Swedish nobility

Swedish nobility

The Swedish nobility (Adeln) were historically a legally and/or socially privileged class in Sweden, part of the so-called frälse (a classification defined by tax exemptions and representation in the diet that also applied to clergy). Today, the nobility is still very much a part of Swedish society but they do not maintain many of their former privileges. They still do possess some privileges such as the protection by law of their family names, titles and coats of arms. The Swedish nobility consists of both "introduced" (introducerad adel) and "unintroduced" nobility (ointroducerad adel), the latter has not been "introduced" at the House of Nobility (Riddarhuset).

The House of Nobility also has a special tax for all noblemen over the age of 18. Belonging to the nobility in present day Sweden still carries some social privileges, and is of certain social and historical significance.



Introduced Swedish nobility is organized into three classes according to a scheme introduced in riddarhusordningen (Standing orders of the House of Knights) 1626

  • Counts (greve) and barons (friherre, baron) in the Class of Lords (Swedish: Herreklassen), these two titles were introduced in 1561 by Erik XIV;
  • the Class of Knights (Swedish: Riddarklassen), untitled descendants of Swedish Privy Councillors and since 1778 the 300 oldest families in the Class of Esquire as well as the "commander families", who are of the descendants of commanders of Swedish royal orders;
  • the Class of Esquires (Swedish: Svenneklassen), other untitled nobles.

The two last classes contains the so called untitled nobility (Swedish: obetitlad adel). The division into classes has roots in the middle ages when the nobility frälse was divided into lords in the Privy Council, knights and esquires. Until 1719 the three classes voted separately, but in the Age of Liberty all classes were voting together with one vote for each family head (Swedish: huvudman). This made the vast majority of the untitled nobility in power, for example officers and civil servants were represented.

In 1778 Gustav III restored the classes and class voting and at the same time he reformed the Class of Knights. Originally this class only contained family descendants of Privy Councillors and was the smallest class of the three classes. But Gustav III also introduced in this class the 300 oldest families in the Class of Esquire and also the "commander families", who are of the descendants of commanders of the Order of the Northern Star and the Order of the Sword. No more commander families were introduced in the House of Knights after 1809, and thereafter also the class voting was abolished and the nobility was then voting as during the Age of Liberty.

A Swedish duke (hertig) has almost always been of royal status and counted as such. An exception in medieval times was Benedict, Duke of Halland. Two men were also created princes (furstar) in the 18th century: Fredrik Vilhelm von Hessenstein and Vilhelm Putbus but neither were introduced.

The House of Nobility (Riddarhuset) in Stockholm

Following the elevation of a commoner into nobility by the Swedish monarch, the new nobleman had to seek introduction in order to be a fully recognised member of the House of Nobility (Riddarhuset), a term that also refers to its function as a chamber in the Riksdag of the Estates, the Swedish Parliament. In 1866 the Nobility was formally separated from government and incorporated as a separate institution, governed by statutes handed down by the monarch (from 1975: the government). This last link to the government and state was abolished in 2003. The Palace of the Nobility served as official representation for the nobility and was regulated by the Swedish government, but this regulation ceased completely in 2003, as have the privileges. The membership roster is published every three years.

The King could confer both hereditary and non-hereditary ennoblements up until 1975, although no hereditary ennoblement has occurred since 1902.

Medieval nobility: Frälse

The institution of Swedish (and Finnish) nobility dates back to 1280, when it was stated in the Decree of Alsnö that magnates who could afford to contribute a mounted soldier to the cavalry were to be exempted from tax - at least from ordinary taxes - just as the clergy already had been. The archaic Swedish term for nobility, frälse, also included the clergy with respect to their exemption from tax.

The background for this was that the old system of a leiðangr fleet and a king constantly on travel through the realm (between the estates of Uppsala öd) had by this time become outmoded. The crown's court and castles were now to be financed through taxes on land.

Soon it was agreed that the king should govern the realm in cooperation with a Privy Council (or Royal Council), in which the bishops and the most distinguished magnates (i.e. the most prominent contributors to the army) participated. When critical decisions were necessary, the whole frälse was summoned to the diets.

Swedish nobility had no hereditary fiefs. In the case where a noble was granted a castle belonging to the crown, his heirs couldn't later claim their ancestors' civil or military rights. The lands of the magnates who constituted the medieval nobility were their own and not "on lease" from a feudal king. If they by their own means or exploitation of peasants built a castle and financed troops, then the castle was theirs, but the troops were expected to serve as a part of the army of the realm.

For extended periods, the commander of Viborg at the Novgorod/Russian front did, in practice, function as a margrave, keeping all the crown's income from the fief to use for the defense of the realm's eastern border. But despite heavy German influence during the medieval period, the elaborate German system with titles such as Lantgraf, Reichsgraf, Burggraf and Pfalzgraf was never applied in Sweden.

Nobility after 1561

Axel Oxenstierna secured all government appointments to be filled by nobles.

At the coronation of Eric XIV in 1561, Swedish nobility became formally hereditary for the first time upon the creation of the higher titles of Count (greve) and Baron (friherre). The House of Knights was organized in 1626. The grounds for introduction into this chamber became either birth into an "ancient" noble family or ennoblement by the sovereign. Consequently, genealogy flourished.

The Lord High Chancellor, Axel Oxenstierna, was the architect of the Instrument of Government of 1634, which laid the foundation of modern Sweden. It guaranteed that all government appointments were to be filled by candidates from the nobility, a move which helped mobilize support for, rather than opposition to, a centralized national government.

Due to the many wars fought by Sweden, the crown needed some means of rewarding its officers, and since the royal coffers were not without end, ennoblement and grants of land were useful substitutes for cash payments. During the 17th century, the number of noble families grew by a factor of five. In less than a century, the nobility's share of Swedish land ownership rose from 16% to over 60%, which led to considerably lower tax revenue for the crown. The "Reduction" of 1655 and 1680, however, brought land back into the crown's possession.

Historically all members of a noble family were generally titled. If the family was of the rank of a Count or a Baron, all members received that title as well. However, following the new Instrument of Government from 1809, a change was made more in line with the British system so that, for later nobility, only the head of the family would be part of hold the title (if there is one). There are a few families where these systems overlap such that the vast majority are nobles pre-1809 without title, while the heads of the families have been elevated to count or baron after 1809. The vast majority of noble families are still of the old kind where all members are regarded as nobles.

No hereditary title of nobility has been granted since 1902, when explorer Sven Hedin was ennobled by the King (that honor was hereditary, but he left no heirs). Since 1975 the Swedish monarch no longer has the right to ennoble or to confer knighthoods and orders on Swedes. Titles are still given to members of the royal family when princes and princesses are made dukes or duchesses. On the announcement of the now broken engagement between Princess Madeleine and Mr. Jonas Bergström it was announced that he would be styled Hertig Jonas after the wedding.[citation needed] Prince Daniel was born a commoner and created a Swedish prince, elevated to Royal Highness, and assumed the title Duke of Västergötland upon his marriage to Crown Princess Victoria who already holds the title Duchess of Västergötland.

Unintroduced nobility

Being "introduced" at the House of Nobility means that the body confirms the status of a family as Swedish nobility. Even when a family was ennobled by the Swedish monarch, it still had to seek introduction at the House of Nobility to achieve such status. Introduction, however, was not necessary for being considered noble as such, although only the introduced families had a legally privileged position. Unintroduced families still could use their titles, if they had any, and noble elements and styles in their coats of arms. The recognition of their noble status in the society was chiefly of social, rather than legal, nature.

Sweden has a significant number of unintroduced noble families, several of which are historically prominent (as of 2010 comprising 99 living families and around 450 individuals). The families fall into four groups:

  1. Foreign nobility, i.e. families of foreign origin (particularly German/Baltic, but also other nationalities) which had noble status in a different country than Sweden, and which partially or wholly live in Sweden. This group is the largest by far among the unintroduced nobility.
  2. Families of Swedish origin which were granted noble status and/or titles by a foreign country (for example, members of the House of Bernadotte have been granted Luxembourgish comital titles).
  3. Families which have been ennobled by the Swedish monarch, but which have not been introduced at the House of Nobility. This group is made up by a small number of families.
  4. Armigerous families of foreign origin which have traditionally been included in the various directories of unintroduced nobility, but whose original noble status has not been proven. These families are nevertheless considered part of the Swedish unintroduced nobility for traditional reasons, i.e. because they have been considered noble in Sweden for an extended period of time. This group consists of a small number of families.

Three successive almanachs of unintroduced nobility have been published; the first one was started in 1886,[1] the second in 1912,[2] and the third in 1935; it was most recently published in 2010.[3] An association of unintroduced nobility, Sveriges Ointroducerade Adels Förening, was founded in 1911. Several branches of the House of Bernadotte have been members of this association, as a result of members of the royal family losing their Swedish titles and being granted foreign (Luxembourgish or Belgian) titles upon marrying non-royals. Notably Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg was chairman of the association for many years.

Titles of high nobility


According to the Nordisk Familjebok: The first counts and barons, created in 1561 by Eric XIV:

  • Svante Sture of Hörningsholm, 1562 count of Vestervik and later also Stegeholm
  • Peder Joakimsson Brahe of Rydboholm, 1562 count of Visingsborg
  • Göstaff Johansson of Haga, 1562 count of Bogesund (originally Enköping)
  • Stenbock Gustaf Olofsson, baron of Torpa
  • Leijonhufvud Sten Eriksson, baron of Grevsnes
  • Grip Birger Nilsson, baron of Vines
  • Oxenstierna Gabriel Kristersson, baron of Mörby
  • Lars Fleming, baron of Arvasalo (in Finland)
  • Gera Karl Holgersson, baron of Björkvik
  • Gera Göran Holgersson, baron of Ållonö
  • Horn af Åminne Klas Kristersson, baron of Joensuu (in Finland)
  • Stenbock Erik Gustafsson, baron of Torpa (younger son of Gustaf Olofsson)

John III granted the first baronal titles accompanied by territorial grants (earlier titles elevated the family's hereditary estate to countly or baronial status):

  • Öresten and Kronobäck to Erik Gustafsson of Torpa
  • Lundholm to Nils Göransson Gyllenstierna, new baron
  • Viikki (in Finland) to Klas Eriksson Fleming, new baron
  • Läckö to Hogenskild Bielke, new baron
  • Ekholmen to Pontus De La Gardie, new baron
  • Kungs-Lena to Olof Gustafsson Stenbock (elder son and heir of Gustaf Olofsson)
  • county of Raseborg (in Finland) to baron Sten Eriksson of Grevsnes' widow and heirs inh 1571

Charles IX created only one:

  • barony of Nynäs (in Finland) to Abraham Leijonhufvud

(he made Svante Bielke and Nils Bielke barons without grant of entailed lands)

Gustav II Adolf granted:

Christina granted:

  • county of Södermöre to Axel Oxenstierna
  • county of Vasaborg to Gustav Gustavsson, her illegitimate half-brother
  • county of Ortala to Lennart Torstenson
  • county of Kuressaare (later exchanged for Pärnu) to Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie
  • county of Sortavala to Johan Adam Banér
  • county of Björneborg (Pori) to Gustav Horn
  • county of Vestervik and Stegeholm to Hans Kristofer von Königsmark
  • county of Korsholm and Vasa to Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna
  • county of Bogesund to Fredrik Stenbock
  • county of Salmi and Suistamo pogosta to Carl Gustaf Wrangel
  • county of Kruunupori to Ture Oxenstierna
  • county of Nyborg to Arvid Wittenberg
  • county of Karleborg to Klas Tott
  • county of Liljenborg to Axel Lillie
  • county of Mariestad to Lars Kagg
  • county of Skeninge to Robert Douglas
  • county of Skövde to Kristofer Karl von Schlippenbach
  • county of Enköping to Antonius von Steinberg
  • barony of Vibyholm to Gustav Gustavsson, her illegitimate half-brother
  • barony of Virestad to Lennart Torstensson
  • barony of Kronoberg to Peder Sparre
  • barony of Korppoo to Nils Bielke
  • barony of Härlunda to Seved Bååt
  • barony of Kajaani to Per Brahe
  • barony of Örneholma to Johan Adler-Salvius
  • barony of Liperi pogosta to Hermann Fleming
  • barony of Oulu to Erik Gyllenstierna
  • barony of Kitee pogosta to Axel Lillie
  • barony of Loimijoki to Arvid Wittenberg
  • barony of Limingo to Matias Soop
  • barony of Marienburg to Gustav Horn af Marienborg and certain of his relatives
  • barony of Vöyripori to Carl Gustaf Paijkull
  • barony of Tohmajärvi pogosta to Lars Kagg
  • barony of Kokkola to Gustav Banér
  • barony of Sund to Erik Ryning
  • barony of Laihia to Karl Bonde
  • barony of Pyhäjoki to Klas Hansson Bjelkenstjerna
  • barony of Iijoki to Åke Axelsson Tott
  • barony of Ikalapori to Schering Rosenhane
  • barony of Hailuoto to Bernt Taube
  • barony of Hedensund (then Arnäs) to Knut Posse
  • barony of Vinberg to Gustaf Adolf Leijonhudvud
  • barony of Lindeberg to Carl Gustav Wrangel and his brothers
  • barony of Lindeborg to Lorentz von der Linde
  • barony of Willenbruch and Harzefeld to Pierre Bidal
  • barony of Ludenhof (Luua, now in Palamuse Parish, Estonia) to Hans Wrangel
  • barony of Eksjö to Reinhold Liewen
  • barony of Elfkarleby to Mårten Leijonhufvud
  • Lauri Cruus baron of Gudhem
  • Robert Douglas baron of Skälby
  • Hans Wachtmeister baron of Koivisto
  • Johan Kurck baron of Lempäälä
  • Adolf Friedrich Wetter, baron of Wetter-Rosenthal
  • Jakob and Anders Lilliehöök, barons of Närpes
  • Kasper and Karl Henrik Wrede af Elimä, barons of Elimäki
  • Erik Fleming, baron of Lais

Charles X Gustav granted:

  • county of Sölvesborg to Corfitz Ulfeldt
    • (Lars Kagg, then Carl Gustav Wrangel, obtained the county of Sölvesborg in exchanges)
  • P.Wuertz baron of Örneholma
  • barony of Kastell ladugården to Rutger von Ascheberg

Charles XI granted:

  • county of Börringe to Gustav Carlsson, his illegitimate half-brother


The following titled families of high nobility are included in Kalender öfver i Sverige lefvande ointroducerad adel (1886–1899), Sveriges ointroducerade adels kalender (1912–1944), and/or Kalender över Ointroducerad adels förening (1935–), which are directories of the living (at the time of publication) unintroduced noble families resident in Sweden. Five of these families have titles as Princes, Dukes or Marquis, the others as Counts and Barons. Most unintroduced noble families, however, are untitled, similar to the introduced families. Some of these families, or their titled branches, have since become extinct.

  • Bernadotte (Belgian princely title awarded to Prince Carl Bernadotte)
  • Cantacuzino (boyar family, Russian princely title)
  • Joussineau de Tourdonnet (French nobility)
  • Lagergren (Papal/Italian nobility)
  • Bernadotte of Wisborg (Luxembourgish title awarded to various members of the House of Bernadotte)
  • Crapon de Caprona
  • Fouché d'Otrante (Napoleonic nobility)
  • von der Groeben (German nobility)
  • von Hallwyl (Swiss nobility)
  • Joussineau de Tourdonnet (French nobility)
  • Lagergren (Papal/Italian nobility)
  • Landberg
  • Moltke (German/Danish nobility)
  • Moltke-Hvitfeldt (German/Danish nobility)
  • de Paus (Papal/Italian nobility)
  • von Platen zu Hallermund (German nobility)
  • Révay (Hungarian nobility)
  • Rewentlow (Danish/German nobility)
  • Stolberg (German nobility)
  • Tolstoy (Russian nobility)
  • von Trampe (German nobility)
  • von Bonsdorff (Finnish nobility)
  • von Bredow (German nobility)
  • von Buddenbrock
  • von Buxhoeveden
  • Cronstedt
  • von Grothusen
  • von Gussich
  • von Leithner
  • von Mecklenburg
  • von der Osten-Sacken
  • von der Pahlen (Russian nobility)
  • von Rosen (Hoch-Rosen)
  • Rosenørn-Lehn (Danish nobility)
  • von Strauss
  • von Wangenheim
  • de Wendel (Portuguese nobility)


The noble estates are not abolished in Sweden, but their privileged position has been weakened step by step since 1680. The nobility's political privileges were practically abolished by the reformation of the Riksdag of the Estates in 1866, and the last rights of precedence to certain governmental offices were removed in the 1920s. By then the last tax exemption privileges had also been abolished. However, some minor privileges remained up until 2003, including the right to be beheaded by sword, when the law granting these noble privileges was completely abolished and the government no longer has the right to call the heads of families to be assembled in session.

The prerogatives of nobility today are limited to protection of noble titles and certain elements and styles used in their coats of arms: a helm with an open visor, a coronet showing rank, a medallion and the use of supporters. Modern Swedish law makes no distinctions on the basis of nobility.

Crowns and helmet used in Swedish heraldry

See also


  1. ^ Tersmeden, Carl Herman (1886–1899). Kalender öfver i Sverige lefvande ointroducerad adel. Stockholm. 
  2. ^ Gerber, Tage von (1912–1944). Sveriges ointroducerade adels kalender. Malmö: Sveriges Ointroducerade Adels Förening (from 1917). 
  3. ^ Rothstein, Niclas von (2010). Ointroducerad Adel 2010. Kalender över Ointroducerad adels förening. 22. Stockholm: Ointroducerad Adels Förening and Almqvist & Wiksell. ISBN 9789163350382. 

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