Pomerania ( _de. Pommern, _pl. Pomorze, _cs. Pòmòrze or Pòmòrskô, _la. Pomerania or Pomorania) is a German and Polish region on the south coast of the
Baltic Sea, stretching roughly from the RecknitzRiver near Stralsundin the west and the OderRiver delta near Szczecinto the mouth of the VistulaRiver near Gdańskin the east. It is inhabited by Germans, Polesand Kashubians. Pomerania was strongly affected by 20th century border and population changes.
Pomerania is the area along the
Bay of Pomeraniaof the Baltic Seabetween the rivers Recknitzin the west, Vistulain the east, and Notećand Wartain the south.
The western coastline is jagged, with lots of peninsulae (e.g.,
Darß- Zingst) and islands ( Rügen, Usedom, Wolinand other, small isles) enclosing numerous bays ("Bodden") and lagoons (e.g., the Lagoon of Szczecin).
The eastern coastline is smooth. The lakes Łebsko, Jamno and Gardno were formerly bays but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the
Gdańsk Bay(with Bay of Puck) and Vistula Bayhas the Hel peninsulaand the Vistula peninsulajut out into the Baltic.
The mainland consists of low elevation plains and hills.
Pomerania in all languages is an adaptation of Old Slavic "po", meaning "by/next to/along", and "more", meaning "sea", thus "Pomerania" is literally "seacoast", referring to its proximity to the
There is a probable first mention of Pomerania as the Latin "longum mare" ("long sea") in a monastery document or note from around 1080, the "
Dagome iudex", shortened copy of an earlier document supposedly referring to the year 992. The document speaks of Oda von Haldenslebenand her husband "Dagome", presumably the Polish ruler Mieszko I, and refers to territory gifted by "Dagome" to the Pope. An imperial document of 1046 makes an actual first mention of "Pomerania" in reference to "Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum" (Zemuzil, Duke of the Pomeranians). From then on, "Pomerania" appears repeatedly in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen(ca. 1070) and Gallus Anonymous (ca. 1113).
The Polish parts of Pomerania are within the West Pomeranian, Pomeranian, and
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. The German part of Pomerania is included within the Federal State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, with petty areas also in Brandenburg.
Subdivisions of Pomerania
Currently, Pomerania is divided into the regions
Western Pomerania("Vorpommern", Germany) stretching from the RecknitzRiver to the Oder-Neisse-line)
Zachodniopomorskie(also translates Western Pomerania, Poland), stretching from the Oder-Neisse-lineto the SłupiaRiver
Gdansk Pomerania( Poland), stretching from the SłupiaRiver to the VistulaRiver.
The [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zachodniepomorskie&redirect=no Euroregion Pomerania] comprises German
Western Pomeraniaand Uckermark, Polish Zachodniepomorskie, and Scaniain Sweden.
Some confusion can come about as today there are provinces using the term Western Pomerania in both Germany and Poland ("see
Western Pomerania (disambiguation)"). Also, Eastern Pomeraniamay refer to Gdansk Pomerania and areas in Zachodniopomorskie as well.
Most of Pomerania was within the
former eastern territories of Germany. During and after World War II, all areas east of the Oder-Neisse linewere ceded to Poland, ethnically cleansed of Germans and resettled with Poles. The former German administrative division of the area was replaced by voivodeships of different shape. Also, the traditional German naming for the Pomerenian regions was replaced by a Polish terminology.
Vorpommern, also Hither or Western Pomerania, comprised the area between the Recknitzand the Oderrivers, making up the western part of the former Province of Pomerania. While most of this region is still within Germany and continues the use of the name, the major cities of Stettin (now Szczecin)and Swinemünde (now Świnoujście) as well as the adjacted area ("Stettiner Zipfel") became part of Poland and are now part of the Zachodniopomorskieregion.
Farther or Further Pomerania, also Hinterpommern, Eastern Pomerania or Ostpommern are the terms used to describe the eastern part of the former
Province of Pomerania, stretching from the OderRiver to Lauenburg i. Pom., (now Lebork). All of Farther Pomerania became a part of Poland after World War II and thereafter lost its territorial integrity. The bulk of Farther Pomerania is included within the West Pomeranian Voivodeshipcomprising the Zachodniopomorskieregion. The easternmost parts, most notably the Stolp (now Sluspsk) area today are in the Pomeranian Voivodeshipcomprising the Gdansk Pomeraniaregion.
Pomerelia or Pommerellen is a historical region in the Southeast of Pomerania. Most of this region was not included in the
Province of Pomeraniabut in West Prussia, therefore it is in many cases not considered to be part of Pomerania. Yet, Pomerelia's medieval Samboride dukes were entitled Duke of Pomerania, and in Polish terminology "Pomorze" (Pomerania) is used for Pomerelia even preferably, while Pomerania properis termed "Zachodniopomorskie" (Western Pomerania).
Gdansk Pomerania(major) and Zachodniopomorskie(east) regions, the West Pomeranian Voivodeship(east), Pomeranian Voivodeship(bulk) and the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship(north) encompass the historical Pomerelia, but also many other regions.
Polish terminology divides Pomerania into:
#"Pomorze Zachodnie" or "Zachodniopomorskie", "Pomorze Szczecińskie", or "Pomorze Nadodrzańskie" (Western Pomerania, the entire area of the former Duchy and
Province of Pomerania)
#"Pomorze Wschodnie" or "Pomorze Gdańskie" (
Pomerelia).The former covers roughly the territories referred to in German as "Vorpommern" and "Hinterpommern", the latter corresponds to "Pommerellen" (Pomerelia). Under Polish administration a number of several different voivodeships all using the name Pomerania have been established.
Kashubian geographic terminology with regard to Pomerania is similar to Polish, and distinguishes between "Zôpadnô Pòmòrskô" (Western Pomerania) and "Pòrénkòwô Pòmòrskô" (Eastern Pomerania).
31 December 1999
Territorial code Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship Bydgoszcz¹ Toruń² C 17,969.72 2,100,771 04 Pomeranian Voivodeship Gdańsk G 18,292.88 2,192,268 22 West Pomeranian Voivodeship Szczecin Z 22,901.48 1,732,838 32 (¹) - the site of the Voivod office. (²) - the site of the Voivod council Polish Pomerania total 59,164.08 6,025,877 Nordvorpommern Grimmen NPV 2,168 117,722 Ostvorpommern Anklam OVP 1,910 113,623 Rügen Bergen auf Rügen RÜG 974 74,400 Uecker-Randow Pasewalk UER 1,624 83,459 Demmin (district) Demmin DM 1,921 93,700 Greifswald HGW 52.2 52,984 Stralsund HST est. 52.2 60,000 German Pomerania total 8,701 595,888
The biggest cities are (with population figures for 1999):;in Polish Pomerania
Tricity metropolitan area(population (2001): 1,035,000; area 1,332,51 km²), including:
Gdańsk(458,988) (1905: 159,685)
Szczecin(416,988) (1905: 224,078)
Stargard Szczeciński(72,000)and Świnoujście, Kołobrzeg, Sopot, Malbork, Kwidzyn, Szczecinek, Lębork, Chojnice, Iława, Ostróda, Police, Wałcz; in German Pomerania
History of Pomerania (Timeline)
The history of the region is rich and varied, probably due to its having been fragmented into several independent duchies through the centuries.
2000 BC: Baltic peoples
1200 BC: Germanic peoples(e.g. the Rugians) until the Migration Period
6th centuryAD: Germanic Goth and Getae, Gutones, Vidivarier, Aesti, are recorded by Jordanesat Gothiscandza
Slavic peoples, such as the Volinians, Liuticiansstart to arrive
*918: western parts
March of the Billungs( Duchy of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire)
12th century: several warlords try to conquer Pomerania
Harald I of Denmarkand later kings
Mieszko I of Polandsince 970, succeeded in 979 between Oderand Vistula
*1005: Pomerania regains independence
*1040: war between the Duke of Poland Casimir I the Restorer and a
Zemuzil, Duke of Pomerania
*1046: negotiations between the dukes in
Meißen, Pomerania remains independent but has to pay a yearly tributeto Poland
Bolesław III Wrymouthconquers Pomerania, first known dukes of the Griffins (West) and Samborides(East)
*1135-1138: Griffin duchy regains independece
**1168: Danish expedition lead by Roskilde archbishop
Absalontakes Duchy of Rügen
**1170s and early 1180s: various encounters between Pomeranians and Danes. Danes raid
**1186 All Pomerania under Danish control
**1227 Denmark's navy entirely defeated in
Bornhövedbattle, Danish unable to keep Pomerania thereafter
*various small duchies; see Griffins (until 1637),
Samborides, Pomeranian duchies and dukes
Holy Roman Empire
Albert the Bear
Henry the Lionin the Battle of Verchendefeats the Griffin dukes who join Henry's Duchy of Saxony
Bogislaw Iof the Griffins, son of Wartislaw I, swears allegiance to Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa [ [http://www.genemaas.net/Pommern.htm Pommern History ] ] after he had dissolved Henry the Lion's duchy
**1308: The monastic state of the Teutonic Knights purchases the
Margraviate of Brandenburg's disputed claim to Pomerelia(Gdańsk-Pomerania) after conquering the territory [The dispute between the Teutonic Knightsand the Polish kings was settled in negotiations in the Treaty of Kalisz (1343). This easternmost part of Pomerania remained under the rule of the Teutonic Knights as a fiefof the Polish Crown. Polish kings held the title of "Duke of Pomerania" within the Holy Roman Empire's fief of entire Pomerania.]
Second Peace of Thorn: the Teutonic Ordercedes Pomerelia to the King of Poland as part of what is later called Royal Prussia
Peace of Westphalia, Hither Pomeraniabecomes Swedish Pomerania
**several wars between
Brandenburg-Prussia, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthand Sweden[In 1654 Farther Pomeraniawas conquered by Brandenburg-Prussiafrom the Swedes. In 1720 Hither Pomeraniabecame also a part of the then Kingdom of Prussia. With the Partitions of Poland1772–1795 Pomerelia was incorporated into Prussia as the Province of West Prussia.]
German Confederation, German Empire
**1815: all of Pomerania within the Kingdom of
Prussia[In the Prussian provinces of Pomerania and West Prussia. The Kingdom of Prussia was a member state of the German Confederation(1815–1866), the North German Confederation(1867–1871), and the German Empire(since 1871).]
World War I
Treaty of Versailles, most of West Prussia (including Pomerelia or Gdańsk-Pomerania) becomes part of the Second Polish Republic
Nazi Germanyannexes the territories lost in 1919
**1945: Soviet capture,
Oder-Neisse linebecomes new border between Polandand Germany, the historical duchy / province of Pomerania ceases to exist
**1945/46: Pomeranian population from "Farther" and Eastern "Hither Pomerania", except for Polish and Kashubs, is expelled to post-war Germany, as well as the German population of all other "German territories under Polish and Soviet control". The area is resettled and rebuilt by Polish who were expelled from Polish settlement areas annexed by the Soviets. "Hither Pomerania" without the Stettin/Szczeczin area and Wollin/Wolin was fused with
Mecklenburgto form the (East-) German state of "Mecklenburg-Vorpommern", the former "Farther Pomeranian" area is roughly represented by Polish "West Pomerania"
Lauenburg and Bütow Land
Pomeranian duchies and dukes
Evacuation of German civilians during the end of World War II
German exodus from Eastern Europe
Flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland during and after World War II
Flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland after World War II
Expulsion of Germans after World War II
Pomeranian State Museum
Publications in English
* Byrnes, James F., "Speaking Frankly", New York, 1947.
* Keesing's Research Report, "Germany and Eastern Europe since 1945", New York,
1973, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-7729. ISBN 0-684-13190-0
* de Zayas, Alfred M, "Nemesis at Potsdam",
Routledge, (1st edition 1977), Revised edition 1979, ISBN 0-7100-0458-3
* Boehlke, LeRoy, "Pomerania - Its People and Its History", Pommerscher Verein Freistadt, Germantown, WI, U.S.A., 1983.
* von Krockow, Christian, "Hour of the Women", UK edition 1992,
Faber & Faber, ISBN 0-571-14320-2
* Herrick, Linda, & Wendy Uncapher, "Pomerania - Atlantic Bridge to Germany", Origins, Janesville, WI, U.S.A., 2005.
Publications in Polish
* Gerard Labuda (ed.), "Historia Pomorza, vol. I (to 1466)", parts 1–2, Poznań 1969
* Gerard Labuda (ed.), "Historia Pomorza, vol. II (1466–1815)", parts 1–2, Poznań 1976
* Gerard Labuda (ed.), "Historia Pomorza, vol. III (1815–1850)", parts 1–3, Poznań
* Gerard Labuda (ed.), "Historia Pomorza, vol. IV (1850–1918)", part 1, Toruń 2003
* Marian Biskup (ed.), "Śląsk i Pomorze w historii stosunków polsko-niemieckich w średniowieczu. XII Konferencja Wspólnej Komisji Podręcznikowej PRL-RFN Historyków 5–10 VI 1979 Olsztyn", Instytut Zachdni, Poznań 1987
* Antoni Czubiński, Zbigniew Kulak (ed.), "Śląsk i Pomorze w stosunkach polsko-niemieckich od XVI do XVII w. XIV Konferencja Wspólnej Komisji Podręcznikowej PRL-RFN Historyków, 9–14 VI 1981 r. Zamość", Instytut Zachodni, Poznań 1987
* Szkice do dziejów Pomorza, vol. 1-3, Warszawa 1958–61
* B. Wachowiak, Rozwój gospodarczo-społeczny Pomorza Zachodniego od połowy XV do początku XVII wieku, Studia i Materiały do dziejów Wielkopolski i Pomorza, 1958, z. 1
* J. Wiśniewski, Początki układu kapitalistycznego na Pomorzu Zachodnim w XVIII wieku, Studia i Materiały do dziejów Wielkopolski i Pomorza, 1958, z. 1
* A. Wielopolski, Gospodarka Pomorza Zachodniego w latach 1800–1918, Szczecin 1959
* W. Odyniec, Dzieje Prus Królewskich (1454–1772). Zarys monograficzny, Warszawa 1972
* Dzieje Pomorza Nadwiślańskiego od VII wieku do 1945 roku, Gdańsk 1978
* Zygmunt Boras, "Książęta Pomorza Zachodniego", Poznań 1969, 1978, 1996
* Zygmunt Boras, "Stosunki polsko-pomorskie w XVI w", Poznań 1965
* Zygmunt Boras, "Związki Śląska i Pomorza Zachdoniego z Polską w XVI wieku", Poznań 1981
* Kazimierz Kozłowski, Jerzy Podralski, "Poczet Książąt Pomorza Zachodniego", KAW, Szczecin 1985
* Lech Bądkowski, W. Samp. "Poczet książąt Pomorza Gdańskiego", Gdańsk 1974
* B. Śliwiński, "Poczet książąt gdańskich", Gdańsk 1997
* Wojciech Myślenicki, "Pomorscy sprzymierzenscy Jagiellończyków", Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, Poznań 1979
* Józef Spors, "Podziały administracyjne Pomorza Gdańskiego i Sławieńsko-Słupskiego od XII do początków XIV w", Słupsk 1983
* Kazimierz Ślaski, "Podziały terytorialne Pomorza w XII-XII w.", Poznań 1960
* Benon Miśkiewicz, "Z dziejów wojennych Pomorza Zachodniego. Cedynia 972-Siekierki 1945", Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, Poznań 1972
Publications in German
* M. Wehrmann, Geschichte von Pommern, vol. 1–2, Gotha 1919–21
* M. Spahn, Verfassungs- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte des Herzogtums Pommern von 1476 bis 1625, Leipzig 1896
* B. Schumacher, Geschichte Ost- und Westpreussens, Würzburg 1959
*dmoz|Regional/Europe/Poland/Voivodships/Kujawsko-pomorskie/|Kuyavia and Pomerania
Culture and history
* [http://www.zamek.szczecin.pl/ Pomeranian dukes castle in Szczecin (Polish, German, English)]
* [http://www.archiv-vegelahn.de/pommern.html Pomeranian (German)]
* [http://www.lexikus.de/index.php?PHPSESSID=fdmldjf2hu80lbmk50u3cjcga4&page=thema&thema=9 Collection of historical eBooks about Pomerania (German)]
Maps of Pomerania
* [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bild:Provinz_Pommern_1905.pngMap of Pomerania as in 1905, in German Wikipedia]
* [http://www.frombork.art.pl/Frombork-foto/Sd687_i.jpgWoiewództwa Pomorskie i Małborskie oraz Pomerania Elektorska, G.B.A.Rizzi-Zannoni 1772]
* [http://feefhs.org/maps/GERE/ge-pomer.html FEEFHS Map Room: German Empire - East (1882) - Pommern (Pomerania), Prussia]
* [http://www.hoeckmann.de/germany/pomerania.htm Pomerania in 1789]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.