Streptococcus bovis

Streptococcus bovis

Taxobox
color = lightgrey
name = "Streptococcus bovis"


image_width = 240px
image_caption =
regnum = Bacteria
phylum = Firmicutes
classis = Bacilli
ordo = Lactobacillales
familia = Streptococcaceae
genus = "Streptococcus"
species = "S. bovis"
binomial = "Streptococcus bovis"
binomial_authority = Orla-Jensen 1919

"Streptococcus bovis" is a catalase- and oxidase-negative, non-motile, non-sporulating, Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that grows as pairs or chains of cocci. [Schlegel, L., Grimont, R., Ageron, E., Grimont, P.A.D. and A. Bouvet. 2003. [http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/53/3/631#SEC3 Reappraisal of the taxonomy of the "Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus" complex and related species: description of "Streptococcus gallolyticus" subsp. "gallolyticus" subsp. nov., "S. gallolyticus" subsp. "macedonicus" subsp. nov. and "S. gallolyticus" subsp. "pasteurianus" subsp. nov.] Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:631-645] It is a member of the Lancefield group D streptococci. Most strains are non- or gamma-hemolytic, but some also display alpha-hemolytic activity on ovine blood agar plates. "S. bovis" is commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. [Ghali, M.B., Scott, P.T. and R.A.M. Al Jassim. 2004. [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2004.01597.x?journalCode=lam Characterization of "Streptococcus bovis" from the rumen of the dromedary camel and Rusa deer] . Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 39(4):341–346. ]

Pathogenicity

"S. bovis" is a known human pathogen that has been implicated as a causative agent of endocarditis, [Ryan K.J. and C.G. Ray CG (editors). 2004. "Sherris Medical Microbiology" (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.] and, more rarely, neonatal septicemia and meningitis. [Headings, D.L., Herrera, A., Mazzi, E. and M.A. Bergman. 1978. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=413898&dopt=AbstractPlus Fulminant neonatal septicemia caused by "Streptococcus bovis".] . J. Pediatr. 92(2):282-283.] [White, B.A., Labhsetwar, S.A. and A.N. Mian. 2002. [http://www.greenjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/100/5/1126 "Streptococcus bovis" bacteremia and fetal death] . Obstet. Gynec. 100:1126-1129] [Grant, R.J., Whitehead, T.R. and J.E. Orr. 2000. [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=88753 "Streptococcus bovis" meningitis in an infant] . J. Clin. Microbiol. 38(1):462–463.]

A correlative relationship exists between colon cancer and "S. bovis" proliferation in the large intestine. [RS Klein, RA Recco, MT Catalano, SC Edberg, JI Casey, and NH Steigbigel. 1977. [http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/297/15/800 Association of "Streptococcus bovis" with carcinoma of the colon] . [http://content.nejm.org/ NEJM] . 297:800-802] One study indicated that 15% of patients with colonic neoplasms also had "S. bovis" bacteremia. [Alazmi, W., Bustamante, M., O’Loughlin, C., Gonzalez, J. and J.B. Raskin. 2006. [http://www.springerlink.com/content/a281340827043j31/ The association of Streptococcus bovis bacteremia and gastrointestinal diseases: A retrospective analysis] . Digest. Disease. Sci. 51(4):732-736.] However, research has not yet determined if this organism is a causative agent of colon cancer, or if pre-existing cancer makes the lumen of the large intestine more hospitable to "S. bovis" outgrowth. [zur Hausen, H. 2006. [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112775914/ABSTRACT "Streptococcus bovis": Causal or incidental involvement in cancer of the colon?] Int. J. Cancer 119(9):xi - xii.]

Ruminal effects

When ruminants consume diets high in starch or sugar, these easily fermentable carbohydrates promote the proliferation of "S. bovis" in the rumen. Because "S. bovis" is a lactic acid bacterium, fermentation of these carbohydrates to lactic acid can cause a dramatic decline in ruminal pH, and subsequent development of adverse conditions such as ruminal acidosis or feedlot bloat. [Narito, A. and H. Tsuneo. 2002. [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/asj/2002/00000073/00000005/art00001 Regulation of fermentation in a ruminal bacterium, "Streptococcus bovis", with special reference to rumen acidosis] . Animal Sci. J. 73(5):313-325.] [cite web |url=http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/21704.htm |title=Subacute Ruminal Acidosis |accessdate=2008-09-10 |work= |publisher=The Merck Veterinary Manual |date= ]

References

External links

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