through shared activities that often exclude females. The term female bondingis less frequently used, but refers to the formation of close personal relationships between women. [ [http://www.thefreedictionary.com The Free Dictionary] ]
In the 4th century BC, the Greek philosopher
Platoargued that lovedirects the bonds of human society. In his Symposium, Eryximachus, one of the narrators in the dialog, states that love goes far beyond simple attraction to human beauty. He states that it occurs throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, as well as throughout the universe. Love directs everything that occurs, in the realm of the gods as well as that of humans (186a-b).
Eyrximachus reasons that when various opposing elements such as wet and dry are "animated by the proper species of Love, they are in harmony with one another... But when the sort of Love that is crude and impulsive controls the seasons, he brings death and destruction" (188a). Because it is love that guides the relations between these sets of opposites throughout existence, in every case it is the higher form of love that brings harmony and cleaves toward the good, whereas the impulsive vulgar love creates disharmony.
Plato concludes that the highest form of love is the greatest. When love "is directed, in temperance and justice, towards the good, whether in heaven or on earth: happiness and good fortune, the bonds of human society, concord with the gods above- all these are among his gifts" (188d).
In the 1660s, the Dutch philosopher
Spinozawrote, in his "Ethics of Human Bondage or the Strength of the Emotions", that the term "bondage" relates to the human infirmity in moderating and checking the emotions. That is, according to Spinoza, "when a man is prey to his emotions, he is not his own master, but lies at the mercy of fortune."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, in his classic novella Elective Affinities, wrote of the "marriage tie," and by analogy shows how strong marriage unions are similar in character to that by which the particles of quicksilverfind a unity together though the process of chemical affinity. Humans in passionate relationships, according to Goethe, are analogous to reactive substances in a chemical equation.
The term, pair-bond originated in 1940 in reference to mated pairs of birds. It is a generic term signifying a monogamous or relatively monogamous relationship in either humans or animals. The term is commonly used in
sociobiologyand evolutionary psychology. [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=pair-bond&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary] - Search: "pair bond"] Pair-bonding, usually of a fairly short duration, occurs in a variety of primate species. Some scientists speculate that prolonged bonds developed in humans along with increased sharing of food. [Microsoft Encarta2006. Premium Edition © 1993–2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.]
According to "limerence theory", positioned in 1979 by psychologist
Dorothy Tennov, a certain percentage of couples may go through what is called a "limerent reaction", in which one or both of the pair may experience a state of passion mixed with continuous intrusive thinking, fear of rejection, and hope. Hence, with all human romantic relationships, one of three varieties of "bonds" may form, defined over a set duration of time, in relation to the experience or non-experience of limerence:
#Affectional bond: define relationships in which neither partner is limerent.
#Limerent-Nonlimerent bond: define relationships in which one partner is limerent.
#Limerent-Limerent bond: define relationships in which both partners are limerent.The constitution of these bonds may vary over the course of the relationship, in ways that may either increase or decrease the intensity of the
limerence. The basis and interesting characteristic of this delineation made by Tennov, is that based on her research and interviews with over 500 people, all human bonded relationships can be divided into three varieties being defined by the amount of limerence or non-limerence each partner contributes to the relationship.
breast feeding- a process that facilitates mother-infant bonding.]
In 1958, British developmental psychologist
John Bowlbypublished the ground-breaking paper "the Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother", in which the precursory concepts of " attachment theory" were developed. This included the development of the concept of the affectional bond, sometimes referred to as the "emotional bond", which is based on the universal tendency for humans to attach, i.e. to seek closeness to another person and to feel secure when that person is present. Attachment theory has some of its origins in the observation of and experiments with animals, but is also based on observations of children who had missed typical experiences of adult care. Much of the early research on attachment in humans was done by John Bowlby and his associates. Bowlby proposed that babies have an inbuilt need from birth to make emotional attachments, i.e. bonds, because this increases the chances of survival by ensuring that they receive the care they need. [cite book | author=Bowlby, John | title=Attachment and Loss | publisher=Basic Books | year=1969] cite book | author=Bowlby, John | title=The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds | publisher=Routledge | year=1990 | id=ISBN 0415043263 ] cite book | author=Wilson, Glenn; McLaughlin, Chris | title=The Science of Love | publisher=Fusion Press | year=2001 | id=ISBN 1-901250-54-7]
Of all human bonds, the maternal bond is considered to be one of the strongest. The maternal bond begins to develop during pregnancy; following pregnancy, the production of
oxytocinduring lactationincreases parasympatheticactivity, thus reducing anxietyand theoretically fostering bonding. It is generally understood that maternal oxytocin circulation can predispose some mammals to show caregiving behavior in response to young of their species. Breastfeedinghas been reported to foster the early post-partum maternal bond, via touch, response, and mutual gazing. [Cesk, Cas Lek. (2000). " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3749/is_200310/ai_n9302754 Development of the Maternal Bond during Pregnancy] ." Jan 19 ; 139(1): 5-8.] . Extensive claims for the effect of breastfeeding were made in the 1930s by Margaret Ribble, a champion of "infant rights" [ Ribble, M. (1939). The significance of infantile sucking for the psychic development of the individual. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 90, 455-463. ] , but were rejected on scientific grounds. [ Pinneau, S.R. (1950). A critique on the articles by Margaret Ribble. Child Development, 21(4),203-228. ] . The claimed effect is not universal, and bottle-feeding mothers are generally appropriately concerned with their babies. It is difficult to determine the extent of causality due to a number of confounding variables, such as the varied reasons families choose different feeding methods. Many believe that early bonding ideally increases response and sensitivity to the child's needs, bolstering the quality of the mother-baby relationship – however, many exceptions can be found of highly successful mother-baby bonds, even though early breastfeeding did not occur, such as with premature infants who may lack the necessary sucking strength to successfully breastfeed.
In contrast to the maternal bond, in terms of variation in strength and stability, the paternal bond tends to vary greatly over the lifespan of a child’s development and growth and in many cases does not exist. Many children, for example, in modern times, grow up in fatherless households. In general, paternal bonding is more dominant later in a child’s life after language develops. Father-child bonds tend to develop with respect to topics and areas such as political views or money; whereas mother-child bonds tend to develop in relation to topics such as religious views or general outlooks on life. [Rossi, A. & Rossi, P. (1990). "Of Human Bonding: Parent Child Relations Across the Life Course." Chicago: Aldine. ISBN 0-202-30361-6]
In 2003, researcher from Northwestern University in Illinois found that
progesterone, a hormone more usually associated with pregnancy and maternal bonding, may also control the way men react towards their children. Specifically, they found that a lack of progesterone reduced aggressive behaviour in male mice and stimulated them to act in a fatherly way towards their offspring. [Levine, Jon (2003). " [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/health/2793551.stm Secret of Paternal Bond] ." BBC News / Health, Tuesday, 25 February.]
The human-animal bond can be defined as a connection between people and animals, domestic or wild; be it a cat as a pet or birds outside one’s window. Research into the nature and merit of the human animal bond began in the late 1700s when, in York, England, the
Society of Friendsestablished the The Retreatto provide humane treatment for the mentally ill. By having patients care for the many farm animals on the estate, society officials theorized that the combination of animal contact plus productive work would facilitate the patients’ rehabilitation. In the 1870s in Paris, a French surgeon had patients with neurological disorders ride horses. The patients were found to have improved their motor control and balance and were less likely to suffer bouts of depression.Latter, L. (1995). Article: [http://www.animalwelfaresociety.net/pethumanbonding.htm “Human Pet Bonding”] . Source: Animal Welfare Society – Southeastern Michigan.]
In the 19th century, in Bielefeld, Germany, epileptic patients were given the prescription to spend time each day taking care of cats and dogs. The contact with the animals was found to reduce the occurrence of seizures. In 1980, a team of scientists at the
University of Pennsylvaniafound that human to animal contact was found to reduce the physiological characteristics of stress; specifically, lowered levels of blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, anxiety, and tension were all found to correlate positively with human pet bonding.
Historically, animals were domesticated for functional use; for example, dogs for herding and tracking, and cats for killing mice or rats. Today, in Western societies, their function is primarily a bonding function. For example, current studies show that 60–80% of dogs sleep with their owners at night in the bedroom, either in or on the bed.Article: [http://www.censhare.umn.edu/spotlight02.html “The Changing Status of Human-Animal Bonds”] . Source: University of Minnesota.] Moreover, in the past the majority of cats were kept outside (barn cats) whereas today most cats are kept indoors (housecats) and considered part of the family. Presently, in the US, for example, 1.2 billion animals are kept as pets, primarily for bonding purposes. In addition, as of 1995 there were over 30 research institutions looking into the potential benefits of the human animal bond.
There is evidence in a variety of species that the
hormones oxytocinand vasopressinare involved in the bonding process, and in other forms of prosocial and reproductive behavior. Both chemicals facilitate pair bonding and maternal behavior in experiments on laboratory animals. In humans, there is evidence that oxytocin and vasopressin are released during labor and breastfeeding, and that these events are associated with maternal bonding. According to one model, social isolation leads to stress, which is associated with activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axisand the release of cortisol. Positive social interaction is associated with increased oxytocin. This leads to bonding, which is also associated with higher levels of oxytocin and vasopressin, and reduced stress and stress-related hormones. [Carter, C. S. (1998). Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. "Psychoneuroendocrinology", "23", 779-818.]
Oxytocin is associated with higher levels of trust in laboratory studies on humans. It has been called the "cuddle chemical" for its role in facilitating trust and attachment.cite book | author=Ackerman, Diane | title=A Natural History of Love | publisher=Vintage Books | year=1994 | id=ISBN 0-679-76183-7] In the reward centers of the
limbic system, the neurotransmitter, dopaminemay interact with oxytocin and further increase the likelihood of bonding. One team of researchers has argued that oxytocin only plays a secondary role in affiliation, and that endogenous opiates play the central role. According to this model, affiliation is a function of the brain systems underlying reward and memory formation. [Depue, R. A., & Morrone-Strupinsky, J. V. (2005). A neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding: Implications for conceptualizing a human trait of affliation. "Behavioral and Brain Sciences", "28", 313-395.]
Because the vast majority of this research has been done on animals-- and the majority of that on rodents-- these findings must be taken with caution when applied to humans. One of the few studies that looked at the influence of hormones on human bonding compared participants who had recently fallen in love with a control group. There were no differences for most of the hormones measured, including
LH, estradiol, progesterone, DHEAS, and androstenedione. Testosteroneand FSHwere lower in men who had recently fallen in love, and there was also a difference in blood cortisolfor both sexes, with higher levels in the group that was in love. These differences disappeared after 12-28 months and may reflect the temporary stress and arousal of a new relationship. [Marazziti, D., & Canale, D. (2004). Hormonal changes when falling in love. "Psychoneuroendocrinology", "29", 931-936.]
Mark Granovetter, a freshman history major at Harvard, became enamored with the concepts underlying the classic chemistry lecture in which "weak" hydrogen bonds hold huge water molecule together, which themselves are held together by "strong" covalent bonds. This model was the stimulus behind his famous 1973 paper "The Strength of Weak Ties", which is now considered a classic paper in sociology.
Weak social bonds are believed to be responsible for the majority of the embeddedness and structure of
social networksin societyas well as the transmission of informationthrough these networks. Specifically, more novel information flows to individuals through weak than through strong ties. Because our close friends tend to move in the same circles that we do, the information they receive overlaps considerably with what we already know. Acquaintances, by contrast, know people that we do not, and thus receive more novel information. [Granovetter, M.D. (2004). " [http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=990 The Impact of Social Structures on Economic Development] ." "Journal of Economic Perspectives" (Vol 19 Number 1, pp. 33–50).]
Debonding and loss
In 1976, sociologist Diane Vaughan proposed an “uncoupling theory”, where, during the dynamics of relationship breakup, there exists "turning point", only noted in hindsight, followed by transition period in which one partner unconsciously knows the relationship is going to end, but holds on to it for an extended period, sometimes for a number of years.cite book | last = Vaughan | first = Diane | title = Uncoupling - Turning Points in Intimate Relationships | publisher = Oxford University Press | year = 1986 | id = ISBN 0-679-73002-8]
When a person to which one has become bonded is lost, a
griefresponse may occur. Grief is the process of accepting the loss and adjusting to the changed situation. Grief may take longer than the initial development of the bond, typically one to two years for the loss of a marital partner. The grief process varies with culture.
*Miller, W.B. & Rodgers, J.L. (2001). "The Ontogeny of Human Bonding Systems: Evolutionary Origins, Neural Bases, and Psychological Manifestations." New York: Springer. ISBN 0-7923-7478-9
* Ben-Amos, I.K. (1997). [http://www.nuff.ox.ac.uk/economics/history/paper17/17www.pdf "Human Bonding: Parents and Their Offspring in Early Modern England."] "Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History" - Oxford University.
* Brown, S.L. & Brown, R.M. (2006). [http://www.si.umich.edu/ICOS/Brown-Stephanie.pdf Selective investment theory: Recasting the functional significance of close relationships.] "Psychological Inquiry, 17," 1-29. - a theoretical proposal that "human social bonds evolved as overarching, emotion regulating mechanisms designed to promote reliable, high-cost altruism among individuals who depend on one another for survival and reproduction" (From the abstract)
* Immerman, R.S. & Mackey, W.C. (2003). [http://human-nature.com/ep/articles/ep01138154.html Perspectives on Human Attachment (Pair Bonding): Eve's unique legacy of canine analogue] "Evolutionary Psychology, 1," 138-154. ISSN 1474-7049
* Thorne, L. (2006). " [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/04/AR2006080400332.html Of Human Bonding] " - Condo Dwellers Find Cool Ways to Connect With the Neighbors., "Express" (Washingtonpost.com), Mon., (Aug. 07)
* Author (2006). " [http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/doc_WTX033638.html Falling in Love: Insights into Human Bonding] ." "Wellcome Trust", Aug. 25
* [http://people.howstuffworks.com/love7.htm Chemical Bonding and Love] - HowStuffWorks.com
* [http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/chains.htm Researchers Map the Sexual Network of an Entire High School] – Research News, Ohio State University
* [http://www.neuroendo.org.uk/content/view/34/11/ The Neurobiology of Social Bonds] – British Society for Neuroendocrinology
* [http://kidshealth.org/parent/pregnancy_newborn/communicating/bonding.html Bonding With Your Baby] source: kidshealth.org
* [http://www.birthingnaturally.net/barp/bonding.html Bonding Period] – Parent/Infant Bonding
* [http://www.babyreference.com/BondingMatters.htm Bonding Matters - the Chemistry of Attachment]
* [http://www.adoptivefamilies.com/bonding/ Adoption bonding] - Adoptive Families Magazine
* [http://encyclopedia.adoption.com/entry/bonding-and-attachment/72/1.html Bonding and Attachment] - Encyclopedia of Adoption (use cautiously with section on " attachment disorders")
* [http://www.aican.org/ AICAN - Australian Intercountry Adoption Network]
* [http://www.quakerville.com/qic/bonding.asp Parrot-Human Bonding] – Progressive Steps in the Bonding Process
* [http://cats.about.com/cs/felinehumanbond/a/bonding_bubba.htm?iam=metaresults&terms=shannon+swallow Feline-Human Bond] source: About.com
* [http://www.rosecreekvillage.com/ebc/ Equine Bonding Concepts]
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