- Valaam Monastery
The Valaam Monastery, or "Valamo Monastery" is a
stauropegic Orthodoxmonastery in Russian Karelia, located on Valaam, the largest island in Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe.
It is not clear when the monastery was founded. As the cloister is not mentioned in documents before the 16th century, different dates - from 10th to 15th centuries - have been expounded. According to one tradition, the monastery was founded by a 10th century Greek monk, Sergius, and his Karelian companion, Herman. Heikki Kirkinen inclines to date the foundation of the monastery to the 12th century. ["Ortodoksinen kirkko Suomessa, ed. by Fr.Ambrosius and Markku Haapio (1979) p. 274-175 ] [ "Orthodoxy in Finland; past and present" edited by V.Purmonen (1984) p.38] Contemporary historians consider even this date too early. According to the scholarly consensus, the monastery was founded at some point towards the end of the 14th century. [Virrankoski, Pentti: "Suomen historia I" (2002) p.87] John H. Lind and Michael C. Paul date the founding to between 1389 and 1393 based on various sources, including the "Tale of the Valaamo Monastery," a sixteenth century manuscript, which has the monstery founded during the archiepiscopate of Ioann II of Novgorod. [ John H. Lind, “Sources and Pseudo Sources on the Founding of the Valamo Monastery,” Scandinavian Journal of History 11 No. 2 (1986): 115-133; Idem, “Consequences of the Baltic Crusades in Target Areas: The Case of Karelia.” In Alan V. Murray, ed. "Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier, 1150 – 1500". (Aldershot, UK, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2001); Michael C. Paul, "Secular Power and the Archbishops of Novgorod before the Muscovite Conquest," "Kritika. Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History" 8, No. 2 (2007: 254-255. ]
Whatever the truth may be, the Valaam monastery was a northern outpost of
Eastern Orthodoxyagainst the heathens and, later, a western outpost against Catholic Christianity from Tavastia, Savonia and (Swedish) Karelia.
The power struggle between
Russians and Swedes pushed the border eastwards in the 16th century; in 1578 the monastery was attacked and numerous monks and novices were killed by the LutheranSwedes. The monastery was desolate between 1611 and 1715 after another attack of the Swedes, the buildings being burnt to the ground and the Karelian border between Russia and Sweden being drawn through Lake Ladoga. In the 18th century the monastery was magnificently restored, and in 1812 it came under the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland.
Finlandbecame independent, and the Finnish Orthodox Churchbecame autonomous under the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, as previously it had been a part of the Russian Orthodox Church. Valaam (Valamo) was the most important monastery of the Finnish Orthodox Church. The liturgic language was changed from Church Slavonicto Finnish, and the liturgic calendar from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. These changes led to bitter decade-long disputes in the monastic community of Valaam.
The territory was fought over by the
Soviet Unionand Finlandduring World War II. Due to the Winter War, the monastery was again evacuated in 1940, when 150 monks settled in Heinävesiin Finland. This community still exists as New ValamoMonastery in Heinävesi. Having received evacuees from the Konevitsa monastery and Petsamo monastery, it is now the only monastery of the Finnish Orthodox Church. From 1941 to 1944, during the Continuation War, an attempt was made to restore the monastery buildings at Old Valaam, but later the island served as a Soviet military base.
Since the original Valaam Monastery was bequeathed back to the Orthodox Church in 1989, it has been enjoying the personal patronage of
Patriarch Alexey II, who frequented the cloister when a child. The monastery, whose buildings have been meticulously restored, has gained significant legal power over the island, in a push to return to a state of spiritual seclusion. After years of fruitless legal proceedings with the monastery, many residents of the island chose to leave, though a few still remain.
The monastery has a professional five-strong male-voice choir which tours the world to raise money for the on-going restoration of the buildings. Some of its music can be heard at the monastery's website.
* [http://www.valaam.ru/en/ The Valaam Monastery] - Official site
* [http://www.valamo.fi/ The New Valamo Monastery in Finland] - Official site
* [http://www.ortodoksi.net/tietopankki/luostarit/valamon_luostari.htm] - The New Valamo Monastery - [http://www.ortodoksi.net/kuvat/paikat/valamon_luostari.htm] - Pictures
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