- Polio vaccine
vaccines are used throughout the world to combat poliomyelitis(or polio). The first was developed by Jonas Salkand first tested in 1952. It was announced to the world by Salk on April 12, 1955. It consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. The second was an oral vaccine developed by Albert Sabinusing attenuated poliovirus that he had received from Hilary Koprowski. Human trials of Sabin's vaccine began in 1957 and it was licensed in 1962. [cite web | title = A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries | publisher = PBS | year = 1998 | url = http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm52sa.html | accessdate = 2007-08-14] Because there is no long term carrier state for poliovirus in immunocompetent individuals, polioviruses have no non-primate reservoir in nature, and survival of the virus in the environment for an extended period of time appears to be remote, interruption of person-to person transmission of the virus by vaccination is the critical step in global polio eradication. The two vaccines have eradicated polio from most countries in the worldcite journal |author=Aylward R |title=Eradicating polio: today's challenges and tomorrow's legacy |journal=Ann Trop Med Parasitol |volume=100 |issue=5-6 |pages=401–13 |year=2006 |pmid=16899145 |doi=10.1179/136485906X97354] [cite journal |author=Schonberger L, Kaplan J, Kim-Farley R, Moore M, Eddins D, Hatch M |title=Control of paralytic poliomyelitis in the United States |journal=Rev. Infect. Dis. |volume=6 Suppl 2 |pages=S424–6 |year=1984 |pmid=6740085] and reduced the worldwide incidence from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to just over 1000 cases in 2007.cite journal |author= |title=Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses |journal=MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep |volume=55 |issue=40 |pages=1093–7 |year=2006 |pmid=17035927] cite journal |author=Kew O, Sutter R, de Gourville E, Dowdle W, Pallansch M |title=Vaccine-derived polioviruses and the endgame strategy for global polio eradication |journal=Annu Rev Microbiol |volume=59 |pages=587–635 |year=2005 |pmid=16153180 |doi=10.1146/annurev.micro.58.030603.123625] [cite web | title=Wild Poliovirus Weekly Update | publisher=CDC, WHO, Rotary International, UNICEF | year=2008 | url=http://www.polioeradication.org/casecount.asp| accessdate=2008-01-18]
In the generic sense, vaccination works by priming the
immune systemwith an ' immunogen'. Stimulating immune response, via use of an infectious agent, is known as immunization. The development of immunity to polio efficiently blocks person-to-person transmission of wild poliovirus, thereby protecting both individual vaccine recipients and the wider community.cite journal |author=Fine P, Carneiro I |title=Transmissibility and persistence of oral polio vaccine viruses: implications for the global poliomyelitis eradication initiative |url= http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/150/10/1001| journal=Am J Epidemiol |volume=150 |issue=10 |pages=1001–21 |year=1999 |pmid=10568615] In 1936, Maurice Brodie, a research assistant at New York University, attempted to produce a formaldehyde-killed polio vaccine from ground-up monkey spinal cords. His initial attempts were hampered by the difficulty of obtaining enough virus. Brodie first tested the vaccine on himself and several of his assistants. He then gave the vaccine to three thousand children, many of whom developed allergic reactions, but none developed immunity to polio.cite journal |author=Pearce J |title=Salk and Sabin: poliomyelitis immunisation |url= http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/75/11/1552 |journal=J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry |volume=75 |issue=11 |pages=1552 |year=2004 |pmid = 15489385 |doi=10.1136/jnnp.2003.028530] Philadelphia pathologist John Kollmer also claimed to have developed a vaccine that same year, but it too produced no immunity and was blamed for causing a number of cases, some of them fatal.cite web | author=Rainsberger M | title=More than a March of Dimes | publisher=The University of Texas at Austin | url=http://www.utexas.edu/features/2005/polio/ | accessdate=2007-01-29]
A breakthrough came in 1948 when a research group headed by
John Endersat the Children's Hospital Bostonsuccessfully cultivated the poliovirusin human tissue in the laboratory.cite journal |author=Enders JF, Weller TH, Robbins FC |title=Cultivation of the Lansing Strain of Poliomyelitis Virus in Cultures of Various Human Embryonic Tissues |doi= 10.1126/science.109.2822.85 |journal=Science |volume=109 |issue=2822 |pages=85–87 |year=1949 |pmid=17794160 ] This development greatly facilitated vaccine research and ultimately allowed for the development of vaccines against polio. Enders and his colleagues, Thomas H. Wellerand Frederick C. Robbins, were recognized in 1954 for their labors with a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.cite web | title=The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954 | publisher=The Nobel Foundation | url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1954/ | accessdate=2007-01-29] Other important advances that led to the development of polio vaccines were: the identification of three poliovirus serotypes (Poliovirus type 1 — PV1, or Mahoney; PV2, Lansing; and PV3, Leon); the finding that prior to paralysis, the virus must be present in the blood; and the demonstration that administration of antibodies in the form of gamma-globulin protects against paralytic polio. [cite journal |author=Hammon W, Coriell L, Wehrle P, Stokes J |title=Evaluation of Red Cross gamma globulin as a prophylactic agent for poliomyelitis. IV. Final report of results based on clinical diagnoses |journal=J Am Med Assoc |volume=151 |issue=15 |pages=1272–85 |year=1953 |pmid=13034471]
In 1952 and 1953, the U.S. experienced an outbreak of 58,000 and 35,000 polio cases, respectively, up from a typical number of some 20,000 a year. Amid this U.S. polio epidemic, millions of dollars were invested in finding and marketing a polio vaccine by commercial interests, including Lederle Laboratories in New York under the direction of
H. R. Cox. Also working at Lederle was Polish-born virologistand immunologist Hilary Koprowski, who claims to have created the first successful polio vaccine, in 1950. His vaccine, however, a live attenuated virus taken orally, was still in the research stage and would not be ready for use until five years after Jonas Salk's polio vaccine (a dead injectable vaccine) had reached the market.
The development of two polio vaccines led to the first modern mass
inoculations. The last cases of paralytic poliomyelitis caused by endemic transmission of wild virus in the United States occurred in 1979, with an outbreak among the Amishin several Midweststates.cite book | author = Atkinson W, Hamborsky J, McIntyre L, Wolfe S, eds. | title = Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (The Pink Book) | edition = 10th ed. | publisher = Washington DC: Public Health Foundation | year = 2007 | url = http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/pink/polio.pdf | accessdate = 2007-03-12] A global effort to eradicate polio, led by the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and The Rotary Foundation, began in 1988 and has relied largely on the oral polio vaccine developed by Albert Sabin.cite web| last = Mastny| first = Lisa | title = Eradicating Polio: A Model for International Cooperation |publisher = Worldwatch Institute | date = January 25, 1999| url = http://www.worldwatch.org/node/1644 | accessdate = 2007-02-02] The disease was entirely eradicated in the Americasby 1994.cite journal| author= | title = International Notes Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication – the Americas, 1994 | journal = Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report | publisher = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | volume= 43 | issue= 39 | pages = 720–722 | year=1994 | url = http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00032760.htm | pmid = 7522302 ] Polio was officially eradicated in 36 Western Pacific countries, including China and Australia in 2000.cite journal | author = ,| title = General News. Major Milestone reached in Global Polio Eradication: Western Pacific Region is certified Polio-Free | journal = Health Educ Res | year = 2001 | volume = 16 | issue = 1 | pages = p. 109 | url= http://her.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/16/1/109.pdf | format = PDF| doi = 10.1093/her/16.1.109] cite journal |author=D'Souza R, Kennett M, Watson C |title=Australia declared polio free |journal=Commun Dis Intell |volume=26 |issue=2 |pages=253–60 |year=2002 |pmid=12206379] Europewas declared polio-free in 2002.cite press release | title = Europe achieves historic milestone as Region is declared polio-free | publisher = European Region of the World Health Organization | date = 2002-06-21| url = http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/releaseeuro02/en/index.html | accessdate = 2008-08-23 ] As of 2008, polio remains endemic in only four countries: Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.cite journal |author= |title=Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses |journal=MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep |volume=55 |issue=40 |pages=1093–7 |year=2006 |pmid=17035927] Although poliovirus transmission has been interrupted in the much of the world, transmission of wild poliovirus does continue and creates an ongoing risk for the importation of wild poliovirus into previously polio-free regions. If importations of poliovirus occurs, outbreaks of poliomyelitis may develop, especially in areas with low vaccination coverage and poor sanitation. As a result, high levels of vaccination coverage must be maintained.
Inactivated polio vaccine
The first effective polio vaccine was developed in 1952 by
Jonas Salkat the University of Pittsburgh. The Salk vaccine, or "inactivated poliovirus vaccine" (IPV), is based on three wild, virulentreference strains, Mahoney (type 1 poliovirus), MEF-1 (type 2 poliovirus), and Saukett (type 3 poliovirus), grown in a type of monkey kidneytissue culture ( Vero cellline), which are then inactivated with formalin. The injected Salk vaccine confers IgG-mediated immunity in the bloodstream, which prevents polio infection from progressing to viremiaand protects the motor neurons, thus eliminating the risk of bulbar polio and post-polio syndrome.
In 1954, the vaccine was tested at Arsenal Elementary School and the Watson Home for Children in
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Salk's vaccine was then used in a test called the Francis Field Trial, led by Thomas Francis; the largest medical experiment in history. The test began with some 4,000 children at Franklin Sherman Elementary School in McLean, Virginia, and would eventually involve 1.8 million children, in 44 states from Maineto California.cite web | title = Polio Victory Remembered as March of Dimes Marks 50th Anniversary of Salk Vaccine Field Trials | work = News Desk | url = http://www.marchofdimes.com/aboutus/10651_11681.asp | date = 2004-04-26 | accessdate = 2007-03-12] By the conclusion of the study, roughly 440,000 received one or more injections of the vaccine, about 210,000 children received a placebo, consisting of harmless culture media, and 1.2 million children received no vaccination and served as a control group, who would then be observed to see if any contracted polio. The results of the field trial were announced April 12, 1955(the tenth anniversary of the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt; see Franklin D. Roosevelt's paralytic illness). The Salk vaccine had been 60 - 70% effective against PV1 (poliovirus type 1), over 90% effective against PV2 and PV3, and 94% effective against the development of bulbar polio.cite book |last = Smith | first = Jane S. | title = Patenting the Sun: Polio and the Salk Vaccine | publisher = William Morrow & Co |year= 1990 |isbn=0-688-09494-5] Soon after Salk's vaccine was licensed in 1955 children's vaccination campaigns were launched. In the U.S, following a mass immunization campaign promoted by the March of Dimes, the annual number of polio cases fell to 5,600 by 1957.cite book |author= [edited by] Edmund J. Sass with George Gottfried, Anthony Sorem; foreword by Richard Owen |title=Polio's legacy: an oral history |publisher=University Press of America |location=Washington, D.C. |year=1996 |isbn=0-7618-0144-8 |url=http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/poliotimeline.htm Summary] By 1961 only 161 cases were recorded in the United States.cite journal |author=Hinman A |title=Landmark perspective: Mass vaccination against polio |journal=JAMA |volume=251 |issue=22 |pages=2994–6 |year=1984 |pmid = 6371280 |doi=10.1001/jama.251.22.2994]
potencyIPV was licensed in the United States in November 1987, and is currently the vaccine of choice in the United States. The first dose of polio vaccine is given shortly after birth, usually between 1-2 months of age, a second dose is given at 4 months of age. The timing of the third dose depends on the vaccine formulation but should be given between 6–18 months of age. Booster vaccination are given at 4 to 6 years of age, for a total of four doses at or before school entry.cite journal |author= |title=Poliomyelitis prevention: recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases|url=http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/99/2/300 |journal=Pediatrics |volume=99 |issue=2 |pages=300–5 |year=1997 |pmid=9024465|doi=10.1542/peds.99.2.300] In some countries a fifth vaccination is given during adolescence. Routine vaccination of adults (18 years of age and older) in developed countries is neither necessary nor recommended because most adults are already immune and have a very small risk of exposure to wild poliovirus in their home countries.
In 2002 a
pentavalent(5-component) combination vaccine (called Pediarix) containing IPV was approved for use in the United States. The vaccine also contains combined diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussisvaccines ( DTaP) and a pediatric dose of hepatitis Bvaccine. In the UK, IPV is combined with tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and " Haemophilus influenzae" type b vaccines.cite book |author=Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation, David Salisbury (Editor), Mary Ramsay (Editor), Karen Noakes (Editor) |title=Immunisation Against Infectious Disease 2006 Chapter 26:Poliomyelitis | url=http://www.immunisation.nhs.uk/files/GB_26_polio.pdf |publisher=Stationery Office |location=Edinburgh |year= |pages=313-329|isbn=0-11-322528-8 ] When the current formualtion of IPV is used, 90% or more of individuals develop protective antibody to all three serotypes of poliovirus after two doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and at least 99% are immune to poliovirus following three doses. The duration of immunity induced by IPV is not known with certainty, although a complete series is thought to provide protection for many years.cite web | last = Robertson | first = Susan | title = Module 6: Poliomyelitis | work = The Immunological Basis for Immunization Series | publisher = World Health Organization(Geneva, Switzerland) | url = http://www.who.int/vaccines-documents/DocsPDF-IBI-e/mod6_e.pdf | accessdate = 2007-03-12]
Oral polio vaccine
Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is a live-
attenuatedvaccine, produced by the passage of the virus through non-human cells at a sub- physiologicaltemperature, which produces spontaneous mutations in the viral genome. [cite journal |author=Sabin A, Ramos-Alvarez M, Alvarez-Amezquita J, Pelon W, Michaels R, Spigland I, Koch M, Barnes J, Rhim J |title=Live, orally given poliovirus vaccine. Effects of rapid mass immunization on population under conditions of massive enteric infection with other viruses |journal=JAMA |volume=173 |issue= |pages=1521–6 |year= |pmid = 14440553] Oral polio vaccines were developed by several groups, one of which was led by Albert Sabin. Other groups, led by Hilary Koprowskiand H.R. Cox, developed their own attenuated vaccine strains. In 1958, the National Institutes of Healthcreated a special committee on live polio vaccines. The various vaccines were carefully evaluated for their ability to induce immunity to polio, while retaining a low incidence of neuropathogenicity in monkeys. Based on these results, the Sabin strains were chosen for worldwide distribution.cite web | title = Competition to develop an oral vaccine | work = Conquering Polio | publisher = Sanofi PasteurSA |date=2007-02-02 | url = http://www.polio.info/polio-eradication/front/templates/index.jsp?siteCode=POLIO&codeRubrique=34&lang=EN | accessdate = 2007-03-12]
There are 57
nucleotidesubstitutions which distinguish the attenuated Sabin 1 strain from its virulent parent (the Mahoney serotype), two nucleotide substitutions attenuate the Sabin 2 strain, and 10 substitutions are involved in attenuating the Sabin 3 strain. The primary attenuating factor common to all three Sabin vaccines is a mutation located in the virus's internal ribosome entry site (or IRES)Charles Chan and Roberto Neisa. [http://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_160/Projects2000/Polio/TableofContents.html "Poliomyelitis".] Brown University.] which alters stem-loopstructures, and reduces the ability of poliovirus to translate its RNA template within the host cell. [cite journal |author=Gromeier M, Bossert B, Arita M, Nomoto A, Wimmer E |title=Dual stem loops within the poliovirus internal ribosomal entry site control neurovirulence |url= http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=9882296 |journal=J Virol |volume=73 |issue=2 |pages=958–64 |year=1999 |pmid=9882296] The attenuated poliovirus in the Sabin vaccine replicates very efficiently in the gut, the primary site of infection and replication, but is unable to replicate efficiently within nervous systemtissue. OPV also proved to be superior in administration, eliminating the need for sterile syringes and making the vaccine more suitable for mass vaccination campaigns. OPV also provided longer lasting immunity than the Salk vaccine.
In 1961, type 1 and 2
monovalentoral poliovirus vaccine (MOPV) was licensed, and in 1962, type 3 MOPV was licensed. In 1963, trivalent OPV was licensed, and became the vaccine of choice in the United States and most other countries of the world, largely replacing the inactivated polio vaccine. A second wave of mass immunizations led to a further dramatic decline in the number of polio cases. Between 1962 and 1965 about 100 million Americans (roughly 56% of the then population) received the Sabin vaccine. The result was a substantial reduction in the number of poliomyelitis cases, even from the much reduced levels following the introduction of the Salk vaccine.cite book |author=Smallman-Raynor, Matthew |title=Poliomyelitis: A World Geography: Emergence to Eradication (Oxford Geographical and Environmental Studies) |publisher=Oxford University Press, USA |location= |year=2006 |pages= |isbn=0-19-924474-X |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=]
OPV is usually provided in vials containing 10-20 doses of vaccine. A single dose of oral polio vaccine (usually two drops) contains 1,000,000 infectious units of Sabin 1 (effective against PV1), 100,000 infectious units of the Sabin 2 strain, and 600,000 infectious units of Sabin 3. The vaccine contains small traces of
antibiotics— neomycinand streptomycin—but does not contain preservatives.cite book |author= |title=Poliomyelitis Eradication: Field Guide (Scientific and Technical Publication) |publisher=Pan American Health Organization |location=Washington |year=2006 |pages= |isbn=92-75-11607-5 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=] One dose of OPV produces immunity to all three poliovirus serotypes in approximately 50% of recipients. Three doses of live-attenuated OPV produce protective antibody to all three poliovirus types in more than 95% of recipients. OPV produces excellent immunity in the intestine, the primary site of wild poliovirus entry, which helps prevent infection with wild virus in areas where the virus is endemic. The live virus used in the vaccine is shed in the stool and can be spread to others within a community, resulting in protection against poliomyelitis even in individuals who have not been directly vaccinated. IPV produces less gastrointestinalimmunity than does OPV, so persons who receive IPV are more easily infected with wild poliovirus. In regions without wild poliovirus, inactivated polio vaccine is the vaccine of choice. In regions with higher incidence of polio, and thus a different relative risk between efficacy and reversion of the vaccine to a virulent form, live vaccine is still used. The live virus also has stringent requirements for transport and storage, which are a problem in some hot or remote areas. As with other live-virus vaccines, immunity initiated by OPV is probably lifelong.
Iatrogenic (vaccine-induced) polio
A major concern about the oral polio vaccine (OPV) is its known ability to revert to a form that can achieve neurological infection and cause paralysis.cite journal | author = Shimizu H, "et al" | title = Circulation of type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus in the Philippines in 2001. | url= http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/full/78/24/13512?view=long&pmid=15564462 | journal = J Virol | volume = 78 | issue = 24 | pages = 13512–21 | year = 2004 | pmid = 15564462 | doi = 10.1128/JVI.78.24.13512-13521.2004] Clinical disease, including paralysis, caused by vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is indistinguishable from that caused by wild polioviruses.Cono, Joanne and Lorraine N. Alexander. (2002). VPD (Vaccine Preventable Disease) Surveillance Manual, 3rd Edition, [http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/surv-manual/chpt10_polio.pdf Chapter 10, Poliomyelitis] p.10-1.] This is believed to be a rare event, but outbreaks of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) have been reported, and tend to occur in areas of low coverage by OPV, presumably because the OPV is itself protective against the related outbreak strain.cite journal | author = Kew O, "et al" | title = Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola associated with circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus. | journal = Science | volume = 296 | issue = 5566 | pages = 356–9 | year = 2002 | pmid = 11896235 | doi = 10.1126/science.1068284] cite journal | author = Yang C, Naguib T, Yang S, Nasr E, Jorba J, Ahmed N, Campagnoli R, van der Avoort H, Shimizu H, Yoneyama T, Miyamura T, Pallansch M, Kew O | title = Circulation of endemic type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Egypt from 1983 to 1993. | journal = J Virol | volume = 77 | issue = 15 | pages = 8366–77 | year = 2003 | pmid = 12857906 | doi = 10.1128/JVI.77.15.8366-8377.2003]
As the incidence of wild polio diminishes, nations transition from use of the oral vaccine back to the injected vaccine because the direct risk of iatrogenic polio (VAPP) due to OPV outweighs the indirect benefit of immunization via subclinical transmission of OPV. When IPV is used, reversion is not possible but there remains a small risk of clinical infection upon exposure to reverted OPV or wild polio virus. Following the widespread use of polio vaccines in the mid-1950s, the incidence of poliomyelitis declined rapidly in many industrialized countries. The use of OPV was discontinued in the United States in 2000 and in 2004 in the UK, but it continues to be used around the globe.
The rate of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) varies by region but is generally about 1 case per 750,000 vaccine recipients.cite journal |author=Racaniello V |title=One hundred years of poliovirus pathogenesis |journal=Virology |volume=344 |issue=1 |pages=9–16 |year=2006 |pmid=16364730 |doi=10.1016/j.virol.2005.09.015] VAPP is more likely to occur in adults than in children. In
immunodeficientchildren, the risk of VAPP is almost 7,000 times higher, particularly for persons with B-lymphocytedisorders (e.g., agammaglobulinemiaand hypogammaglobulinemia), which reduce the synthesis of protective antibodies. The World Health Organizationconsiders the benefits of vaccination to far outweigh the risk of vaccine derived polio. Outbreaks of vaccine derived polio have been stopped by multiple rounds of high-quality vaccination, in order to immunize the entire population.cite web | title = What is vaccine-derived polio? | publisher = WHO | date = 8 October 2007 | url = http://www.who.int/features/qa/64/en/index.html]
Outbreaks of VAPP occurred independently in
Belarus(1965–66), Egypt(1983–1993), Hispaniola(2000–2001), Philippines(2001), Madagascar(2001–2002), [cite journal |author=Kew O, Wright P, Agol V, Delpeyroux F, Shimizu H, Nathanson N, Pallansch M |title=Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge |url= http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0042-96862004000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en| journal=Bull World Health Organ |volume=82 |issue=1 |pages=16–23 |year=2004 |pmid=15106296 ] and in Haiti(2002), where political strife and poverty have interfered with vaccination efforts. [Cite news | last = Fox | first = Maggie | title = Polio in Haiti linked to incomplete vaccinations: Virus can mutate and kill | work = National Post (Canada) | accessdate = 2008-09-04 ] In 2006 an outbreak of vaccine-derived poliovirus occurred in China.cite journal | author = Liang X, Zhang Y, Xu W, Wen N, Zuo S, Lee L, Yu J | title = An outbreak of poliomyelitis caused by type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus in China | journal = J Infect Dis | volume = 194 | issue = 5 | pages = 545–51 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16897650 | doi = 10.1086/506359] Cases have been reported from Cambodia(2005-2006), Myanmar(2006-2007), Iran (1995, 2005-2007), Syria, Kuwait and Egypt, while in northern Nigeria, 69 cases were reported in 2007. [citation | title = Update on Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses --- Worldwide, January 2006–August 2007 | journal = Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report | date =September 28 | year = 2007 | volume = 56 | number = 38 | pages =996–1001 | publisher = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | url = http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5638a3.htm?s_cid=mm5638a3_e]
In 1960, it was determined that the
rhesus monkeykidney cells used to prepare the poliovirus vaccines were infected with a virus called SV40(or Simian Virus-40).cite web| title = Simian Virus 40 (SV40), Polio Vaccine, and Cancer | work =| publisher = Centers for Disease Control| date = April 22, 2004 | url = http://www.cdc.gov/nip/vacsafe/concerns/cancer/default.htm | accessdate = 2007-02-03 ] SV40, also discovered in 1960, is a naturally occurring virusthat infects monkeys. In 1961, SV40 was found to cause tumors in rodents.cite journal |author=Eddy B, Borman G, Berkeley W, Young R |title=Tumors induced in hamsters by injection of rhesus monkey kidney cell extracts |journal=Proc Soc Exp Biol Med |volume=107 |issue= |pages=191–7 |year = 1961 |pmid = 13725644] More recently, the virus was found in certain forms of cancerin humans, for instance brain and bone tumors, mesotheliomas, and some types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. [cite journal |author=Carbone M |title=Simian virus 40 and human tumors: It is time to study mechanisms |journal=J Cell Biochem |volume=76 |issue=2 |pages=189–93 |year=1999 |pmid = 10618636 |doi=10.1002/(SICI)1097-4644(20000201)76:2<189::AID-JCB3>3.0.CO;2-J] [cite journal |author=Vilchez R, Kozinetz C, Arrington A, Madden C, Butel J |title=Simian virus 40 in human cancers |journal=Am J Med |volume=114 |issue=8 |pages=675–84 |year=2003 |pmid=12798456 |doi=10.1016/S0002-9343(03)00087-1] However, it has not been determined that SV40 causes these cancers.cite journal |author=Engels E |title=Cancer risk associated with receipt of vaccines contaminated with simian virus 40: epidemiologic research |url=http://dceg.cancer.gov/pdfs/engels41972005.pdf |journal=Expert Rev Vaccines |volume=4 |issue=2 |pages=197–206 |year=2005 |pmid=15889993 |doi=10.1586/147605126.96.36.199]
SV40 was found to be present in stocks of the injected form of the polio vaccine (IPV) in use between 1955 to 1963. It is not found in the OPV form. Over 98 million Americans received one or more doses of polio vaccine between 1955 to 1963 when a proportion of vaccine was contaminated with SV40; it has been estimated that 10 - 30 million Americans may have received a dose of vaccine contaminated with SV40. Later analysis suggested that vaccines produced by the former
Soviet bloccountries until 1980, and used in the USSR, China, Japan, and several African countries, may have been contaminated; meaning hundreds of millions more may have been exposed to SV40. [cite web|last= Debbie Bookchin| title = Vaccine scandal revives cancer fear | publisher = New Scientist | date = 7 July 2004 | url = http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99996116| accessdate = 2007-02-03 ]
In 1998, the
National Cancer Instituteundertook a large study, using cancer case information from the Institutes SEER database. The published findings from the study revealed that there was no increased incidence of cancer in persons who may have received vaccine containing SV40.cite journal |author=Strickler H, Rosenberg P, Devesa S, Hertel J, Fraumeni J, Goedert J |title=Contamination of poliovirus vaccines with simian virus 40 (1955-1963) and subsequent cancer rates |journal=JAMA |volume=279 |issue=4 |pages=292–5 |year=1998 |pmid=9450713 |doi=10.1001/jama.279.4.292] Another large study in Sweden examined cancer rates of 700,000 individuals who had received potentially contaminated polio vaccine as late as 1957; the study again revealed no increased cancer incidence between persons who received polio vaccines containing SV40 and those who did not.cite journal |author=Olin P, Giesecke J |title=Potential exposure to SV40 in polio vaccines used in Sweden during 1957: no impact on cancer incidence rates 1960 to 1993 |journal=Dev Biol Stand |volume=94 |issue= |pages=227–33 |year=1998 |pmid=9776244] The question of whether SV40 causes cancer in humans remains controversial however, and the development of improved assays for detection of SV40 in human tissues will be needed to resolve the controversy.
During the race to develop an oral polio vaccine several large scale human trials were undertaken. By 1958, the National Institutes of Health had determined that OPV produced using the Sabin strains were the safest.cite web | title = Competition to develop an oral vaccine | work = Conquering Polio | publisher =
Sanofi PasteurSA |date=2007-02-02 | url = http://www.polio.info/polio-eradication/front/templates/index.jsp?siteCode=POLIO&codeRubrique=34&lang=EN | accessdate = 2007-03-12] Between 1957 and 1960, however, Hilary Koprowski continued to administer his vaccine around the world. In Africa, the vaccines were administered to roughly one million people in the Belgian territories, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwandaand Burundi.cite journal |author=Plotkin SA |title=CHAT oral polio vaccine was not the source of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M for humans| url=http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1086/319612 |journal=Clin. Infect. Dis. |volume=32 |issue=7 |pages=1068–84 |year=2001 |pmid=11264036 |doi=10.1086/319612] Koprowski, Hilary (1960) "Historical Aspects of the Development of Live Virus Vaccine in Poliomeylitis" "British Medical Journal" 2:85-91 [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/pagerender.fcgi?artid=2096806&pageindex=1#page online] ] The results of these human trials have been controversial,cite news | last = Collins | first = Huntly | title = The Gulp Heard Round the World | pages = Section D, page 1 | publisher = Philadelphia Inquirer | date = 2000-11-06| url = http://www.koprowski.net/Polio%20Article.htm | accessdate = 2007-02-06 ] and accusations in the 1990s arose that the vaccine had created the conditions necessary for transmission of SIVfrom chimpanzees to humans, causing HIV/AIDS. These hypotheses have, however, been refuted. By 2004, cases of poliomyelitis in Africa had been reduced to just a small number in isolated regions of in the western portion of the continent, with sporadic cases elsewhere. However, recent opposition to vaccination campaigns have evolved, [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/2070634.stm Nigeria Muslims oppose polio vaccination] "BBC News" 27 June 2002] [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/20/international/asia/20polio.html?pagewanted=2 Rumor, Fear and Fatigue Hinder Final Push to End Polio] Celia W. Dugger and Donald G. McNeil Jr. "New York Times" March 20, 2006] often relating to fears that the vaccine might induce sterility.BBC News [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4539757.stm "Anti-polio vaccine Malians jailed"] 12 May 2005] The disease has since resurged in Nigeriaand in several other African nations, which epidemiologists cite is due to refusals by certain local populations to allow their children to receive the polio vaccine.cite journal |author=Jegede AS |title=What led to the Nigerian boycott of the polio vaccination campaign? |doi= 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040073| journal=PLoS Med. |volume=4 |issue=3 |pages=e73 |year=2007 |pmid=17388657]
* [http://blogs.cgdev.org/vaccine CGDev.org] - 'Vaccines for Development',
Center for Global Development
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm52sa.html PBS.org] - 'People and Discoveries: Salk Produces Polio Vaccine 1952',
* [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/07/15/MN193825.DTL SFGate.com] - 'Rogue virus in the vaccine: Early polio vaccine harbored virus now feared to cause cancer in humans', William Carlsen, "
San Francisco Chronicle" ( July 15, 2001)
* [http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/dl/salk/salkdocuments.html Documents regarding Jonas Salk and the Salk Polio Vaccine, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library]
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