Cross-Skagerrak

Cross-Skagerrak
Cross-Skagerrak
Location
Country Norway
Denmark
Coordinates 58°15′36″N 7°53′55″E / 58.26°N 7.89861°E / 58.26; 7.89861 (Kristiansand Static Inverter Plant)
56°28′44″N 9°34′1″E / 56.47889°N 9.56694°E / 56.47889; 9.56694 (Tjele Static Inverter Plant)
General direction north–south–north
From Kristiansand (Norway)
Passes through Skagerrak
To Tjele (Denmark)
Ownership information
Owner Statnett
Energinet.dk
Construction information
Manufacturer of conductor/cable Alcatel
Nexans
Prysmian
Manufacturer of substations ABB
Commissioned 1977
Technical information
Type of current HVDC
Total length 240 km (150 mi)
Power rating 1,700 MW (Skagerrak 1–4)
Number of poles 4

Cross-Skagerrak is the name of an high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission facility between Tjele (Denmark) and Kristiansand (Norway). It is owned and operated by Statnett in Norway, and Energinet.dk in Denmark.[1]

Contents

Technical features

The 240-kilometre (150 mi) Cross-Skagerrak 1–3 scheme consists of a 113-kilometre (70 mi) overhead line and a 127-kilometre (79 mi) underwater cable.[1] It has a capacity of 1,050 megawatts (MW). Both land parts in Denmark and in Norway uses overhead lines from the cable landing point to the converter stations.[2] The towers were originally constructed for four poles, but were rebuilt for three conductors (three poles) when Skagerrak 3 was established. Near Aggesund HVDC Cross-Skagerrak crosses Aggesund strait overhead on 70-metre-tall (230 ft) towers with a 470-metre-long (1,540 ft) span.

For such a long submarine cable, an AC transmission scheme would not be feasible since too much of the cable's capacity would be consumed by the capacitance of the cable itself.

Skagerrak 1 and 2

Cross-Skagerrak went in service in 1977 as a bipolar HVDC scheme. This facility was built with thyristor valves. When installed this underwater cable was the world's longest and deepest underwater HVDC power cable. The cable, manufactured by Alcatel, is laid in a maximum water depth of 530 metres (1,740 ft).[3]

Both cables have a capacity of 250 MW at 250 kV.[1]

Skagerrak 3

In 1993 the scheme was extended by HVDC Cross-Skagerrak 3. Cross-Skagerrak 3 is a monopolar line for a voltage of 350 kV with a capacity of 440 MW at 350 kV.[1] In installing Cross-Skagerrak 3, the old poles Cross-Skagerrak 1 and Cross-Skagerrak 2 were converted to monopolar HVDC schemes, which run with opposite polarity to Cross-Skagerrak 3.[2]

Skagerrak 4

In November 2009, Statnett and Energinet.dk signed the agreement to construct Skagerrak 4. Capacity of Skagerrak 4 will be approximately 700 MW, and it is expected to be operational by 2014.[4] As for the existing Skagerrak 1-3, the grid connection points will be Kristiansand and Tjele. Differently from Skagerrak 1–3, for Skagerrak 4 a cable solution is chosen for the complete route length.[1] The 300 million DKK Prysmian land cable on the Danish side is approximately 90 kilometres (56 mi), while the 137 kilometres (85 mi) subsea cable and the 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) Norwegian land cable is to be made by Nexans for 638 million DKK.[5] Converter stations will be built by ABB, as for Skagerak 1–3.[6] The combined budget is 2.8 billion DKK.[5]

The technology used will be VSC, capable of black start. Although thyristor-based converters have a loss of only 0.7%, the IGBTs of VSC get close with a loss of 0.8 to 1%. Skagerrak 1 and 2 currently use Skagerrak 3 as a return cable, but 1 and 2 will be coupled so that Skagerrak 4 can use number 3 for returns.[7]

Sites

Site Coordinates
Tjele HVDC Static Inverter 56°28′44″N 9°34′1″E / 56.47889°N 9.56694°E / 56.47889; 9.56694 (Tjele Static Inverter Plant)
Denmark Overhead Electrode Line Terminal 56°37′16″N 9°28′32″E / 56.62111°N 9.47556°E / 56.62111; 9.47556 (Denmark Overhead Electrode Line Terminal)
Aggesund Crossing Tower South 57°0′0″N 9°18′7″E / 57°N 9.30194°E / 57; 9.30194 (Aggesund Crossing Tower South)
Aggesund Crossing Tower North 57°0′12″N 9°17′50″E / 57.00333°N 9.29722°E / 57.00333; 9.29722 (Aggesund Crossing Tower North)
Danish Cable Terminal 57°7′34″N 9°3′58″E / 57.12611°N 9.06611°E / 57.12611; 9.06611 (Danish Cable Terminal)
Norway Cable Terminal 58°7′45″N 8°10′3″E / 58.12917°N 8.1675°E / 58.12917; 8.1675 (Norway Cable Terminal)
Norway Electrode Line Terminal 58°10′02″N 8°15′56″E / 58.16722°N 8.26556°E / 58.16722; 8.26556 (Norway Electrode Line Terminal)
Norway Electrode Line Branch 58°11′10″N 8°9′24″E / 58.18611°N 8.15667°E / 58.18611; 8.15667 (Norway Electrode Line Branch)
Kristiansand HVDC Static Inverter 58°15′36″N 7°53′55″E / 58.26°N 7.89861°E / 58.26; 7.89861 (Kristiansand Static Inverter Plant)

Waypoints

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Skagerrak 1-3 HVDC Interconnections". ABB. http://www.abb.com/industries/ap/db0003db004333/e9c890cb41ffa3d5c125774a0044be37.aspx. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  2. ^ a b "The Skagerrak HVDC Scheme". Bonneville Power Administration. Archived from the original on 2005-02-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20050802085143/www.transmission.bpa.gov/cigresc14/Compendium/SKAGERR.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  3. ^ "Submarine power cable to connect Jordan, Egypt". PowerGen Worldwide (PennWell Corporation). 1995-01-01. http://www.powergenworldwide.com/index/display/articledisplay/45935/articles/power-engineering-international/volume-3/issue-1/regulars/intern-energy-outlook/submarine-power-cable-to-connet-jordan-egypt.html/The+electrical+interconnections+to+Norway+and+Germany+to+be+expanded.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  4. ^ "Demark, Norway to build fourth interconnector". PowerGen Worldwide (PennWell Corporation). 2009-12-09. http://www.powergenworldwide.com/index/display/articledisplay/371636/articles/powergenworldwide/t-and-d/t-and-d-infrastructure/2009/12/demark-norway-to-build-fourth-interconnector.html/The+electrical+interconnections+to+Norway+and+Germany+to+be+expanded.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  5. ^ a b Mikkelsen, Søren Damsgaard. Billion kroner cables Energinet.dk, 7 January 2011. Accessed: 9 January 2011.
  6. ^ "ABB wins $180m order for Norway-Denmark power transmission link". PowerGen Worldwide (PennWell Corporation). 2011-02-11. http://www.powergenworldwide.com/index/display/articledisplay/4152770778/articles/powergenworldwide/t-and-d/t-and-d-infrastructure/2011/02/abb-wins__180m_order.html/The+electrical+interconnections+to+Norway+and+Germany+to+be+expanded.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  7. ^ Godske, Bjørn. New cable to Norway secures grid against faults (in Danish) Ing.dk, 11 February 2011. Accessed: 11 February 2011.

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