A railcar (not to be confused with a railway car) is a self-propelled railway
vehicledesigned to transportpassengers. The term "railcar" is usually used in reference to a train consisting of a single coach (carriage, car), with a driver's cab at one or both ends. Some railways, e.g. the Great Western Railway, used the term Railmotor; others use railbus. If it is able to pull a full train, it is rather called a motor coach or a motor car.
In its simplest form it may be little more than a motorized version of a railway handcar, sometimes called a
The term is sometimes also used as an alternative name for the small types of
multiple unitwhich consist of more than one coach. The term is used more generally now in Irelandto refer to any diesel multiple unit(DMU).
Railcars are economic to run for light passenger loads because of their small size, and in many countries are often used to run passenger services on minor
railwaylines, such as rural railway lines where passenger traffic is sparse, and where the use of a longer trainwould not be cost effective. A famous example of this in the United States was the Galloping Gooserailcars of the Rio Grande Southern Railroad, whose introduction allowed the discontinuance of steam passenger service on the line and prolonged its life considerably.
Railcars have also been employed on premier services. In
New Zealand, although railcars were primarily used on regional services, the Blue Streak and Silver Fern railcars were used on the North Island Main Trunkbetween Wellingtonand Aucklandand offered a higher standard of service than previous carriage trains.
Railmotor, for the steam-powered vehicles used by British railways" William Bridges Adamsbuilt steam railcars at Bow, Londonin the 1840s. Many British railway companies tried steam railcars but they were not very successful and were often replaced by push-pull trains. Sentinel Wagon Workswas one British builder of steam railcars.
Belgium, M. A. Cabany of Mechelendesigned steam railcars. His first was built in 1877 and exhibited at a Paris exhibition. This may have been the Exposition Universelle (1878). The steam boiler was supplied by the BoussuWorks and there was accommodation for First, Second and Third-class passengers and their luggage. There was also a locker for dogs underneath! Fifteen were built and they worked mainly in the Hainaut and Antwerpdistricts.
While early railcars were propelled by steam, gasoline, and diesel, modern railcars are usually propelled by a
diesel enginemounted underneath the floor of the coach. Diesel railcars may have mechanical ( fluid couplingand gearbox), hydraulic ( torque converter) or diesel-electric hybrid transmission.
All-electric railcars don't generate pollution at the point of use. The production of electric power may cause pollution, depending of the type of power plant.
Experiments with battery-electric railcars were conducted from around 1890 in Belgium, France, Germany and Italy. In the USA, railcars of the
Edison-Beachtype, with nickel-iron batteries were used from 1911. An Edison Railcar was used in New Zealand from 1926 to 1934, see NZR RM class (Edison battery-electric). The Drumm nickel-zinc batterywas used on four 2-car sets between 1932 and 1946 on the Harcourt Street Line in Irelandand British Railwaysused lead-acid batteriesin a railcar in 1958. Between 1955 and 1995 DBrailways successfully operated 232 DB Class ETA 150railcars utilising lead-acid batteries.
As with any other
battery electric vehicle, the drawbackis the limited range (this can be solved using overhead wiresto recharge for use in places where there are not wires), weight, and/or expense of the battery.
An example of a new application for zero emission vehicles for rail environments such as subways is the
Cater MetroTrolleywhich carries ultrasonic flaw detection instrumentation.
Sometimes when there are enough passengers to justify it, railcars can be joined together. Usually these form
multiple units with one driver controlling all engines, however it has previously been the practice for a railcar to tow a carriage or second railcar which does not provide any power. It is possible for several railcars to run together, each with its own driver (a practice of the County Donegal Railways Joint Committee). The reason for this was to keep costs down, since small railcars were not always fitted with multiple unit control.
There are also articulated railcars, with bogies under the point between the carriages rather than two pivoting bogies under each carriage (see "
A variation of railcar is a railbus, a very lightweight type of railcar designed for use specifically on little-used railway lines, and as the name suggests share many aspects of their construction with a
bus, usually having a bus, or modified bus body, and having four wheels on a fixed base, instead of on bogies.
Railbuses were used commonly in countries such as
Germany, and a type of railbus known as a Pacer is still commonly used in the United Kingdom. New ZealandRailcars class RM, the NZR RM class (Leyland diesel)and the unique Wairarapa railcars which were specially designed to operate over the Rimutaka Inclinebetween Wellington and the Wairaraparegion more closely resembled railbuses. In Australia, where they were often called Rail Motors, railcars were often used for passenger services on lightly-used lines. In Francethey are called an Autorail. Once very common their use died out as local lines were closed. However, a new model has been introduced for lesser used lines.
After the cessation of mainline passenger service on BC Rail in
Canada, BC Railstarted operating a pair of railbuses to some settlements not easily accessible otherwise.
Russia, Metrowagonmash( _ru. ОАО "Метровагонмаш") of Mytishchimanufactures railbus RA-1 with a Mercedes engine. As of the summer 2006, the Gorky Railroad planned to start using them on the commuter line between Nizhny Novgorodand Bor. [ [http://www.transp.nnov.ru/photo/railroad/ra1 "Railbus RA-1 in Nizhny Novgord"] , on the site "Public Transportation in Nizhny Novgorod" ru icon]
Rail bus runs in
Kalka-Shimla Railwayroute in India. Another railbus was in service in Shimoga-Talguppa route, but the same was closed in June, 07 for gauge conversion from narrow gauge to broad gauge under Project Unigauge.
Parry People Movers
A UK company currently promoting the rail bus concept is
Parry People Movers. Locomotive power is from the energy stored in a flywheel. Prototypes have an on board diesel motor to bring the flywheel up to speed. In practice, this could be an electric motor that need only connect to the power supply at stopping points. Alternatively, a motor at the stopping points could wind up the flywheel of each car as it stops.
The term railbus also refers to a dual-mode
busthat can run on streets with rubber tires and on tracks with "retractable" HyRail train wheels.
Railbus is also a term that refers to a "bus" that replaces or supplements rail services on low-patronage
railway lines or a bus that terminates at a railway station(also called a train bus). This process is sometimes called bustitution.
Air brake (rail)
British Rail BEMU
British Rail Railbuses
Budd Rail Diesel Car
Diesel multiple unit
Doodlebug (rail car)
Edwards Rail Car Company
McKeen Motor Car Company- pioneering US railcar builder
* Railway brakes
Rail car mover- some of which resemble HiRail trucks.
* [http://www.fleetbodyequipment.com/index334e-2.html Fleet Body Equipment]
* [http://www.railgear.com Rail-Gear (Boatright Enterprises, Inc)]
* [http://www.wsr.org.uk/roadrail.htm The Road Rail Bus] , an experimental bus for road and rail in the 1970s
* [http://www.railgear.com/Assets/images/rw1013images/1013newimages/Image018.jpgHyRail truck]
* [http://wilmingtonnrhs.com/ncra/index.html North Central Railcar Association (in Pennsylvania)]
* [http://www.railmotorsociety.org.au/ Rail Motor Society (NSW, Australia)]
* [http://www.stadlerrail.com/ Stadler Rail]
* [http://www.narcoa.org/ North American Railcar Operators Association]
* [http://www.nzetc.org/ Search site for "railcar" for photos of 1930s European and New Zealand Railcars]
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