- Ecological humanities
The ecological humanities are a recent development by
Deborah Bird Roseand colleagues in the humanitieswhich has grown out of the concerns of radical ecocentricpolitical theory. The aim of the ecologicalhumanities is to bridge the divides between the sciences and the humanities, and between Western, Eastern and Indigenous ways of knowing nature. Like ecocentric political theory, the ecological humanities are characterised by a "connectivity ontology" and a commitment to two fundamental axioms relating to the need to submit to ecological laws and to see humanity as part of a larger living system.
One of the fundamental ontological presuppositions of ecological humanities is that the organic world and its inorganic parts are seen as a single system whereby each part is linked to each other part. This
world viewin turn shares an intimate connection with Lotka's physiological philosophy and the associated concept of the "World Engine".ref|Kingsland1985 When we see everything as connected, then the traditional questions of the humanities concerning economic and political justice become "enlarged," into a consideration of how justiceis connected with our transformation of our environment and ecosystems. The consequence of such a connectivity ontologyis, as proponents of the ecological humanities argue, that we begin to seek out a more inclusive concept of justice that includes non-humans within the domain of those to whom rights are owing. This broadened conception of justice involves "enlarged" or "ecological thinking", which presupposes the enhancement of knowledge sharing within fields of plural and diverse ‘knowledges’. This kind of knowledge sharing is called transdisciplinarity. It has links with the political philosophy of Hannah Arendtand the works of Italo Calvino. As Calvino put it, "enlarge [s] the sphere of what we can imagine". It also has connections with Leibniz's Enlightenment project where, the sciences are simultaneously abridged while also being enlarged.ref|Rutherford2002
The situation is complicated however by the recognition of the fact that connections are both "non-linear" and "linear". The ecological humanities therefore, require both linear and non-linear modes of language through which reasoning about justice can be done. Thus there is a motivation to find linguistic modes which can adequately express both linear and non-linear connectivities.
Axioms of ecological humanities
There are two
axiomsof ecological humanities:
#The axiom of submission to ecosystem laws
#The axiom of ecological kinship, which situates humanity as participant in a larger living system
Put another way, the connections between and among living things are the basis for how ecosystems are understood to work, and thus constitute laws of existence and guidelines for behaviour (Rose 2004)
The first of these axioms has a tradition in social sciences ("see" Marx, 1968: 3). From the second axiom the notions of “ecological embodiment/embededness” and “habitat” have emerged from Political Theory with a fundamental connectivity to rights, democracy and ecologism (Eckersley 1996: 222, 225; Eckersley 1998).
Political economic ecology
Some theorists have suggested that the inclusion of non-humans in the consideration of justice links ecocentric philosophy with political economics. This is because the theorising of justice is a central activity of political economic philosophy. If in accordance with the axioms of ecological humanities, theories of justice are enlarged to include ecological values then the necessary result is the synthesis of the concerns of ecology with that of political economy: i.e. Political Economic Ecology.
Energy systems language
The question of what language can best depict the linear and non-linear causal connections of ecological systems appears to have been taken up by the school of ecology known as
systems ecology. To depict the linear and non-linear internal relatedness of ecosystems where the laws of thermodynamics hold significant consequences (Hannon et al. 1991: 80), Systems Ecologist H.T. Odum (1994) predicated the Energy Systems Languageon the principles of ecological energetics. In ecological energetics, just as in ecological humanities, the causal bond between connections is considered an ontic category (see Patten et al 1976: 460). Moreover as a result of simulating ecological systems with the energy systems language H.T.Odum make the controversial suggestion that embodied energy could be understood as value, which in itself is a step into the field of Political Economic Ecology noted above.
Principles of energetics
#cite book | author= S. Kingsland | title= Modeling Nature | year=1985 | publisher= The University of Chicago Press | pages= Chapter 2 |
#cite book | author= L.Courtart translated by D.Rutherford, R.T. Monroe | title= The Logic of Leibniz | year=2002 | publisher= | pages= Chapter 5 | url=http://philosophy2.ucsd.edu/~rutherford/Leibniz/ch5.htm
* Italo Calvino, "On Fourier, III: A Utopia of Fine Dust," The Literature Machine, Picador, London.
* R. Eckersley (1996) ‘Greening Liberal Democracy’, in Doherty, B. and de Geus, M. ed. "Democracy & Green Political Thought: Sustainability, Rights and Citizenship", Routledge, London, pp. 212-236.
* R. Eckersley (1998) ‘The Death of Nature and the Birth of Ecological Humanities’, "Organization and Environment", Vol 11, No. 2, pp. 183-185.
* R. Eckersley (2001) 'Symposium Green Thinking – from Australia', "Environmental Politics", Vol.10, No.4, pp.85–102.
* J.B. Foster and P.Burkett (2004) ‘Ecological Economics And Classical Marxism’, "Organization & Environment", Vol. 17, No.1, pp. 32-60.
* B. Hannon, R.Costanza and R.Ulanowicz (1991) ‘A General Accounting Framework for Ecological Systems: A Functional Taxonomy for Connectivist Ecology’, "Theoretical Population Biology", Vol. 40, 78-104.
* J. Martinez-Alier (1987) "Ecological Economics", Basil Blackwell.
* K. Marx (1968), in "Karl Marx: 1818/1968, a collection of essays", Inter Nationes, Bad Godesberg.
* H.T. Odum (1994) "Ecological and General Systems: An Introduction to Systems Ecology", Colorado University Press, Boulder, Colorado.
* B.C. Patten, R.W.Bosserman, J.T.Finn and W.B.Cale (1976) ‘Propagation of Cause in Ecosystems’, in Patten, B.C. ed. "Systems Analysis and Systems Simulation in Ecology", Academic Press inc. New York.
* S. Podolinsky (2004) ‘Socialism And The Unity Of Physical Forces’, "Organization & Environment", Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 61-75.
* D.R. Weiner (2000) "Models of Nature: Ecology, Conservation and Cultural Revolution in Soviet Russia", University of Pittsburgh Press, U.S.A.
* [http://www.ecologicalhumanities.org/ Ecological Humanities website]
* [http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/AHR/archive/Issue-April-2004/rose.html D.B.Rose and L. Robin (2004) 'The Ecological Humanities in Action: An Invitation', " Australian Humanities Review", Issue 31-32]
* [http://www.humanities.org.au/Policy/NRP/expandingRPpapers/GriffithsRP.pdf T. Griffiths 'The Humanities and an Environmentally Sustainable Australia', Appendix 1 in The Australian Academy of the Humanities, "The Humanities and Australia's National Research Priorities', Report prepared for the Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training, April 2003]
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