Timeline of the Hundred Years' War

Timeline of the Hundred Years' War

This is a timeline of the Hundred Years' War between England and France from 1337 to 1453 as well as some of the events leading up to the war. (The Hundred Years' War actually lasted 116 years.)

Background

*1259: The Treaty of Paris between Henry III of England and Louis IX of France acknowledges the loss of most of the Angevin Empire. Henry III keeps the remains of the Duchy of Aquitaine, mainly Gascony as a vassal of Louis IX.
*1314: Philip IV of France dies leaving three sons, Louis X, Philip V and Charles IV.
*1316: Louis X dies. His daughter Joan II of Navarre is bypassed in favour of his brother Philip V.
*1322: Philip V dies. His daughters are also put aside, the third brother, Charles IV becomes King of France.
*1324: The War of Saint-Sardos between Charles IV and Edward II of England. The war is a complete failure for England and ends with the French capture of La Réole.
*1328: Charles IV of France dies leaving only daughters. His sisters Isabella of France, now the effective ruler of England, claims the French throne for her son Edward III of England as Charles' closest living male relative. However the French nobility favour Philip VI, the closest in unbroken male line.
*1330: Edward III seizes power in England. He has Isabella imprisoned and her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March executed.
*1331: Edward III renounces his claim to France and accept Philip VI as his liege in Aquitaine.
*1332: Birth of Charles II of Navarre, son of Joan II of Navarre and grandson of Louis X of France.
*1333: War breaks out between Edward III and David II of Scotland, beginning the Second War of Scottish Independence. Scotland was a French ally under the Auld Alliance.
*1335: Philip VI make plans for sending an expedition force to Scotland.
*1336: Growing diplomatic tensions between England and France. Growing piracy against English ships.
*1337: Philip VI formally declares the confiscating of Aquitaine. Open hostilities break out.

1337–1360

*1341: The Breton War of Succession breaks out. Edward supports John of Montfort while Philip backs Charles of Blois.
*1346: Edward III inflicts a crushing defeat on Philip VI at the Battle of Crécy.
*1347: Calais falls to Edward III. The Scots invade England but are defeated at the Battle of Neville's Cross and David II is captured.
*1348: The Black Death reaches Europe.
*1350: Philip VI dies and is succeeded by his son John II.
*1351: The Battle of the Thirty.
*1356: Edward the Black Prince, son of Edward III, defeats John II at the Battle of Poitiers. John II is among the captured.
*1358: Peasant revolt in France called the Jacquerie.
*1359: John II signs the Second Treaty of London accepting huge territorial losses and an enormous ransom. However Charles, John's son and heir, refuse to accept.
*1360: The Treaty of Brétigny. Edward III renounces his claim to the French throne in return for the restoration and suxerainty of Aquitaine. Edward makes his son, the Black Prince, Duke of Aquitaine.

1360–1400

*1364: The defeat and death of Charles of Blois at the Battle of Auray marks the end of the Breton War of Succession.
*1366: The Black Prince intervenes in the civil war in Castile between Pedro the Cruel and Henry of Trastamara.
*1370: John Chandos, the English Seneschal of Poitou is defeated and slain at Chateau Lussac.
*1372: French commander Bertrand du Guesclin captures Poitiers.
*1377: Du Guesclin takes Bergerac.
*1376: The Black Prince dies.
*1377: Edward III dies. His grandson Richard II becomes King of England.

1400–1422

*1415: Henry V of England lands at Harfleur in Normandy and takes the city. He wins a near-total victory over the French at the Battle of Agincourt.
*1417: Henry V takes Caen.
*1419: Rouen falls to Henry V 19 January, placing Normandy under English control. Burgundy allies with England.
*1420: Henry V and Charles VI of France sign the Treaty of Troyes. Henry marries Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI, and their heir would inherit both kingdoms. The Dauphin, Charles VII is declared illegitimate.
*1422: Henry V dies 31 August, and Charles VI 21 October. Henry's young son, Henry VI of England is crowned king of both England and France. However in central France, the Dauphin continues the war.

1422–1453

*1424: One of Henry VI's regents, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, marries Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, and invades Holland to regain her former dominions, bringing him into direct conflict with Philip III, Duke of Burgundy.
*1428: The English lay siege to Orléans.
*1429: Joan of Arc breaks the siege of Orléans. The Dauphin is crowned King of France at Reims.
*1430: Joan is captured by the Burgundians and later sold to the English.
*1430: Joan of Arc tried and executed.
*1435: Burgundy switches sides, signing the Treaty of Arras.
*1449: The French recapture Rouen.
*1450: An English attempt to relieve Caen is defeated at the Battle of Formigny. The French take Cherbourg.
*1451: Bordeaux and Bayonne fall to French forces.
*1453: John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury attempts to retake Gascony, but is defeated by Jean Bureau at the Battle of Castillon.

The Battle of Castillon is generally considered the end of the Hundred Years' War as Henry VI's insanity and the Wars of the Roses left England in no position to wage war in France. However Calais remained an English possession until 1558 and the title of King of France was not omitted from the English royal style until 1 January1801.


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