- Glam metal
Infobox Music genre
name = Glam metal
color = white
bgcolor = #BB0022
stylistic_origins= Heavy metal
Glam rock Hard rock Pop rock
cultural_origins = Early 1980s at the
Sunset Stripin Los Angeles, United Statesand England
electric guitar(often a rhythm guitarist and a lead guitarist), bass guitar, drums, often keyboards
popularity = 1983-1992 in the United States; worldwide popularity from 1986-1992. Revival in the United States,
United Kingdom, and Scandinaviain particular since late 1990s
Los Angeles- New York City- Philadelphia- New Jersey- Texas- UK - Scandinavia
Glam punk- Shock rock- Comedy rock
Glam metal (also known as pop metal) is a sub-genre of
heavy metal musicthat arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States. It was a dominant genre in popular rock musicthroughout the 1980s and briefly in the early 1990s, combining elements of glam rock(mostly those related to band image) with heavy metal.
The genre is also referred to (pejoratively by detractors) as hair metal, performed by hair bands. This term was popularized by
MTVin the 1990s and derives from the tendency among most bands to style their long hair in a teased-up fashion. In its heyday, the genre was often referred to as heavy metal or simply metal.Fact|date=June 2008
Musically, glam metal songs use distorted
guitar riffsbased around power chordsand catchy hooks over hard-hitting drumming. Most songs feature flashy virtuoso shred guitarsolos with heavily effect-processed lead guitar sound. The overall sound is much more commercial and studio-engineered than earlier styles of metal, such as the rough, noisy sound of the New Wave of British Heavy Metalbands. The vocals have a catchy melody with an anthemic "sing-along" chorus. In addition, they were usually sung with a clean tone like in hard rock, in contrast to many other heavy metal subgenres that often employ a more extreme vocal style.
Glam metal performers became infamous for their debauched lifestyles of late-night parties - widely covered in the tabloid press - , very long teased hair (hence the alternative "hair metal" tag), use of
make-up, and gaudy clothing and accessories (chiefly consisting of tight denimor leatherjeans, spandex, and headbands). Many of these traits are somewhat reminiscent of glam rock, a music genre which first emerged in the United Kingdom during the early 1970s. However, the earlier groups of the genre also implemented some of the leather and studsimagery which had previously been made famous by heavy metal band Judas Priest.
The genre took influence heavily from 1970s glam rock and heavy metal bands and some influenced by punk, with large sections taking influence from the likes of
AC/DC, Aerosmith, Alice Cooper, David Bowie, Led Zeppelin, Kiss, New York Dolls, Queen, Sex Pistols, Sweet, Van Halen, Slade, Mott the Hoople, T.Rex, Judas Priest, Thin Lizzyand others. A few bands had previously experimented with mixing glam rockand heavy metal prior to the 1980s when glam metal emerged as a fully fledged genre. Angel, Starz, and Legs Diamond were prime examples of this. However, it wasn’t until the early 1980s (c.1981) that the genre truly began to gather speed and thus some of the earlier bands mentioned are not always viewed as part of it.
The first band of the 1980s to truly travel down the make-up and gaudy clothing route was Finnish group
Hanoi Rocks. Credited as influences by countless bands, Hanoi Rocks followed the template laid down by hard rock bands of the 1970s and stuck to the make up and garishness of the New York Dolls. In the United States, many fans credited that the movement on the Sunset Stripwas kick-started largely by Mötley Crüeand Nikki Sixx's former band London after the earliest years when they started as a glam rockband. Others assert that it was kick-started by Quiet Riot's " Metal Health" album when it reached #1 in the billboard music charts in the early 80s (c.1983). In any event, these bands played a prominent part in the genre's direction and would go on to influence a lot of the bands who formed from the mid-1980s onwards.
During 1981 in
England, the same year of Mötley Crüe's formation, Wrathchild, fronted by Rocky Shades, also emerged. This band was known for playing glam metal style music and having a similar image; they also used pyro similar to that of shock rocksections of the genre and would eventually tour with W.A.S.P. in 1984. However, Wrathchild did not gain the same level of fame as their Los Angelescontemporaries. [ [http://pluto.spaceports.com/~mot/wrathchild/history.htm Wrathchild History—First Glam Metal band] ]
First wave (1981-1984)
During the late 1970s and early 1980s, heavy metal spawned several sub-genre forms; glam metal became its most popular manifestation. The first wave of glam metal bands included,
Quiet Riot, Mötley Crüe, Ratt, Helix, W.A.S.P., Night Ranger, Twisted Sisterand Stryper. Their music was a bit closer to traditional heavy metal than their younger contemporaries who would eventually emerge, like Warrant, Cinderella and Poison, whose music and image ultimately became synonymous with the genre.
Around this time and the years following it, bands who had long been an established part of heavy metal and hard rock music during the 1970s and had ironically influenced many of the glam metal bands began to experiment with the genre's stylings. During the later part of the 1980s, many other acts would follow suit in a similar fashion;
Alice Cooperin 1989 with "Trash" and Whitesnakewith their 1987 "self-titled" album which featured the massively successful hit " Here I Go Again."
econd wave (1985-1991)
By the mid-1980s, glam metal could be defined by two major divisions. On the mainstream side were bands such as
Bon Jovi, whose 1986 album " Slippery When Wet" was a huge success at Top 40radio and MTV, as well as the band Europe, whose single "The Final Countdown" hit number one in 26 countries; the bands in this style were and still are described as pop metal. Similar bands including FireHouseand Winger would surface in the later part of the decade. Los Angelesfostered a more insular scene around the Sunset Strip, starting in 1984-1985. This movement eventually spawned bands such as Poison, Faster Pussycat, London and L.A. Guns. Other bands were associated with that scene's style but actually came from outside of Hollywood; Cinderella and Britny Fox, both Philadelphiabands, are prime examples. Also in the mid '80s Stryperbrought Christian lyrics to glam metal, making Christian metalpopular in the process.
There were also some groups who continued in the style originated by the earlier glam metal bands.
King Kobra(which would spawn The Bullet Boys, known most notably for their MTV hits "Smooth Up In Ya" and their cover of "For The Love of Money") is a prime example of this.
The visual aspects of some glam metal bands became thought of as appealing to music television, particularly
MTVwhen it was launched. During the mid-to-late 1980s, glam metal tracks were in heavy rotation on the channel. Glam metal bands often resided at the top of MTV's daily dialcountdown, and some of the bands appeared on the channel's shows such as " Headbanger's Ball". The groups also received heavy rotation on radio shows such as KNACin Los Angeles.
The second wave of glam metal would prove to be the most commercially successful for the genre as a whole, and enjoyed widespread success during the 1980s, but bands would sometimes find themselves on the wrong side of critics and certain sections of the music industry.
A notable example came in 1987 with the release of
Mötley Crüe's "Girls, Girls, Girls". Before the establishment of Soundscanin 1991, Billboard's album chart was decided by a combination of reports from retailers, wholesalers, and industry professionals, rather than on actual album sales. As the band related on MTV's Week in Rock, the week that "Girls, Girls, Girls" peaked at #2 on the Billboard chart, it was actually the highest-selling album of that week. However, the industry professionals gave extra weight to Whitney Houston's second album, allowing it to retain the top spot. In the band's opinion, the industry simply wouldn’t allow their album to hold the #1 spot. (The band eventually conquered the top spot with their next album, "Dr. Feelgood", which became the biggest album of their career.)
Glam metal continued to grow its fanbase as the 1980s progressed. Poison's second album "
Open Up and Say...Ahh!" spawned a huge single in "Every Rose Has Its Thorn", and eventually sold eight million copies worldwide. Skid Row would later release their debut album in 1989, although they had been around since 1986 and had a harder hitting sound than many of the other bands in the genre at that point. Other bands which arose around this time with similar musical styles are Faster Pussycat, L.A. Guns, Roxx Gang, and Dangerous Toys.
A similar movement also emerged in
London, Englandat around the same time. Like Guns N' Roses, these bands were heavily influenced by early rock n' rolland punk rock. Like Hanoi Rocks, the bands from this English movement such as Dogs D’Amour and London Quireboysdidn’t consider themselves heavy metal, but rather as rock n' roll, though they are sometimes incorrectly termed glam metal. Also, around this time British band The Cultmoved their music away from their post-punk roots and began playing a more AC/DCinfluenced sound, touring the United States with Guns N' Roses and then later with Metallica.
During the 2000s the sleaze glam style has returned somewhat thanks to
Buckcherryand Brides of Destruction, the latter of which features Nikki Sixxand Tracii Guns. Newer bands such as Vains of Jenna, Backyard Babies, Hardcore Superstar, and Red Star Rebelsare also beginning to gain a lot of recognition.
In the early 1990s glam metal's popularity rapidly declined after nearly a decade of success. Several music writers and musicians began to deride glam metal acts as "hair farmers," [cite news|title=I Slept With Soundgarden and Other Chilling Confessions|author=Thompson, Dave|publisher=Alternative Press|date=March 1994|accessdate=2006-12-08|url=http://www.angelfire.com/ca3/newmorning/apmar94.html] [cite news|url=http://web.stargate.net/soundgarden/articles/spin_2-92.shtml|title=SUB ZEP?|author=Magnuson, Ann|publisher=Spin|date=February 1992|accessdate=2006-12-08] hinting at the soon to be popularized term hair metal. Several factors played a role in the decline, including the rise of
grungemusic from Seattle, changing audience tastes, and the impacts of band breakups and personnel changes.
In the early 1990s, bands from the alternative rock subgenre named
grunge, such as Nirvana, Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam, and Soundgarden, started supplanting glam metal's popularity. Like glam metal, grunge was influenced by heavy metal. However, grunge also mixed in elements of hardcore punk and indie rock, such as apathetic or angst-filled lyrics and a stripped-down aesthetic and a rejection of glam metal-style theatrics. Many major labels felt they had been caught off-guard by the surprise success of Nirvana's " Nevermind", and had begun turning over their personnel in favor of younger staffers more versed in grunge. As MTV shifted its attention to the new style, glam metal bands found themselves relegated more and more often to "Headbanger's Ball" and late night airplay, and almost entirely disappeared from the channel by early 1994. Given glam metal's lack of a major format presence at radio, bands were left without a clear way to reach their audience.
Another reason for the decline in popularity of the style may have been the changing popularity of the
power ballad, a slow, emotional song that gradually builds to a strong finale. While the use of the power ballad—especially as after a hard-rocking anthem—was initially a successful formula in the late 1980s, audiences eventually lost interest in this approach. From Poison ("Fallen Angel" followed by " Every Rose Has Its Thorn") to Mötley Crüe (" Kickstart My Heart" followed by "Without You"). [Other examples include Warrant ("Down Boys" followed by "Heaven") to White Lion("Tell Me" followed by "When the Children Cry"), to Europe (" Rock The Night" followed by "Carrie") to Winger ("Seventeen" followed by "Headed for a Heartbreak") to Def Leppard (" Pour Some Sugar On Me" followed by "Love Bites")] Older bands with hard rock/heavy metal roots also used this approach: Whitesnake's 1987 eponymous album introduced a rerecording of "Here I Go Again", which was followed by "Is This Love?", both power ballads (the latter more so than the former). [ likewise Aerosmithhad a hit with "Crazy" in 1994. Furthermore, British metal icon Ozzy Osbourne used the formula. Inspired by the success of "Close My Eyes Forever", his duet with Lita Ford, his next album, " No More Tears", contained three power ballads: "Time After Time", "Road to Nowhere", and " Mama, I'm Coming Home", all of which were released as singles after the title track. This formula became so commonplace that it began to be seen as a glam metal cliché. Fans of the genre balked as wellFact|date=November 2007, noting that, of the pair, the power ballad typically received far more airplay on mainstream radio.] The decline in glam metal was further compounded by many key 1980s metal bands, glam or otherwise, breaking up or losing significant band members. [In late 1991-early 1992, Stryper, White Lion, Europe, and Britny Fox all broke-up. Vince Neilwas briefly fired from Mötley Crüe, guitarist Robbin Crosbyleft Ratt (who then broke up with the departure of lead singer Stephen Pearcy), C. C. DeVilleleft Poison, Sebastian Bachleft Skid Row (though the band had largely discarded their glam metal sound), and others as well.]
According to a documentary special called that aired on
VH1in 2006 claimed that the 1988 film played a role in the death of glam metal, in which kids who saw it were disgusted by the excess particularly the scene with W.A.S.Pguitarist Chris Holmes.
During the late 1990s, however, several glam metal bands of the first and second eras began to assert themselves again, releasing new material. The mainstream popularity of glam metal at this time however was being supplanted by
pop punk, post-grunge, and hip hop music. Since then, new glam metal bands have also formed, and events such as Rocklahoma, television such as VH1 Classic, and new material from bands have helped expose people to the music and create new fans.
Mötley Crüe reunited with Vince Neil, and recorded the 1997 album "
Generation Swine", embarking on a successful U.S. tour. Poison reunited with C.C. Deville, and embarked on a successful 1999 tour of amphitheaters. A 2000 package tour featuring Poison, Slaughter, Cinderella, and Dokkensold extremely well.
In the 2000s, coinciding with the new blood of glam metal bands, more groups from the original movement continue to perform, and others that broke up have reformed. Bands such as
L.A. Guns, Ratt,and W.A.S.P. have appeared in package tours together, and Mötley Crüe and Poison are continuing to record material and tour, reaching the upper parts of the Billboard 200with compilation albums. The " Monster Ballads" compilation series has sold well, with the first volume peaking at #18 on the Billboard 200.
Rocklahoma is an annual festival that takes place in
Oklahoma. In 2007, the four day long festival ran from July 12through 15th and featured such bands as Poison, Ratt(reformed with Stephen Pearcyand missing deceased founding member Robbin Crosby), Faster Pussycat, L.A. Guns, Bang Tango, Vince Neil Band, Twisted Sister, Jackyl, Dokken, Quiet Riot, Britny Fox(reformed), Enuff Z'nuffand Y&T. [cite web
title=Hair-Metal Mania Strikes Again At Rocklahoma
first=Mitchell] Warrant and Cinderella will co-headline the festival in 2008 on
July 10through the 13th. [cite web
title=Hair Bands Unite In Oklahoma
accessdate=2008-03-12 |last= |first=]
By the early 2000s, a handful of new bands began to revive glam metal in one form or another. The British band,
The Darkness, was one example, albeit in a more tongue-in-cheek manner that's somewhat reminiscent of early Queen. American rockers Buckcherryscored a #1 Mainstream Rock hit with " Lit Up" in 1999. They have continued enjoying success on the pop charts, remaining on the Billboard Top 100extensively, and have achieved gold certification. Beautiful Creatures, formed by ex- Bang Tangofrontman Joe Lesté, signed a major label deal with Warner Bros. Recordsin 2000.
The late 90s saw a glam metal makeover for
shock rockers Marilyn Manson, whose 1998 release Mechanical Animalsdisplayed frequent and heavy amounts of glamourous attire and a more pop-oriented sound compared to the dark and nihilistic sound of its predecessor, Antichrist Superstar. Marilyn Manson was now a glam rock band, borrowing its visual presentation largely from David Bowie, and from Roxy Musicand its contemporaries. The band also became notorious for frequent substance abuseand obscenesexual actions, reminiscent of 1980s glam acts.
Newer bands, such as
Wig Wam, Murderdolls, Vains of Jenna, Andrew W.K., Hardcore Superstar, Babylon Bombs, Jackviper, Malice in Wonderland, Private Line, Bullets and Octane, Endeverafter, Blessed by a Broken Heart, dirty pennyand Lordiborrow elements from glam metal. Such groups have helped carry glam metal elements, largely lyrical and vocal, to modern fans, often with a heavier, more updated sound. Crashdietwas also signed to a major label and have released two albums. Boston's Damoneare another recent glam metal-influenced band who have enjoyed success, having had a song featured on the Madden NFL 2007soundtrack. Some unsigned and lesser-known bands of the genre that formed during glam metal's popular years are now being signed to smaller labels such as Perris Records and releasing material.
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