- List of United States federal executive orders
The following is an incomplete list of United States federal executive orders.
At the federal level of government in the United States, laws are made almost exclusively by
legislation. Such legislation originates as an Act of Congresspassed by the Congress of the United States(and its predecessor, the Continental Congress); such acts were either signed into law by the President or passed by Congress after a presidential veto.
However, legislation is not the only source of regulations which have the force of law. There is also judge-made
common lawand constitutional law. The President can issue executive orders pursuant to a grant of discretion from Congress, or under the inherent powers that office holds to deal with certain matters of foreign policy.
Many early executive orders were not recorded. The State Department began numbering executive orders in the early 1900s, starting retroactively from President
Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, issued in 1862.
Louisiana Purchase- Bought land through government funds
Specie Circular- Required payment for public lands be in goldand silverspecie
* 1863: The
Emancipation Proclamation- Freed slaves in states rebelling against the U.S.
* 1872: The
Colville Indian Reservationis created. April 9 1872
* 1907: (35 Stat. 2136),
Roosevelt Reservation: Created a sixty foot wide security buffer along the United States-Mexico Border. [cite web|url=http://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/arizona/Documents/Biol_Opin/080011_LukevillePrimaryFence.pdf|title=Biological Opinion for the Proposed Installation of 5.2 Miles of Primary Fence near Lukeville, Arizona|last=Spangle|first=Steven L.|date=2008-02-11|publisher= U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service|pages=p.3|accessdate=2008-10-11|format=
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)EO's 6071-9537
Executive Order 6102: Prohibited the hoarding of goldcoins, gold bullion, and gold certificates
Executive Order 6340: Created the Commodity Credit Corporation
Executive Order 6591: Cancelled all domestic mail contracts
Executive Order 7034: Created the Works Progress Administration, May 6, 1935
Executive Order 8034: Created the Federal Real Estate Board
Executive Order 8802: Prohibited racial, religious, and ethnic discrimination in the defense industry
Executive Order 9095: Created the Office of the Alien Property Custodian
Executive Order 9102: Created the War Relocation Authorityfor the internment of Japanese-Americans
Executive Order 9139: Created the War Manpower Commission
Executive Order 9260: Established the rules for awarding the Legion of Meritand required the President's approval for its award
Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)EO's 9538-10431
Executive Order 9835: Established the first general loyalty programdesigned to root out Communistsin the government.
Executive Order 9981: Prohibited racial, religious, and ethnic discriminationin the armed forces
* 1952: Executive Order 10340: Ordered Secretary of Commerce to seize steel mills to prevent labor strike. Found unconstitutional by the
Supreme Courtin Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer.
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)EO's 10432-10913
Executive Order 10834: Defined the design of the flag of the United States
John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)EO's 10914-11127
* 1961: Executive Order 10925: Created the
Equal Employment Opportunities Commission
* 1962: Executive Order 11051 was revoked by
Executive Order 12148: Specifies the duties and responsibilities of the Office of Emergency Planningand gives authorization to put ALL executive orders into effect in times deemed to be of increased international tension, economic crisis, and/or financial crisis
Executive Order 11110: Authorized the production of silver bullion-backed silver certificatesby the U.S. Treasury
Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)EO's 11128-11451
Executive Order 11246: Prohibited discriminationin employment decisions on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
Executive Order 11310: Grants authority to the Department of Justice to enforce the plans set out in Executive Orders, to institute industrial support, to establish judicial and legislative liaison, to control all aliens, to operate penal and correctional institutions, and to advise and assist the President
Richard Nixon (1969-1974) EO's 11452-11797
Executive Order 11478: Prohibiting discriminationbased on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, handicap, or age in the competitive serviceof the federal civilian workforce, which includes civilians employed by the armed forcesand by federal contractors and contractors performing under federally assisted construction contracts. See full text of [http://finduslaw.com/executive_order_number_11478_equal_employment_opportunity_in_the_federal_government Executive Order 11478] . Some categories were added by Executive Order 12106 in 1978.
Gerald R. Ford (1974-1977)EO's 11798-11966
Executive Order 11850--Renunciation of certain uses in war of chemical herbicides and riot control agents.
Executive Order 11921: Allows the Federal Emergency Preparedness Agency to develop plans to establish control over the mechanisms of production, distribution, energy sources, wages, salaries, credit, and the flow of money.
Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)EO's 11967-12286
Executive Order 12148: Established the Federal Emergency Management Agency(FEMA)
Executive Order 12170: Allows the freezing of all Iranian assets held within the United States
Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)EO's 12287-12667
Executive Order 12333: Strengthened management of the United States Intelligence Community
Executive Order 12372: Intergovernmental Review of Federal programs
Executive Order 12656: Assigmment of Emergency Preparedness Responsibilities
George Bush (1989-1993)EO's 12668-12833
Executive Order 12810: implemented United Nations sanctions against engaging in economic activities in Yugoslavia. Noteworthy for its role in the extradition attempts of Bobby Fischer. (This Executive Order was later terminated in 2003)
Executive Order 12829: Created the National Industrial Security Program
William J. Clinton (1993-2001)EO's 12834-13197
Executive Order 12898: Regarding Environmental justice[http://www.epa.gov/Region2/ej/exec_order_12898.pdf]
Executive Order 12958: Prescribing a uniform system for classifying, safeguarding, and declassifying national securityinformation
Executive Order 12986: Regarding national parks
Executive Order 13010: Establishment of the Infrastructure Protection Task Force("IPTF") to help protect critical infrastructure [http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/eo13010.htm]
Executive Order 13073: Year 2000 Conversion. Established the President’s Council on Year 2000 Conversion. [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1998_register&docid=fr06fe98-167.pdf]
Executive Order 13087: Prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientationin the competitive serviceof the federal civilian workforce, which includes civiliansemployed by the armed forces
* 1999: [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Executive_Order_13112 Executive Order 13112] : On Feb 3, 1999, Executive Order 13112 was signed establishing the National Invasive Species Council. The Executive Order requires that a Council of Departments dealing with invasive species be created.
Executive Order 13132: Directs federal agencies to respect constitutional rights of states → [http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/eo/eo13132.htm Federalism]
Executive Order 13158: Established the National Marine Protected Areas Initiative
Executive Order 13166: Required Federal agenciesto provide services so that individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP) can have meaningful access to them.
George W. Bush (2001-Present)
EO's 13198 - 13421 (Through
December 28 2006)
* : Established agency responsibilities with respect to faith-based and community initiatives
** Signed January 29, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 8497 Dated January 31, 2001
* : Established the
White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives
** Signed January 29, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 8499 Dated January 31, 2001
* : President's Information Technology Advisory Committee, Further Amendment to Executive Order 13035, as Amended.
** Signed February 11, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 10183 Dated February 14, 2001
* : Notification of Employee Rights Concerning Payment of Union Dues or Fees.
** Signed February 17, 2001: Federal Register Page 66 FR 11221 Dated February 22, 2001
* : Preservation of Open Competition and Government Neutrality Towards Government Contractors' Labor Relations on Federal and Federally Funded Construction Projects
** Signed February 17, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 11225 Dated February 22, 2001
* : Revocation of Executive Order and Presidential Memorandum Concerning Labor-Management Partnerships
** Signed February 17, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 11227 Dated February 22, 2001
* : Revocation of Executive Order on Nondisplacement of Qualified Workers Under Certain Contracts
** Signed February 17, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 11228 Dated February 22, 2001
* : Establishing an Emergency Board To Investigate a Dispute Between Northwest Airlines, Inc., and Its Employees Represented by the Aircraft Mechanics Fraternal Association.
** Signed March 9, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 15011 Dated March 14, 2001
* : Termination of Emergency Authority for Certain Export Controls.
** Signed April 4, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 18397 Dated April 9, 2001
* : Further Amendment to Executive Order 10000, Regulations Governing Additional Compensation and Credit Granted Certain Employees of the Federal Government Serving Outside the United States
** Signed April 5, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 18399 Dated April 9, 2001
* : Amendment to Executive Order 13202, Preservation of Open Competition and Government Neutrality Towards Government Contractors' Labor Relations on Federal and Federally Funded Construction Projects
** Signed April 6, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 18399 Dated April 9, 2001
Executive Order 13209: Amendment to Executive Order 13183, Establishment of the President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status.
** Signed April 30, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 22105 Dated May 2, 2001
Executive Order 13210: President's Commission To Strengthen Social Security
** Signed May 2, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 22105 Dated May 4, 2001
Executive Order 13211: Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use
** Signed May 18, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 28355 Dated May 22, 2001
Executive Order 13212: Actions To Expedite Energy-Related Projects
** Signed May 18, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 28357 Dated May 22, 2001
Executive Order 13213: Additional Measures With Respect To Prohibiting the Importation of Rough Diamonds From Sierra Leone
** Signed May 22, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 28829 Dated May 24, 2001
Executive Order 13214: President's Task Force To Improve Health Care Delivery for Our Nation's Veterans.
** Signed May 28, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 29447 Dated May 31, 2001
Executive Order 13215: President's Information Technology Advisory Committee, Further Amendment to Executive Order 13035, as Amended.
** Signed May 31, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 30285 Dated June 5, 2001
Executive Order 13216: Amendment to Executive Order 13125, Increasing Participation of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Federal Programs.
** Signed June 6, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 31373 Dated June 11, 2001
Executive Order 13217: Community-Based Alternatives for Individuals With Disabilities
** Signed June 18, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 33155 Dated June 21, 2001
Executive Order 13218: 21st Century Workforce Initiative
** Signed June 20, 2001; Federal Register 66 FR 33627 Dated June 22, 2001
Executive Order 13219: Blocking Property of Persons Who Threaten International Stabilization Efforts in the Western Balkans.
** Signed June 26, 2001; Federal Register 66 FR 34775 Dated June 29, 2001
Executive Order 13220: Waiver Under the Trade Act of 1974 With Respect to the Republic of Belarus.
** Signed July 2, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 35527 Dated July 5, 2001
Executive Order 13221: Energy Efficient Standby Power Devices
** Signed July 31, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 40571, Dated August 2, 2001
Executive Order 13222: Continuation of Export Control Regulations
** Signed August 17, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 44025 Dated August 22, 2001
Executive Order 13223: Ordering the Ready Reserve of the Armed Forces to Active Duty and Delegating Certain Authorities to the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation.
** Signed September 14, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 48201 Dated September 18, 2001
Executive Order 13224: Blocking property and prohibiting transactions with persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism
** Signed September 23, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 49079 Dated September 25, 2001
Executive Order 13225: Continuance of Certain Federal Advisory Committees
** Signed September 28, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 50291 Dated October 3, 2001
Executive Order 13226: President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology
** Signed September 30, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 50523 Dated October 3, 2001
Executive Order 13227: President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education
** Signed October 2, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 51289 Dated October 5, 2001
Executive Order 13228: Establishing the Office of Homeland Security and the Homeland Security Council
** Signed October 8, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 51812 Dated October 10, 2001
Executive Order 13229: Amendment to Executive Order 13045, Extending the Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children
** Signed October 9, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 52013 Dated October 11, 2001
Executive Order 13230: President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans
** Signed October 12, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 52841 Dated October 17, 2001
Executive Order 13231: Critical Infrastructure Protection in the Information Age
** Signed October 16, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 53063 Dated October 18, 2001
Executive Order 13232: Further Amendment to Executive Order 10789, as Amended, To Authorize the Department of Health and Human Services To Exercise Certain Contracting Authority in Connection With National Defense Functions
** Signed October 20, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 53941 Dated October 24, 2001
Executive Order 13233: Furthers implementation of the Presidential Records Act
** Signed November 1, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 56025 Dated November 5, 2001
Executive Order 13234:Presidential Task Force on Citizen Preparedness in the War on Terrorism
** Signed November 9, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 57355 Dated November 15, 2001
Executive Order 13235: National Emergency Construction Authority
** Signed November 16, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 58343 Dated November 20, 2001
Executive Order 13236: Waiver of Dual Compensation Provisions of the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement Act of 1964
** Signed November 27, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 59671 Dated November 29, 2001
Executive Order 13237: Creation of the President's Council on Bioethics
** Signed November 28, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 59851 Dated November 30, 2001
Executive Order 13238: Closing of Federal Government Executive Departments and Agencies on Monday, December 24, 2001
** Signed December 5, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 63903 Dated December 10, 2001
Executive Order 13239: Designation of Afghanistan and the Airspace Above as a Combat Zone
** Signed December 12, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 64907 Dated December 14, 2001
Executive Order 13240: Council of Europe in Respect of the Group of States Against Corruption
** Signed December 18, 2001; Federal Register Page 66 FR 64907
Executive Order 13278: President's Commission on the United States Postal Service
Executive Order 13292: Further amendment to Executive Order 12958, as amended, classified national securityinformation
Executive Order 13303: Protecting the Development Fund for Iraqand certain other property in which Iraq has an interest
Executive Order 13326: President's Commission on implementation of United States space explorationpolicy
Executive Order 13388: Further strengthening the sharing of terrorism Informationto protect Americans
Executive Order 13395: Designating the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malariaas a public international organization entitled to enjoy certain privileges, exemptions, and immunities
Executive Order 13396: Blocking property of certain persons contributing to the conflict in Côte d'Ivoire
Executive Order 13397: Responsibilities of the Department of Homeland Securitywith respect to faith-based and community initiatives
Executive Order 13398: National Mathematics Advisory Panel
* : Limits the Federal Government's use of
eminent domainto situations in which the seizure is for public use, with just compensation, and is intended to benefit the general public, excluding certain specific instances
Blocking Property of Certain Persons Who Threaten Stabilization Efforts in Iraq
National Security and Homeland Security Presidential Directive: address continuity of government in the event of a "catastrophic emergency" disrupting the U.S. population, economy, environment, infrastructure and government policy.
List of sources of law in the United States
List of United States federal legislation
National Security Directive
National Archives and Records Administration:
* [http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders Executive Orders]
* [http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/disposition.html Disposition Tables of Executive Orders]
* [http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification Codification of Executive Orders]
* [http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/about.html About Executive Orders]
*A list of Executive Orders related to national security, and their texts, can be found at:
** [http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/eo/index.html Federation of American Scientists Intelligence Resource Program]
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