- Redstone (rocket)
name= SSM-A14/M8/PGM-11 Redstone
caption= Redstone number CC-56, Cape Canaveral, Florida, September 17, 1958
type= Surface-to-surface missile
Army Ballistic Missile Agency
Army Ballistic Missile Agency ChryslerCorporation
number= 128ABMA 27,
variants= Block I, Block II
weight= convert|61207|lb|kg|0 at ignition
vehicle_range= convert|57.5|mi|km to convert|201|mi|km
altitude=convert|28.4|mi|km peak minimum to convert|58.7|mi|km peak maximum
accuracy= convert|300|m|ft CEP
yield= convert|3.5|MtonTNT|PJ or convert|500|ktTNT|PJ
engine=Rocketdyne North American Aviation 75-110 A-7
propellant= ethyl alcohol, liquid oxygen, hydrogen peroxide
engine_power= convert|78000|lbf|kN thrust at sea level for 121 seconds
fuel_capacity= alcohol: convert|11135|lb|kg, liquid oxygen: convert|25280|lb|kg, hydrogen peroxide: convert|790|lb|kg
boost= 97 seconds to 117 seconds
speed= Mach 5.5 maximum at re-entry interface
guidance=Ford Instrument Company ST-80 inertial guidance
steering=Carbon jet vanes, air rudders, spacial air jet nozzles, air vanes
launch_platform=guided missile platform launcher M74First launched in 1953, the American Redstone
rocket(Redstone missile) was a direct descendant of the German V-2. Redstone was used for the first live nuclear missile tests by the United States. It was also referred to as the Redstone MRBM (medium range ballistic missile), although in the true sense of the definition within the United States Department of Defenseof MRBM (a missile with a maximum range between convert|1000|km|mi and convert|3000|km|mi) this was a misnomer.
The Redstone missile was in active service with the U.S. Army from June 1958 to June 1964. Some Redstone missiles were modified in the mid to late 1960's for follow-on special test projects. For one such project the missiles were called Sparta rockets.
For its role as a US Army field artillery theater ballistic missile, Redstone earned the subtitle "the Army's Workhorse"; for its roles in non-military applications, the nickname "Old Reliable".
As a ballistic missile
A product of the
Army Ballistic Missile Agency(ABMA) at Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, under the leadership of Wernher von Braun, Redstone was designed as a surface-to-surface missile for the U.S. Army. ChryslerCorporation was awarded the prime production contract and began missile and support equipment production in 1952 at the newly-renamed Michigan Ordnance Missile Plant in Warren, Michigan. The Navy-owned facility was previously known as the Naval Industrial Reserve Aircraft Plant used for jet engine production. Following the cancellation of a planned Navy jet engine program, the facility was made available to the Chrysler Corporation for missile production. Rocketdyne Division of North American Aviation Company provided the rocket engines; Ford Instrument Company, Division of Sperry Rand Corporation produced the guidance and control systems; and, Reynolds Metals Company fabricated fuselage assemblies as subcontractors to Chrysler Corporation.
Redstone was first deployed with troops of 40th Artillery Group (Redstone) to West Germany from Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama in June 1958. 40th Artillery Group units were stationed both in Bad Kreuznach and Wackernheim, West Germany until February 1964. A second Redstone missile Group, 46th Artillery Group (Redstone) was deployed to West Germany from Fort Sill, Oklahoma in April 1959. The 46th Group was stationed at Artillery Kaserne in Neckarsulm, West Germany until June 1964. The third Redstone missile Group, 209th Artillery Group (Redstone) was stationed at Fort Sill, Oklahoma from 1958 to 1964. Primary mission of 209th Group was to support the two Redstone Groups stationed in West Germany; by supporting the annual service firings conducted by each of the 4 overseas firing batteries at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico, and by providing trained replacement personnel to the overseas Groups.
Each Redstone missile Group contained two firing batteries (Battery A and Battery B) for launching missiles, a Headquarters and Headquarters Battery for overall Group administration, an Engineering Company for the production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen, and an Ordnance Company for the issuance of missiles, warheads and fuel to the firing batteries; and, for maintenance and repair of missiles and equipment. A total of four mobile launchers and equipment, with one reload each, (a total of eight Redstone MRBM missiles) were deployed in the four firing batteries stationed in
West Germanyuntil the first half of 1964.
Redstone was capable of flights from convert|57.5|mi|km to convert|201|mi|km. It consisted of a thrust unit for powered flight and a missile body for overall missile control and payload delivery on target. During powered flight Redstone burned a fuel mixture of 25% water-75% ethyl
alcoholwith liquid oxygen(LOX) used as the oxidizer. The missile body consisted of an aft unit containing the instrument compartment and the warhead unit containing the payload compartment and the radar fuze. The missile body was separated from the thrust unit 20 to 30 seconds after the termination of powered flight, as determined by the preset range to target. The body continued on a controlled ballistic trajectory to the target impact point. The thrust unit continued on its own uncontrolled ballistic trajectory, impacting short of the designated target. Redstone utilized a pre-programmed self-correcting fixed reference inertial guidance platform system for missile attitude and path control along a predetermined trajectory. The inertial guidance system was not dependent on any ground to missile links for missile control, and was immune from any known external jamming techniques.
Redstone could be armed with either a convert|500|ktTNT|PJ|lk=on or a convert|3.5|MtonTNT|PJ thermonuclear warhead. A Redstone rocket was used to launch two live
nuclear teststhat were detonated during the nuclear test series Operation Hardtackin August 1958, from Johnston Islandin the Pacific Ocean. On August 1, 1958, Redstone #CC50 launched nuclear test "Teak" that detonated at an altitude of convert|77.8|km|mi. On August 12, 1958, Redstone #CC51 launched nuclear test "Orange" to a detonation altitude of convert|43|km|mi. Both payloads were convert|3.75|MtonTNT|PJ; they were the first live nuclear missile tests by the United States.
The Jupiter IRBM (intermediate range ballistic missile) was a direct outgrowth of Redstone. Jupiter incorporated modified and improved versions of systems developed for and proven in use on Redstone. Modified Redstone missiles with longer thrust units for increased fuel and oxidizer capacities, and with solid upper stages added, were used in a series of nose cone development tests for the Jupiter IRBM. These modified Redstone missiles were called
As a satellite launch vehicle
Many believe the U.S. could have beaten the
Soviet Unioninto space if the ABMA had been allowed to attempt a satellite launch with the Jupiter-C rocket. A satellite could have been launched by a Jupiter-C in August 1956 if given the go-ahead by U.S. government officials. The Eisenhower administration, however, wanted the first U.S. satellite to be launched by a civilian-developed rocket instead of a military missile. President Dwight D. Eisenhower primarily wanted to establish the right of flyover first, and felt that employing a military missile to place a satellite in orbit would prevent that from happening, as the use of a military missile would be construed as too threatening by other countries, primarily the USSR. The Vanguard rocketwas being developed for this purpose. The Administration ordered Von Braun not to attempt any satellite launches. The Vanguard rocket failed on the first attempt to launch the Vanguard satellite in December 1957, crashing back to the pad and exploding. The Eisenhower administration then turned to the U.S. Army. The ABMA and von Braun were asked to launch a backup satellite as soon as possible. When the Jupiter-C was finally used to launch the Explorer Isatellite in January 1958, its Jupiter-C launch vehicle was renamed the Juno I.
Redstone MRBM and Jupiter IRBM propellant tanks were clustered together along with eight Jupiter IRBM engines to form the first stage of the
Saturn Iand Saturn IBrockets. First developed by the ABMA, the Saturn rocket was later adopted by NASA. These were America's first large launch vehicles. The first of these was launched in 1961.
Modified Redstones (longer thrust units with larger fuel and oxidizer tanks) were also used in several suborbital launches in the United States
Mercury-Redstone 1, Launched 4 in (100 mm)
Mercury-Redstone 1A, Successful unmanned flight
Mercury-Redstone 2(Carrying Ham the chimpanzee)
Mercury-Redstone BDBooster Development - final test before manned flight
Freedom 7(Mercury-Redstone 3), America's first human in space, Alan Shepard.
Liberty Bell 7(Mercury-Redstone 4), America's second human in space, Gus Grissom.
End of service
Redstone production by the Chrysler Corporation was halted in 1961. 40th Artillery Group was deactivated in February 1964 and 46th Artillery Group was deactivated in June 1964, as Redstone missiles were replaced by the
Pershing missilein the U.S. Army arsenal. All Redstone missiles and equipment deployed to Europe were returned to the United States by the autumn of 1964. In October 1964 the Redstone missile was ceremoniously retired from active service at Redstone Arsenal.
In the late 1960s a series of surplus modified Redstone MRBM's were launched in Australia as part of a military test program of reentry vehicles. These Redstone missiles had solid fuel upper stages added to them. One of these Redstone missiles was used to launch Australia's first satellite,
Wresat, in 1967. These series of Australian modified Redstone missiles were called Sparta rockets.
Shortly after the launch of Sputnik, a Redstone missile was briefly placed in the lobby of
Grand Central Terminal.
In the 1960s, in honor of
Warren, New Hampshirenative and sitting U.S. Senator, Norris Cotton, Henry T. Asselin donated a Mercury Redstone-3, similar to the Freedom 7that carried New Hampshire native Alan Shepard, America's first man in space, to the town. The Redstone Rocket still occupies a prominent place in the center of the town. Minor league baseballplayer and fastball pitcher Jeff Lockeof Redstone, New Hampshire, a village in the town of Conway, New Hampshire, is nicknamed "The Redstone Rocket". [http://cds-gw.rf.ncia.net:3080/cdsarch/searchpublic/story.lasso?-KeyValue=42041&-Token.Action=SEARCH]
*cite book |last=Bullard |first=John W |title=History Of The Redstone Missile System (Historical Monograph Project Number: AMC 23 M) |url= |date=October, 15 1965 |accessdate= |edition= |publisher=Historical Division, Administrative Office, Army Missile Command |isbn=
*cite book |last= |first= |title=The Redstone Missile System |url= |date=August 1960 |accessdate= |edition= |publisher=United States Army |id=Publication L 619 |location=Fort Sill, Oklahoma
*cite book |last= |first= |title=Standing Operating Procedure For Conduct Of Redstone Annual Service Practice At White Sands Missile Range New Mexico |url= |date=March 31, 1962 |accessdate= |edition= |publisher=Headquarters, United States Army Artillery And Missile Center |location=Fort Sill, Oklahoma |isbn=
*cite book |last= |first= |title=Operator, Organizational, And Field Maintenance Manual - Ballistic Guided Missile M8, Ballistic Shell (Field Artillery Guided Missile System Redstone)|url= |date=September 1960 |accessdate= |edition= |publisher= |id=TM 9-1410-350-14/2
*cite book |last= |first= |title=Field Artillery Missile Redstone |url= |date=February 1962 |accessdate= |edition= |publisher=Department Of The Army |id=FM 6-35
*cite book |last=von Braun |first=Wernher |title=The Redstone, Jupiter and Juno "Technology and Culture", Vol. 4, No. 4, The History of Rocket Technology (Autumn 1963), pp. 452-465.
* [http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19670028606_1967028606.pdf The Mercury Redstone Project (PDF) December 1964]
* [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/redstone.htm Redstone] from Encyclopedia Astronautica
* [http://www.boeing.com/history/bna/redstone.htm Boeing: Historyndash Products - North American Aviation Rocketdyne Redstone Rocket Engine]
* [http://www.myarmyredstonedays.com/page12.html Appendix A: The Redstone Missile in Detail]
* [http://www.wsmr-history.org/Redstone.htm Redstone]
* http://usarmygermany.com/Units/FieldArtillery/USAREUR_40th%20Arty%20Group.htmndash 40th Artillery Group (Redstone)
* http://usarmygermany.com/Units/FieldArtillery/USAREUR_46th%20Arty%20Group.htmndash 46th Artillery Group (Redstone)
* [http://stripes.com/article.asp?section=104&article=52665&archive=true From the Stars & Stripes Archives: "Redstone Rocketeers"]
* [http://www.spaceline.org/rocketsum/jupiter-a.html Jupiter A]
* [http://www.allpar.com/history/military/missiles.html The Chrysler Corporation Missile Division and the Redstone missiles]
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