- Extended play
An extended play (EP) is a
vinyl record, CD, or music downloadwhich contains more music than a single, but is too short to qualify as an LP. Usually, an EP has around 10–28 minutes of music, a single has up to 10 minutes, and an album has 30–80 minutes. Mini-LPs generally contain 20–30 minutes of music.cite book |last=Strong |first=Martin C. |title=The Great Rock Discography, 6th edn. |year= 2002 |publisher=Canongate |isbn=1-84195-312-1 ] In the United Kingdom, the Official Chart Companydefines a cut off between EP and album classification at 25 minutes length or four tracks (plus alternative versions of featured songs). [ [http://www.theofficialcharts.com/docs/Official%20UK%20Charts%20Singles%20Rules%20October%202007.pdf Official UK Charts Singles Rules] ] [http://www.theofficialcharts.com/docs/NEW_Album_Chart_Rules_2007_2.pdf Official Rules For Chart Eligibility — Albums] ]
EPs were released in various sizes in different eras. In the 1950s and 1960s, EPs were introduced as compilations or album samplers and were typically played at 45, then later 33⅓ rpm recordings on 7in (18cm) discs, with two songs on each side.cite book
title = Popular Music: The Key Concepts
last = Shuker
first = Roy
url = http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=gtTMpYXhh7wC
year = 2005
publisher = Routledge
isbn = 041534770X
pages = 324
chapter = SINGLES; EPS]
classical musicalbums released at the beginning of the LP era were also distributed as EP albums — notably the seven operas that Arturo Toscaniniconducted on radiobetween 1944 and 1954. These operas, originally broadcast on NBCradio, were made available both in 45 RPM and 33⅓ RPM. In the 1990s, they began appearing on compact disc.
During the 1950s,
RCA Victorreleased several EP albums of Walt Disneyfilms, containing both the story and songs. These usually featured the original casts of the films. Each album contained two records, plus a fully illustrated booklet containing the complete text of the recording, so that children could follow along. Some of the titles included "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs", "Pinocchio" and what was then a recent release, the 1954 version of "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea". The case of "20,000 Leagues" was highly unusual in that, not only did it not use the film's cast but years later, a 12-inch 33⅓ RPM album of the film, with nearly the identical script and yet another totally different cast, was issued by Disneyland Recordsin conjunction with the 1963 re-release of the film.
The Beatlesreleased a double-EP containing songs from their TV film, "Magical Mystery Tour". Stevie Wonderincluded a bonus 4-song EP in his 1976 double LP " Songs in the Key of Life". In the 1970s and 1980s there was less standardizationand EPs were made on 7 in (18cm), 10 in or 12 in (30cm) discs running either 33⅓ or 45 rpm. Some novelty EPs used odd shapes and colors and a few were picture discs. Alice in Chainsis the first band to ever have an EP reach #1 on Billboard album chart. The EP, " Jar of Flies" was released January 25, 1994. Linkin Parkand Jay-Z's collaboration EP, "Collision Course", was the next and latest to have reached the #1 spot after Alice in Chains.
The first EPs were 7-inch vinyl records with twice the number of tracks (i.e. four) as a normal single, and were generally given a title, as opposed to being named after a lead track. Examples include
The Beatles' "The Beatles Hits" EP from 1963, and The Troggs' "Troggs Tops" EP from 1966, both of which collected previously-released tracks. The playing time was generally between 10 and 15 minutes. These fell out of favor, but regained popularity in the punk era, when they became commonly used for the release of new material, e.g. Buzzcocks' "Spiral Scratch" EP, which featured four tracks. The 12-inch single was introduced in 1977, and commonly had extended or additional tracks compared to the 7-inch release. 12-inch EPs were similar, but generally had between 3 and 5 tracks and had a length of over 12 minutes, and like 7-inch EPs were given titles. EP releases were also issued in cassetteand 10-inch vinyl format. With the advent of the Compact disc, more music was often included on 'single' releases, with 4 or 5 tracks being common, and playing times of up to 25 minutes.
The Mars Voltaran into problems with their five-track album " Frances the Mute" before its release; the final 32-minute track, "Cassandra Gemini", was divided into eight semi-arbitrary sections so the band would be paid an album's wages rather than an EPs.Fact|date=March 2008 Autechredecided to name one of their releases " EP7" even though it contained 11 tracks and was over an hour long. On the other hand, Weezer's "The Green Album" is not considered an EP even though it falls short of half an hour.
Some artists, especially in the days of vinyl, have released full-length albums that could fit the definition of a modern-day EP. Conversely, there are EPs that are long enough to be albums. Marilyn Manson's "
Smells Like Children" for example, which is 54 minutes long and Estradasphere's " The Silent Elk of Yesterday" clocks in at 74 minutes, as does " Harbinger of Metal" by Reverend Bizarreand The Bird and the Bee Sidesby Relient K. This is particularly the case with the rare double EP, which contains two discs. The 5 track "Tulimyrsky EP" by Finnish Viking Metal band Moonsorrowis counted as an EP even though it clocks in at 1:08:18 (the title track alone is 30 minutes long) simply because it contains two cover versions; "For Whom The Bell Tolls" by Metallicaand "Back To North" by Merciless.
There are also some EPs which are even shorter than the standard single. It has become customary in recent years for new bands to release their first release nominally as an "EP" to give it grander connotations than a single. By giving the release a unique name (as opposed to it being named after the lead track on the CD) the band can garner more attention for the other tracks on the CD. Using the example of
Arctic Monkeys, by calling their first release " Five Minutes with Arctic Monkeys" rather than " Fake Tales of San Francisco" (the first track on the CD) they also put the second track "From The Ritz to the Rubble" in the limelight. Thus, "Five Minutes With Arctic Monkeys" is more akin to a double-A side than a standard EP. Subsequently, similar releases by other new bands could be described as "triple-A sides" or even "quadruple-A sides".
The 7-inch EP in punk rock
The first recordings released by many
punk rockbands were released in 7-inch EP format, mainly because the short song nature of the genre made it difficult to create sufficient material to fill an LP. Many such bands also were unsigned, or signed to a minor record label that did not have the funds to release a full length album, particularly by newly formed bands. As many record stores would not sell demo tapes, the 7-inch EP became a standard release for punk rock bands, who could sell them cheaply nationwide, and thus be heard beyond the areas where they performed. These records would vary in length, having anywhere from 2 to as many as 10 or more songs (4 being somewhat of a standard), and occasionally recorded at 33 rpm to lengthen running time (outside of punk rock many people refer to any 7-inch record as a "45", as it has been the standard speed for such records). Some of these recordings would qualify as singles, although this term was sometimes eschewed as being a mainstream design for determining commercial airplay, which did not apply to the vast majority of such bands. The term "single" also had a way of being somewhat dismissive of any tracks other than the primary one, relegating them to B-sides, when many bands, having a 7-inch record as their most significant release, would put all their best songs on the recording. Using the term EP in such cases would be considered technically incorrect, as they were not "extended", and the term "7-inch" became a standard. For bands that went on to achieve commercial success, it was often customary for the original EP tracks to be released later on full-length albums, or to be somehow re-issued in another format.
The split 7-inch EP has also been a widespread feature in the genre, in which two bands would release such a record together, each performing on one side. This was a way to cut costs, particularly for self-released EPs, and was often used as a way for a more established band to help promote a promising newer act. Alternately, two bands with friendly relations with each other would release split EPs together. In some countries, split EPs are also used by major record labels to promote two new albums by wholly different artists, usually in the form of radio promos.
In cases where a band has too much content to fit on a 7-inch platter, but not enough for an LP, 10-inch and 12-inch records were utilized, usually at the 45 rpm speed more popular among dance music. Some more modern punk bands have also put out novelty 5-inch records, though due to a very short playing time and higher production cost than 7-inch discs, they are rare and usually utilized by bands with extremely fast songs.
In the 1960s and 1970s, record companies released EP versions of long play (LP) albums for use in
jukeboxes. These were commonly known as "compact 33s" or "little LPs". They played at 33⅓ rpm and were pressed on 7-inch vinyl. What made them EP-like was the fact that some songs were omitted for time purposes, and the tracks deemed the most popular were left on.
Extra Long Play (VCR format)
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