- Irish Republic
Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Poblacht na hÉireann
conventional_long_name = Irish Republic
common_name = Ireland
continent = Europe
region = British Isles
country = Ireland
year_start = 1919
year_end = 1922
date_start = 21 January
date_end = 6 December
event_start = Dáil Constitution
event_end = Free state constitution
date_pre = 24 April 1916
event_pre = Proclamation
p1 = United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
flag_p1 = Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
s1 = Irish Free State
flag_s1 = Flag of Ireland.svg
s2 = Northern Ireland
flag_s2 = Ulster banner.svg
symbol = Easter Rising
symbol_type = Flag (Proclamation)
image_map_caption = The Island of Ireland
capital = Dublin
common_languages = Irish, English
government_type = Republic
President of Dáil Éireann
leader1 = Cathal Brugha
year_leader1 = 1919
leader2 = Éamon de Valera
year_leader2 = 1919–1922
leader3 = Arthur Griffith
year_leader3 = 1922
leader4 = W. T. Cosgrave
year_leader4 = 1922
legislature = Dáil Éireann
stat_year1 = 1921
stat_area1 = 84116
stat_pop1 = 4400000
The Irish Republic (Irish: "Poblacht na hÉireann" or "Saorstát Éireann") was a unilaterally declared independent state of Ireland proclaimed in the
Easter Risingin 1916 and established in 1919 by Dáil Éireann. Its existence coincided with the Irish War of Independenceof 1919–1922 between the Irish Republican Armyand the forces of the United Kingdom.
It formally ceased to exist in 1922 with the ratification of the
Anglo-Irish Treatythat ended the war, when 26 of the country's 32 counties became the Irish Free Stateand the other six remained within the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. The IRA and its various splinter organizations assert that the dissolution of the Irish Republic was invalid and that the republic's authority passed to them.
In English, the revolutionary state was to be known as the 'Irish Republic' or, occasionally, the 'Republic of Ireland'. Two different Irish language titles were used: "Poblacht na hÉireann" and "Saorstát Éireann", based on two alternative Irish translations of the word "
republic". The word 'poblacht' was a new word, coined by the writers of the Easter Proclamation in 1916. [ Liam de Paor. "On the Easter Proclamation: And Other Declarations" (1997) ISBN 1-85182-322-0 ] "Saorstát" was a compound word based on the Irish words "saor" ("free") and "stát" ("state"). Its literal translation was "free state". The term "Poblacht na hÉireann" is the one used in the Proclamation of 1916, but the Declaration of Independence and other documents adopted in 1919 used "Saorstát Éireann".
"Saorstát Éireann" was adopted as the official Irish title of the
Irish Free Statewhen it was established at the end of the Anglo-Irish War(however this Free State was not a republic but a form of constitutional monarchywithin the British Empire). Since then, the word "saorstát" has fallen out of use as a translation of "republic". When the Irish state became the Republic of Irelandin 1949, for example, its official Irish description became "Poblacht na hÉireann".
In "The Aftermath" [W. Churchill, "The Aftermath" (Thornton 1929) p298.] ,
Winston Churchillgives an account of the first meeting of Éamon de Valerawith David Lloyd Georgeon 14 July 1921, at which he was present. Lloyd George was a noted Welsh linguist and as such was interested in the literal meaning of 'Saorstát'. De Valera replied that it meant 'Free State'. Lloyd George asked '...what is your Irish word for Republic?' After some delay and no reply, Lloyd George commented: 'Must we not admit that the Celts never were Republicans and have no native word for such an idea?'
However, Lord Longford (though not actually present) gives a different account in ‘’Peace by Ordeal’’ [Lord Longford, "Peace by Ordeal" (1935) ISBN 0-283-97909-7] : “The only doubt in de Valera’s mind, as he explained to Lloyd George, arose from the current dispute among Gaelic purists whether the idea Republic was better conveyed by the broader ‘Saorstát’ or the more abstract ‘Poblacht’."
In 1916 nationalist rebels participating in the
Easter Risingissued the Proclamation of the Republic. By this declaration they claimed to establish an independent state called the "Irish Republic" and proclaimed that the leaders of the rebellion would serve as the " Provisional Government of the Irish Republic" until it became possible to elect a national parliament. The Easter Rising was short-lived, largely limited to Dublinand, at the time it occurred, enjoyed little support from the Irish general public.
The leaders of the Easter Rising had proclaimed a republic.
Arthur Griffith's Sinn Féin organisation, which had favoured the establishment of a form of dual monarchy between Ireland and Britain, had not taken part in the Rising. In 1917, Griffith's Sinn Féin and republicans under Éamon de Valera, came together to form the new Sinn Féin Party. A compromise was reached at the 1917 Ard Fheis(party conference), where it was agreed that the party would pursue the establishment of an independent republic in the short-term, until the Irish people could be given the opportunity to decide on the form of government they preferred. This agreement was subject to the condition that if the people chose monarchy, no member of the British royal family would be invited to serve as monarch.
In the UK general election of 1918 candidates of the radical
Sinn Féinparty, including many who had participated in the 1916 rebellion, issued a Manifesto which included: "Sinn Féin aims at securing the establishment of that Republic". It also said it would boycott the British Parliament and instead unilaterally establish a new Irish assembly in Dublin. Sinn Féin candidates won a large majority of seats, 73 out of 105, many uncontested. On 21 January 1919, 27 of them gathered in the Mansion Housein Dublin to establish Dáil Éireann. Thirty-five other members were recorded as being "fé ghlas ag Gallaibh" (imprisoned by the foreign enemy) and another four as "ar díbirt ag Gallaibh" (deported by the foreign enemy). Thirty-seven other MPs were recorded as not being present ("as láthair"), these were mainly from the northern six counties that would later form Northern Ireland. [ [http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/D/DT/D.F.O.191901210004.html Roll call of the first sitting of the First Dáil] ] At this meeting the Dáil adopted the Irish Declaration of Independence. Because of the Easter Proclamation of 1916, the Dáil retrospectively established the Irish Republic from Easter 1916.
On the same day as the Declaration of Independence was issued two members of the
Royal Irish Constabulary(RIC) escorting a cartload of gelignitewere killed at Soloheadbeg, in Tipperary, by Dan Breenand Seán Treacy, members of the Irish Volunteers. This incident had not been ordered by the Dáil but the course of events soon drove the Dáil to recognise the Volunteers as the army of the Irish Republic, and so the Soloheadbeg incident became the opening incident of the undeclared Anglo-Irish Warbetween the Volunteers and Great Britain. Breen later recalled: "Treacy had stated to me that the only way of starting a war was to kill someone, so we intended to kill some of the police.." [History Ireland, May 2007, p.56.]
The decision to establish a republic in 1919, rather than any other form of government, was significant because it amounted to a complete repudiation of all constitutional ties with Great Britain, and set the party against any compromise that might involve initial self-government under the
Home Rule Act 1914or continued membership of the British Empire. The volatile question of the Unionists of the north-east having long indicated that they would never participate in any form of a republic was left unresolved, the six north-eastern counties remaining part of the United Kingdom under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, and later the Anglo-Irish Treaty.
Institutions of government
The central institution of the republic was Dáil Éireann, a unicameral assembly formed by the majority of Irish Members of Parliament elected in the 1918 general election. Two further general elections called by the
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, [Under the "Government of Ireland Act 1920" the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was to be the chief executive of both Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland. Later, when Southern Ireland was replaced by the Irish Free State, the Lord Lieutenancy was abolished and replaced by a Governor of Northern Ireland.] the head of the British administration in Dublin Castle, were treated by nationalists as elections to the Dáil. The Second Dáilcomprised members returned in the 1921 elections for the Parliaments of Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland; the Third Dáilwas elected in 1922 general election as the "provisional parliament" of " Southern Ireland", as provided for by the Anglo-Irish Treaty.
At its first meeting the Dáil adopted a brief, provisional constitution known as the
Dáil Constitution, as well as a series of basic laws, notably the Democratic Programme. It also passed a Declaration of Independence.
The Dáil Constitution vested executive authority in a cabinet called the "
Aireacht" or "Ministry". The Aireacht was answerable to the Dáil which elected its head, known initially as the "Príomh Aire". He in turn appointed the ministers. According to the original version of the constitution enacted in January 1919, there were to be four ministers::# Minister of Finance ("Aire Airgid"), :# Minister of Home Affairs ("Aire Gnóthaí Duthchais"), :# Minister of Foreign Affairs ("Aire Gnóthaí Coigcríoch") :# Minister of Defence ("Aire Cosanta").
In April 1919, the ministry was increased in size to not more than nine ministers. In August 1921 it underwent a final overhaul linked to the creation of a head of state. A ministry of six was created. These were a
:# Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs,:# Secretary of State for Home Affairs,:# Secretary of State for National Defence,:# Secretary of State for Finance,:# Secretary of State for Local Government,:# Secretary of State for Economic Affairs
A number of previous cabinet ministers, notably Constance Markiewicz, were demoted to under-secretary level.
The Aireacht met as often as secrecy and safety allowed.
Head of State/Head of Government
Initially, partly because of the division between republicans and monarchists, the Irish Republic had no
head of state. The Republic's leader was known initially as the "Príomh Aire", literally "prime minister" but referred to in the as "President of the Ministry". Later the English title " President of Dáil Éireann" also came to be used for the same post, especially during President de Valera's tour of the United States. In August 1921, de Valera, standing for re-election as President of Dáil Éireann, had the Dáil replace by a new post of "President of the Republic", so that he would be regarded as the head of state in the forthcoming Treaty negotiations, so asserting the claim that the negotiations were between two sovereign states (Ireland's view) and not that it was between the British government and local politicians (Britain's view). After de Valera's resignation in January 1922, his successors Griffith and Cosgrave called themselves "President of Dáil Éireann".
The military branch of the Irish Republic were the
Irish Volunteerswho, in the course of the War of Independence, who were formally renamed the " Irish Republican Army" to reflect their status as the national army of the declared republic. Despite being theoretically under the command of the Dáil's Ministry, in practice individual IRA columns enjoyed a high level of autonomy, subject to H.Q. in Dublin. Arrangements were made in August 1920 for the volunteers to swear an oath of allegiance to the Dáil.
Judiciary and police
The judicial arm of the Irish Republic consisted of a network of
Dáil Courtsadministered by IRA officers, which at first operated in parallel with the British judicial system, and gradually came to supersede it as public opinion swung against the British in some parts of the island. British law allowed for the arbitrationof disputes, provided the parties agreed to it, and as the Dáil Courts were initially described as arbitration panels it was impossible to outlaw them. In other cases the Dáil Courts proved more popular because of the speed and efficiency of their functioning, compared to the local Assizecourts. They proved unable to deal with violent crimes but acquired a good reputation with farmers, particularly in dealing harshly with cases of cattle rustling.
The enforcement of law and the decrees of the Dáil Courts was vested in the
Irish Republican Police.
The Irish Republic had some of the attributes of a functioning state; a ministry (with a head of state in the latter stages), a parliament, a courts system, a police force and a constitution. The extent to which these functioned fluctuated in different parts of the island, with the success or otherwise of republican institutions depending on the brutality of the
Black and Tansand Auxiliaries, active from June 1920 to July 1921. The more brutal the 'Tans' the more they alienated the local populace from the Dublin Castle administration and Assize courts and the greater success the republican alternatives had. Some measures such as the 1920 ban on emigration were unenforceable. [ [http://www.oireachtas-debates.gov.ie:80/D/DT/D.F.C.192008060089.html Ban on emigration passed, 1920] ]
At the height of the Irish War of Independence, as Tan atrocities reached such as scale as to result in the burning of the city of Cork (leading to widespread criticism in the
United Statesand from King George V), the Republican Police and Dáil courts reached their zenith, and senior barristers who had qualified within the British courts system also represented defendants in the Dáil Courts. But even after the Truce of July 1921, when the Tans had stopped their activities, the continuing effectiveness of the Dáil courts and police was seen to be patchy. This was in part due to standing down the Royal Irish Constabulary(RIC) in early 1922 before a new police force was ready to operate; in the interim the Irish Republican Army(IRA), dividing within itself over the Treaty, was the only police force.
The main function of the Dáil courts was in resolving land disputes and no case was ever heard concerning a murder, not even after the Truce. The cabinet met frequently, though necessarily in secret, and dealt with everyday matters as well as the conduct of the war. The Dáil sat for 21 days before the Truce of July 1921, and more frequently after that. [ [http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/en.toc.D.F.html First Dáil debates 1919–21.] ]
Support for the Republic, though it ebbed and flowed constantly during the war, was strongest in the south of the country. The claim to authority of the Irish Republic was rejected in Unionist-dominated
Northern Ireland, whose parliament first sat on 22 June 1921, south County Dublin and in other pockets in the country. Historians debate the extent to which the Republic was accepted by the ordinary citizens, and whether that acceptance where it existed was positive (the endorsement of its principles) or negative (revulsion at the behaviour of the Black and Tans, or from fear of the Irish Republican Army).
Efforts by President de Valera in the United States, and the republic's "ambassador" at the
Versailles Peace Conference, Seán T. O'Kelly, to win international recognition failed. O'Kelly had already established the Republic's "embassy" in Parisin April of 1919, and Dr. Patrick McCartanset one up in Washington, D.C.at the same time. Despite heavy lobbying from prominent Irish-Americans, President Woodrow Wilsonrefused to raise the Irish case at the conference. The only foreign recognition won for the Irish Republic occurred when the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic(RSFSR), under Vladimir Lenin, borrowed money from Michael Collins' Ministry of Finance and paid it back in the Russian Crown Jewelsthrough Harry Boland. Finally in June "Ireland's demand for recognition" was conveyed to the Conference members, without effect. [ [http://difp.ie/viewdoc.asp?DocID=13 Demand for recognition, Paris 1919] ]
The issue of recognition raises the question of how much the new Dáil, particularly de Valera, fully appreciated the developing relationship between the victorious powers following the war. Wilson had promised
self-determinationfor nations and international norms were changing. Article V. of Wilsons ' Fourteen Points' outlined in January 1918 did not, however, promise that all colonies would be decolonised on demand at the end of the war, but that a colonial population's claim for arbitration would have 'equal weight' with any claim by its government. In declaring independence unilaterally for the whole island, the new republic had denied 'equal weight' to the wishes of Britain or the Irish loyalists. Having misunderstood or misread this part of Wilson's formula, the Dáil still required his support against his main ally.
The main problem was that the Irish Republic's Declaration of Independence of January 1919 was hostile to Britain, which was one of the four main powers arranging terms at Versailles. The RSFSR was also not invited to Versailles. Although armistices were holding,
World War Iwas technically unfinished until the treaties ending it were signed, starting with Germany on 28 June 1919. The British view was that the 69 new Sinn Féinmembers of parliament had chosen not to take their seats at Westminster, to the relief of the Conservative Party, and that an Irish settlement would be arranged after the treaties with the former Central Powershad been signed off, involving Sinn Féin as the representatives of the majority, whether or not it had proclaimed a republic.
The Irish Republic was never recognised by the British government. Because its original contents were not seen as workable, the government under
David Lloyd Georgeabandoned plans to amend the Third Home Rule Actenacted in 1914. The British cabinet started in September 1919 to work from Walter Long's 1918 proposals, and in 1920 they enacted the Government of Ireland Act, 1920. This allowed for two home ruleIrelands, partitioning Ireland into Northern Irelandand Southern Ireland. Each Ireland was to have a two bicameralparliaments, with a shared chief executive, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and a Council of Irelandwhich was intended to be an embryonic all-Ireland single parliament. The proposal was greeted with mild enthusiasm among Irish Unionists in the new Northern Ireland, who had never sought their own home rule, but was rejected by a combination of Irish Republicans, Irish Nationalists and Irish Unionists who were not in Northern Ireland. While rejecting the right of the British parliament to legislate for Ireland, Sinn Féintook the opportunity of the two general elections in May 1921, one in the north and one in the south, to seek a renewed mandate for the Republic. No contests resulted in the south, with all seats returning the nominated Sinn Féin candidate. The new parliament in Belfast first sat on 7 June 1921, and while it did not formally recognise the Republic its premier, Sir James Craig, had secretly met with Éamon de Valera in Dublin in May 1921. This was a de facto recognition of de Valera's position, but also recognition by de Valera that Craig could not be ignored.
The Truce signed between representatives of the Dáil and Britain was agreed on 9 July 1921, to become effective from noon on 11 July. [Eamon de Valera and David Lloyd George [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/E900003-007/text001.html "Official Correspondence relating to the Peace Negotiations."PART 1. Preliminary Correspondence. 24 June—9 July 1921"] ] This marked the end of the Irish War of Independence. On 14 July 1921 Éamon de Valera met David Lloyd George in London for the first time to find some common ground for a settlement. He had been invited as: "the chosen leader of the great majority in Southern Ireland", but tried to extend this to a British recognition of the republic. [ [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/E900003-007/index.html Preliminary negotiations 1921 online] ] In August, in preparation for the formalities, de Valera had the Dáil upgrade his status from prime minister to full President of the Republic. As a head of state he then accredited "envoys plenipotentiary", an accreditation approved by the Dáil. This accreditation gave them the legal ability to sign a treaty without waiting for approval from the Republic's cabinet, some of whose members were among the envoys.
By September the British called for a conference with the envoys 'to ascertain how the association of Ireland with the community of nations known as the British Empire can best be reconciled with Irish national aspirations'. De Valera replied on 12 September 'Our nation has formally declared its independence and recognises itself as a sovereign State.' The same invitation was repeated and negotiations started on 11 October.
Each side in the 1921 negotiations used sufficiently elastic language to enable the Republic's delegates to suggest that was taking place was inter-state negotiations, while allowing the British Government to suggest that it was an internal
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandmatter. The Anglo-Irish Treaty, when signed on 6 December, was similarly put through three processes to satisfy both sides. It was:
* passed by Dáil Éireann, to satisfy the belief in the Republic's supporters that it was a state and its parliament was sovereign;
* passed by the United Kingdom, to satisfy British constitutional theory that a treaty had been negotiated between His Majesty's Government and His Majesty's subjects in Ireland;
* passed by the
House of Commons of Southern Ireland, to reflect the belief in British constitutional law that Ireland already possessed a home rule parliament. (In reality the House of Commons had the same membership (bar four) as the Dáil, though anti-Treaty members of the House stayed away.
Finally, the two structures of government (the British government's administration in Dublin Castle) and the Republic's began a process of convergence, to cover the year until the coming into force of the new
Irish Free State.
By approving the
Anglo-Irish Treatyon 7 January 1922 and the Constitution of the Irish Free Statein October 1922 the Dáil agreed to the replacement of the Republic with the system of constitutional monarchy of the Irish Free State.
In 1922, the Provisional Government came into being but the Irish Republic was not dismantled, rather its institutions continued to operate in parallel with those of the provisional authority. Michael Collins was designated as
Chairman of the Provisional Government, in theory answerable to the House of Commons of Southern Irelandand appointed by the Lord Lieutenant[Collins met Lord Fitzalan in Dublin Castle. In Irish constitutional theory it was to accept the "surrender" of Dublin Castle. In British constitutional theory it was for Collins to " Kiss Hands" ( i.e., be formally appointed) and take over the British departments in the Castle.] In contrast the Republic's Aireacht continued with Arthur Griffith as President of the Republic following de Valera's resignation. [Griffith chose to call himself "President of Dáil Éireann" but he was officially de Valera's successor as "President of the Republic".] However the two administrations were progressively merged until in August, following the deaths of both Griffith and Collins, W. T. Cosgraveassumed both leadership positions simultaneously and so the two most important offices effectively became one, producing a unique constitutional hybrid; a crown-appointed prime minister "and" a president of a republic. Both parliaments, the Second Dáil and the House of Commons, were replaced by a joint parliament known variously as the Third Dáilor the "Provisional Parliament", elected on 16 June 1922. As a constituent assemblythis enacted a new constitution with the passage of the Irish Free State Constitution Act.
On 6 December 1922, the Constitution of the Irish Free State came into effect and the institutions of both the Irish Republic and the Provisional Government ceased to be.
The goal of those who established the Irish Republic was to create a "de facto" independent republic comprising the whole island of Ireland. They failed in this goal, but the Irish Republic paved the way for the creation of the Irish Free State, a Commonwealth
dominionwith self-government, and a territory that extended to the 26 counties originally foreseen in the 1914 Home Rule Act. By 1949 the Free State became a fully independent republic, the ' Republic of Ireland'.
The Irish Republic in the post-Treaty Republican tradition
Since the Civil War of 1922–1923 the Irish Republic has been an important symbol for radical republicans. The Civil War began in June 1922 when both Sinn Féin and the IRA split between those pragmatists, who supported the Treaty, and those hardline republicans who opposed the compromises it contained. In particular the anti-Treaty faction objected to the continued role in the Irish constitution that would be granted to the British monarch under the Irish Free State. When the Dáil ratified the Treaty its opponents of the agreement walked out, arguing that the Dáil was attempting to 'destroy' the Irish Republic, and that its members had no right to do so. After the Irish electorate voted in a majority of pro-Treaty candidates to the Dáil, Éamon de Valera declared that "the people have no right to do wrong."
Opponents of the Treaty refused to recognise either the Provisional Government or, when it was established, the Irish Free State, insisting that the Irish Republic continued to exist as a "de jure" entity. Their line of authority included some TDs but also the Army Executive of the IRA which decided in early 1922 that it, and no longer the Dáil, was the only body loyal to the republic. In August 1920 it had sworn allegiance to both the Dáil and the republic, and felt that the Dáil had broken its oath when it voted to approve the Treaty. Arguments about abandoning the republic had, however, been very fully discussed during the Treaty Debates.
The anti-treaty faction also refused to recognise the Third Dáil, as the Second Dáil had not met to dissolve itself formally (though the "declaration of election" on 19 May, which gave dates for nominations and the election, was not opposed at the time [ [http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/D/DT/D.S.192205190004.html Declaration of election 19 May 1922] ] ). Anti-Treaty Republicans considered the Third Dáil, and all future institutions arising from it, as illegal. (See
The anti-Treaty side was then defeated in the Civil War. Most militant opposition to the Free State came to an end on 24 May 1923 when
Frank Aiken, chief-of-staff of the IRA issued the order to "dump arms" and Éamon de Valera issued his address to the "Legion of the Rearguard". Éamon de Valera continued as president of the Sinn Féinpolitical party. In March 1926, Éamon de Valera, along with most anti-Treaty politicians, founded a new party called ' Fianna Fáil' and ended their boycott of the institutions of the Free State.
Nonetheless a small hard-line minority continued to reject the legitimacy of the Free State and its successor, the
Republic of Ireland. Most importantly, the Provisional Irish Republican Army(PIRA), which conducted a campaign of bombings and shootings in Northern Ireland from the late 1960s until 1998, and its political wing, the modern Sinn Féin party, used to insist that the Irish Republic was still legally in existence, with the IRA as its national army, and the IRA Army CouncilIreland's sole legitimate government. This view are is still upheld by Republican Sinn Féinand the Continuity IRA. As of 2006, the Provisional IRA continue to use the title "Oglaigh na hÉireann" (lit. Volunteers of Ireland), the official Irish title for the Republic of Ireland's armed forces.
Latterly Gerry Adams, president of Sinn Féin, has recast the doctrine to state that there is no legitimate government in Ireland, but his party has both recognised the legal fact of partition by signing the
Good Friday Agreementand accepted the legitimacy of the government of the Republic of Ireland by openly speculating on taking up posts in a coalition government. However Sinn Féin still avoids giving linguistic legitimacy to either the Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland by refusing to use the name of either, referring still to the "twenty-six counties" and the "six counties", or "the state" and "the North".
Tim Pat Coogan, "Michael Collins" (Hutchinson, 1990) ISBN 0-09-174106-8
*Tim Pat Coogan, "Éamon de Valera" (Hutchinson, 1993) ISBN 0-09-175030-X
*R.F. Foster, "Modern Ireland 1600–1972"
*Joseph Lee, "The Modernisation of Irish Society"
F.S.L. Lyons, "Ireland Since the Famine"
*Lord Longford, "Peace by Ordeal"
Dorothy Macardle, "The Irish Republic"
*Earl of Middleton, "Ireland: Dupe or Heroine?"
*Arthur Mitchell & Pádraig Ó Snodaigh, "Irish Political Documents 1916–1949"
*John A. Murphy, "Ireland in the Twentieth Century"
History of Ireland (1801-1922)
History of the Republic of Ireland
Names of the Irish state
* [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/E900003-001/ Anglo-Irish Treaty Debates on-line]
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