Boeing 747-8

Boeing 747-8

Infobox Aircraft
name = Boeing 747-8
type = Wide-body jet airliner
manufacturer = Boeing Commercial Airplanes




caption = Lufthansa is the launch customer for the Boeing 747-8 "Intercontinental".
designer =
first flight = Scheduled for Q4 2008cite web|url=http://www.flug-revue.rotor.com/FRHeft/FRHeft06/FRH0601/FR0601f.htm|title=BOEING LAUNCHES 747-8|work=FLUG REVUE|first=Sebastian|last=Steinke|year=2006|month=January]
introduction =
status = In productionDunlop, Michelle. [http://www.heraldnet.com/article/20080825/BIZ/46000516 "Boeing: Getting 747-8 and 777 ready for production"] , Heraldnet.com, 25 August 2008.]
primary user =
more users =
number built =
unit cost = 747-8I: $285.5-300 million [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/prices/ Boeing Commercial Airplanes prices] , retrieved June 26, 2007.] " [http://www.atwonline.com/news/story.html?storyID=9337 "Boeing boosts aircraft prices 5.5% on rising cost of labor, materials"] ", Air Transport World, June 26 2007.] 747-8F: $294-297 million
developed from = Boeing 747-400
variants with their own articles =

The Boeing 747-8 is the latest variant of the Boeing 747, officially announced in 2005. The 747-8 is an evolutionary development of the Boeing 747-400 with lengthened fuselage, redesigned wings and improved efficiency. With a maximum take-off weight of 970,000 pounds (440,000 kg), the 747-8 is the heaviest aircraft ordered from a United States aircraft producer, commercial or military. [See US aircraft in MTOW list at: [http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/design/q0188.shtml "Ask Us - Largest Plane in the World"] , Aerospaceweb.org, 11 November 2005] It is to compete with the Airbus A380.

Development

Background

In 2000, Boeing offered the 747X and 747X Stretch derivatives as alternatives to the Airbus A3XX. This was a more modest proposal than the previous -500X and -600X. It would increase the 747's wingspan to convert|229|ft|m|sigfig=3|abbr=on by adding a segment at the root. [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2000/news_release_000121a.html "Boeing 747 Celebrates 30 Years In Service"] , Boeing, 2 September 1996.] The 747X was to carry 430 passengers over ranges of up to 8,700 nmi (10,000 mi, 16,100 km). The 747X Stretch would be extended to convert|263|ft|m|sigfig=3|abbr=on long, allowing it to carry 500 passengers over ranges of up to 7,800 nmi (9,000 mi, 14,500 km). However, the 747X family was unable to attract enough interest to enter production. Some of the ideas developed for the 747X were used on the 747-400ER. [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2000/news_release_001128c.html "Boeing Launches New, Longer-Range 747-400"] , Boeing, 28 November 2000.]

After the 747X program, Boeing continued to study improvements to the 747. The 747-400XQLR (Quiet Long Range) was meant to have an increased range of 7,980 nmi (9,200 mi, 14,800 km), with improvements to improve efficiency and reduce noise. [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2002/q1/nr_020225h.html "Boeing Offers New 747-400X Quiet Longer Range Jetliner"] , Boeing, February 26, 2002.] Improvements studied included raked wingtips similar to those used on the 767-400ER and a sawtooth engine nacelle for noise reduction. [Steinke, Sebastian. [http://www.flug-revue.rotor.com/frheft/FRH0205/FR0205c.htm "Boeing Proposes 747-400X Quiet Longer Range"] , "Flug Revue Online", May 2002.] Although the 747-400XQLR did not move to production, many of its features were used for the 747 Advanced.

In early 2004, Boeing announced tentative plans for the 747 Advanced that were eventually adopted. Similar in nature to the 747-X, the stretched 747 Advanced used technology from the 787 to modernize the design and its systems.

747-8

Boeing announced that it was launching the 747 Advanced as the Boeing 747-8 on 14 November 2005. [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2005/q4/nr_051114h.html "Boeing Launches New 747-8 Family"] , The Boeing Company, 14 November 2005. Retrieved: 17 December 2007.] The 747-8 and 747SP are the only 747 variants with a fuselage of modified length.

The 747-8 will use the same engine and cockpit technology as the 787. Boeing says that the new design will be quieter, more economical, and more environmentally friendly than previous versions of the 747. As a derivative of the already common 747-400, the 747-8 has the economic benefit of similar training and interchangeable parts. Certification is another area where savings can be made compared with the new design of the Airbus A380.

The 747-8, as the current new development of Boeing's largest airliner, is notably in direct competition on long-haul routes with the far more spacious A380, a full-length double-deck aircraft now in service. For airlines seeking very large passenger airliners, the two have been pitched as competitors on various occasions. Following another delay to the A380 program in October 2006, FedEx and UPS canceled their orders for the A380-800 freighter. Several launch customers deferred delivery or considered switching to the 747-8 and 777F aircraft. Robertson, David. [http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/engineering/article659591.ece "Airbus will lose €4.8bn because of A380 delays"] , "Time", 3 October 2006.] [Schwartz, Nelson D. [http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2007/03/05/8401277/index.htm "Big plane, big problems"] , "CNN", 1 March 2007.] However, no airline has canceled an order for the passenger version of the A380 as of March 2008.

Production on the first 747-8 Freighter began in Everett in early August 2008. The 747-8 Freighter is planned to enter service in 2009, while the passenger 747-8 Intercontinental is planned to be introduced in 2010.

Design

The 747-8 is a development of the Boeing 747, which takes advantage of improvements in technology and aerodynamics. The two variants of the 747-8 were launched in 2005, and as of 2006 will both feature a fuselage stretch of 18.3 ft (5.6 m) over the 747-400, bringing the total length to 250 ft 2½ in (76.4 m). The stretch would mean that the 747-8 would be the world's longest passenger airliner, surpassing the Airbus A340-600 by 3.6 ft (1.1 m).

Compared to the 747-400, the main technical changes will be on the wing of the aircraft, which will undergo a complete design overhaul. The sweep and basic structure will be kept to contain costs, but the wing will be thicker and deeper, with the aerodynamics recalculated. The pressure distribution and bending moments will be different, with the new wing for the passenger version being planned to hold 64,225 US gallons (243,120 L) of jet fuel, and the cargo aircraft 60,925 US gal (230,625 L). [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/747family/747-8_fact_sheet.html Boeing 747-8 Technical Specifications] , Boeing, accessed November 11, 2007.] The extra fuel capacity in the redesigned wing compared to the 747-400 obviates the need to radically change the horizontal tail unit to accommodate auxiliary tanks, further saving costs. Nonetheless, the vertical tail unit will be raised slightly to 64 ft 2 in (19.5 m) on the 747-8.

Some carbon fiber reinforced plastic will be utilized in the 747-8's airframe to reduce weight; however, structural changes will mostly be evolutionary rather than revolutionary with respect to the 747-400. The 747-8 will feature an enhanced wing with improved aerodynamics. It will have single-slotted outboard flaps and double-slotted inboard flaps. Raked wingtips, similar to the ones currently on the 777-200LR, 777-300ER, and 767-400ER models and the 787-8 and 787-9 design, will replace the winglets on the 747-400. These structures help reduce the wingtip vortices at the lateral edges of the wings, decreasing wake turbulence and drag and thereby increasing fuel efficiency.

The General Electric GEnx, which is one of the two powerplant choices currently offered for the 787, will be the only engine available for the 747-8. However, the 747 variant will be adapted to provide bleed air for conventional aircraft systems and feature a smaller diameter to fit on the 747 wing. An exclusivity agreement between GE and Boeing means that no other manufacturer's engine can be fitted to the 747-8 within at least 10 years.Fact|date=September 2007

Variants

747-8 Freighter

The 747 has proven to be a very popular freighter, carrying around half of the world's air freight as of 2007." [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/747family/freighter/ Boeing 747-400 Freighter Family: The World's Best Freighters] ." Boeing 747-400 Freighter Family.] In an effort to maintain this dominant position, Boeing has designed a freight variant of the 747-8, dubbed 747-8 Freighter or 747-8F. The 747-8F will be the initial model to see entry into service (EIS). As on the 747-400F, the upper deck is shorter than passenger models; the 18 ft 3½ in (5.6 m) stretch is just before and just aft of the wing. With a 970,000 lb (440,000 kg) maximum take-off weight, it will have a total payload capability of 308,000 lb (140,000 kg) and a range of 4,475 NM (8,275 km, 5,140 mi)." [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/747family/747-8_facts.html Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental and 747-8 Freighter] ." Boeing 747-8I and 747-8F Facts.] Four extra pallet spaces will be created on the main deck, with two extra containers and two extra pallets on the lower deck.

The 747-8F is expected to achieve a 16% lower ton-mile operating cost than the 747-400F and offer a slightly greater range. [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2008/q3/080725a_pr.html Boeing Press Release July 25, 2008] ] The 747-8F will have more payload capacity but less range than the current 747-400ERF. When Boeing launched the ERF, all of the 35,000 lb increase in MTOW over the 747-400F (875,000 lb to 910,000 lb) allowed airlines to take off with more fuel, burn it during flight, and land at the same weight as the regular 747-400F. This increased the range of the 747-400ERF compared to the 747-400F. Cargo carriers such as Cargolux often move machinery or indivisible loads that require a plane with a higher payload and landing capability. As is common with cargo planes, range is given with maximum payload, not fuel. The 747-8's 60,000 lb MTOW increase (970,000 lb) has been directed exclusively to its Zero-Fuel weight or payload capacity. If taking off at maximum payload, the 747-8 takes off with its tanks roughly half empty. On trips where the payload is not at maximum, the plane can take on more fuel and extend its range.

747-8 Intercontinental

The passenger version, dubbed 747-8 "Intercontinental" or 747-8I, will be capable of carrying up to 467 passengers in a 3-class configuration over 8,000 nautical miles (14,816 km) at Mach 0.855. The 747-8I will carry 51 more passengers and two more freight pallets than the 747-400. Despite initial plans for a shorter stretch than the freighter model, the two variants will be the same length, increasing passenger capacity and allowing easier modification of the 747-8I to freighter use. [ [http://www.boeing.com/randy/archives/2006/10/added_revenue.html Added revenue] , Randy Baseler, Boeing Commercial Airplanes Vice President of Marketing] The upper deck will be lengthened on the -8I. [ [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/business/251973_air14.html "Aerospace Notebook: Take a sneak peek inside a 747-8"] , Seattle Post-Intelligencer, December 14, 2005.] New engine technology and aerodynamic modifications extend its range, allowing non-stop flights such as Hong Kong–New York, Sydney–Houston or Buenos Aires-Dubai. However, firm configuration was not expected until mid to late 2007.

For the 747-8, Boeing has proposed some changes to the interior layout of the aircraft. Most noticeable will be the stairway to the upper deck. On present 747-300 and -400 models, the stairway is straight, narrow, and runs from the galley area located at door 2 (the second door from the front of the aircraft) to the back of the upper deck, on the left-hand side. The stairway on the 747-8I will be a curved, sweeping staircase. Originally proposed to be on the right-hand side, it has been moved back to the left-hand side after Lufthansa's order. The window line will be extended to where the stairway reaches the upper deck, and a further set of windows may be placed overhead.

Further down the aircraft, it has been proposed to place cabin-accessible facilities in the "crown" area (the space above the passenger cabin, currently used for air conditioning ducts and wiring). The wiring and ducts will be moved to the side to create extra space; consequently they will not have windows. This added space can be used for galleys and crew rest areas, freeing up main deck space for additional passenger seating. During the initial 747-8 marketing phase, Boeing also proposed creating a revenue-generating "SkyLoft" passenger facility in the crown space. This facility would include "SkySuites", small individual compartments with sliding doors or curtains, featuring beds, seating, and entertainment or business equipment. A common lounge area could also be provided. Boeing also proposed smaller, more modest "SkyBunks". Access to the crown area would be via a separate stairway at the rear of the aircraft. Passengers using the SkySuites, sold at a premium price, would sit in regular economy class seats for take off and landing, and move to the crown area during flight. However, pricing feasibility studies found the SkyLoft concept difficult to justify. In 2007, Boeing dropped the SkyLoft concept in favor of upper deck galley storage options, which were favored by the airlines. [cite web |url=http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2007/04/17/213230/space-race-the-battle-between-airbus-and-boeing-to-produce-the-best-next-generation.html |title=Space race: next-generation cabins |last=Kingsley-Jones|first=Max|coauthors=Norris, Guy|date=2007-04-17|publisher=Flight International|accessdate=2007-04-19]

The main cabin uses an interior similar to that of the 787's. Overhead bins are curved, and the center row is designed to look as though it is attached to the curved ceiling, rather than integrated into the ceiling's curve like on the 777. The windows will also be of similar size to the type used on the 777 and the 767-400ER, which are 16% larger than on the current 747-400s. The 747-8 will feature a new solid state light-emitting diode (LED) lighting system. It will be possible to create various moods in the cabin, from sunrise to sunset, making travel a more comfortable and relaxing experience. At the same time, LED technology offers additional advantages regarding lower maintenance costs and longer intervals between unscheduled repairs.

Lufthansa launched the 747-8I on December 6, 2006, becoming the first airline to order the variant. [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2006/q4/061206a_nr.html "Boeing, Lufthansa Announce Order for 747-8 Intercontinental"] ] Though solitary VIP orders have been placed, Lufthansa will receive the first 747-8Is off the production line. Lufthansa is the only airline to order the -8I as of July 2008. Boeing announced on July 15, 2008, at the Farnborough Airshow, Arik Air's intention to purchase the type. [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2008/q3/080715d_nr.html "Arik Air Announces Intent to Purchase the Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental"] , Boeing, July 15, 2008.]

Orders and deliveries

This airplane has not yet entered service. A total of 106 orders have been received with 78 being for 747-8F as of 2008. [ [http://active.boeing.com/commercial/orders/displaystandardreport.cfm?cboCurrentModel=747&optReportType=AllModels&cboAllModel=747&ViewReportF=View+Report Boeing 747 Order & Deliveries page] , Boeing, September. Retrieved 5 October 2008.] See List of Boeing 747-8 orders for details.

pecifications

Sources: 747-8 Specifications, 747-8 Airport Compatibility Brochure [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/acaps/7478brochure.pdf 747-8 Airport Compatibility Brochure] , Boeing, January 2008.]

See also

aircontent
related=
* Boeing 747
* Boeing 747-400
similar aircraft=
* Airbus A380
lists=
* List of airliners
* List of Boeing 747 operators

see also=
* Competition between Airbus and Boeing

References

External links

* [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/747family/747-8_background.html Boeing 747-8 on Boeing.com]
* [http://www.newairplane.com/747/ Boeing 747-8, The Shape of the Future on NewAirplane.com]
* [http://www.aerospace-technology.com/projects/boeing-747-8/ Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental Airliner on Aerospace-Technology.com]


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