- Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission
network_name = Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission
country = CAN
available = National through owned and operated stations and affiliates
owner = Government of Canada
Thomas Maher (Commissioner),
W. Arthur Steel (Commissioner),
Ernie Bushnell (Program Director)
launch_date = 1932
closure_date = 1936, assets transferred to
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation| past_names =
The Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC) was Canada's first
public broadcasterand the immediate precursor to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
The CRBC was established in 1932 by the government of
R.B. Bennettbased on the recommendations of the 1929 Royal Commission on Radio Broadcastingand as a result of the lobbying efforts of the Canadian Radio League. The network was created on May 26, 1932 and existed until November 2, 1936 when it was reorganized as a Crown corporationbecoming the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation." [http://www.broadcasting-history.ca/networks/networks_CRBC.html The Birth and Death of The Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (1932-1936)] ," Canadian Communications Foundation, accessed January 20, 2008] Daily national broadcasting began in May 1933 with an hour's programming a day which was increased over time. [ [http://www.odxa.on.ca/archives/timeline/timelinebc.html Canadian Broadcast Stations Timeline] accessed January 20, 2008]
At its creation, Prime Minister Bennett spoke of the need for public control of radio saying::This country must be assured of complete Canadian control of broadcasting from Canadian sources. Without such control, broadcasting can never be the agency by which national consciousness may be fostered and sustained and national unity still further strengthened."John D. Jackson and Paul Millen, [http://www.cjc-online.ca/include/getdoc.php?id=1510&article=1043&mode=pdf "ENGLISH-LANGUAGE RADIO DRAMA: A COMPARISON OF CENTRAL & REGIONAL PRODUCTION UNITS"] , "Canadian Journal of Communication", Vol 15, No 1]
The three-man commission had a mandate to regulate, control all broadcasting in Canada as well as to create and transmit its own programming and to lease, purchase or construct stations for its dissemination. [ [http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1SEC817324 Emergence of Public Ownership and Regulations (1928-36)] , "The Canadian Encyclopedia", accessed January 20, 2008] Its ability to carry out its mandate was severely restricted by the financial constraints of the
Great Depressionand it was forced to rely on private stations to carry its programs to much of the country. [ [http://www.oldradio.com/archives/stations_c/canada.html Canadian Broadcast History ] ]
Hector Charlesworth, editor of "Saturday Night" magazine, as chairman of the CRBC. The other members of the Commission were Thomas Maher, an unsuccessful Quebec Conservative candidate in 1930 federal election [ [http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/about/process/house/hfer/hfer.asp?Language=E&Search=Cresdetail&Election=6061 History of Federal Ridings since 1867 ] ] and director of a private radio station in Quebec Cityand Lieutenant Colonel W. Arthur Steel.
In addition to being a creator of programming and a broadcaster, the CRBC was responsible under the "Canadian Radio Broadcasting Act" for regulating and controlling all broadcasting in Canada, including privately owned radio stations that did not carry CRBC programming. The CRBC's regulatory responsibilities included determining the number, location and transmitting power of radio stations as well as the amount of time spent carrying local and national programming. [http://www.crtc.gc.ca/Eng/BACKGRND/Brochures/B19903.htm "The CRTC's Origins"] ,
Canadian Radio-television Telecommunication Commission]
The CRBC acquired radio stations from the
Canadian National Railway radionetwork in Ottawa, Vancouverand Monctonfor $50,000 as well as CNR Radio studios in various other cities and leased or established additional stations in Montreal, Chicoutimi, Quebec City, Torontoand Windsor. The CNR stations had been created in the 1920s to provide broadcasting for railway passengers. The CRBC also hired private stations across the country to carry at least three hours a day of CRBC programming. These affiliates were known as "basic stations". CRBC-owned or leased stations had the prefix "CRC" in their call-letters. E. Austion Weir, formerly of the CNR radio network, became the CRBC's program director. He was terminated, however, for not providing enough programming. Weir was replaced by Ernie Bushnellwho became director of CRBC programming in Ontario and Western Canada and Arthur Dupontwho was responsible for Quebec and the Maritimes.
Network programming included orchestral music, live
Metropolitan Operabroadcasts from NBCand New York Philharmonic Orchestrabroadcasts from CBS, dramatized informational programs such as "The Youngbloods of Beaver Band" which serialized life on a western Canadian farm. One of the best known national drama series was "Radio Theatre Guild" produced in Montreal by Rupert Caplan. [http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0006642 Radio Drama, English Language] , "Canadian Encyclopedia", accessed January 23, 2008] Under program director Ernie Bushnell, CRBC increased the number of weekly English language series being broadcast over the network to 17 by the time of the network's demise.
Another CRBC program, one which originated on the CNR's network in 1931, was "
Hockey Night in Canada" under the names "Saturday Night Hockey", "General Motors Hockey Broadcast" and then, starting in 1934, "The Imperial Oil Hockey Broadcast". [Cavanaugh, Richard P., [http://www.cjc-online.ca/viewarticle.php?id=100&layout=html "The Development of Canadian Sports Broadcasting 1920-1978"] , "Canadian Journal of Communications", Vol 17. No 3 (1992)] Other programming including fare such as "Bible Dramas" from CRCM Montreal, " Canadian PressNews" - a 15 minute nightly newscast from CRCT Toronto presented by Charles Jennings (the father of Peter Jennings), "Western Radio Players" a weekly dramatic half-hour from CKY Winnipeg and "Northern Messenger", a weekly program originating from Toronto but aimed at Canadians living in the far north including personal messages to RCMP officers, missionaries, trappers and others from family and friends, the program was continued by CBC into the 1970s. [ [http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-112-1311-7708/1960s/1967/clip1 CBC Archives] ]
CRBC's coverage of the 1935 federal election was the first time Canadian election results were broadcast nationwide.
All programs were live as there were no recording facilities. The network had six stations of its own and relied largely on private affiliates to provide studios, equipment and staff. [http://www.broadcasting-history.ca/networks/networks_CRBC_Programming.html CRBC Programming] , accessed January 21, 2008]
In April 1936, CRBC provided round the clock coverage of the
Moose River Mine Disasterin Nova Scotiawith announcer J. Frank Willisbroadcasting live reports from the mine head every half hour for five days as rescue crews attempted to recover the lost miners. The reports were broadcast throughout Canada as well as to 650 stations in the United States and the BBC.
In 1935, CRBC provided nationwide radio coverage of the 1935 federal election, the first such national broadcast in Canada.
The CRBC turned to radio advertising in order to make up a shortfall between government grants and the amount of money needed to run the network.
The network was criticized by the
Canadian Radio Leaguefor having poor programming while the Liberal Party opposition accused the network of being biased towards the governing Conservatives.
During the election campaign, the CRBC broadcast a series of 15 minutes soap operas called "Mr. Sage" which were critical of Opposition leader
William Lyon Mackenzie Kingand the Liberal Party. Decried as political propaganda, the incident was one factor in the King's decision to replace the CRBC with a new entity when the Liberals took office following the election.
New legislation was introduced creating the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation as a
crown corporationwith an arm's lengthrelationship with the government. The management of the CRBC, including Charlesworth, were dismissed and the new CBC was launched on November 2, 1936 with a new management team.
At its demise, the CRBC was made up of eight network
owned-and-operated stations and 14 privately owned network affiliates.
The CRBC's regulatory powers were largely transferred to the CBC while the role of licensing stations and allocating
wavelengthswas assumed by the newly created Department of Transport. In 1958, the Board of Broadcast Governorsassumed responsibilities for regulating public and private broadcasters from the CBC and the Department of Transport and in 1968, with the adoption of the Broadcasting Act, regulation became the responsibility of the Canadian Radio-television Commission (CRTC).
CRBC owned stations
*CRCA Moncton (closed October 31, 1933) [ [http://www.oldradio.com/archives/international/canada2.htm Canadian stations and history] ]
*CRCK Quebec City
*CHSJ Saint John
*CHNC New Carlisle, Quebec
*CKBI Prince Albert
*CHAB Moose Jaw
* [http://www.broadcasting-history.ca/networks/networks_CRBC_Programming.html CRBC Programming]
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