Declaration of Independence (Ireland)

Declaration of Independence (Ireland)

) was a document adopted by Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, at its first meeting in the Mansion House, Dublin, on 21 January, 1919. It followed from the Sinn Féin election manifesto of December 1918. Texts of the declaration were adopted in three languages: Irish, English and French.


The Irish Republic was intended to encompass the whole island of Ireland. The declaration made no mention of the independence of the 32-county geographic island, just the independence of the 'Irish nation' or 'Irish people'. Despite efforts in Europe and the United States, the new state was recognised only by the Soviet Union. It was rivalled by the administration of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, but as the Anglo-Irish War went on it increased its legitimacy in the eyes of Irish people. It was superseded by the Irish Free State in 1922, after the Anglo-Irish Treaty.

Ratification of 1916

By the Declaration of Independence the Dáil claimed to "ratify" the earlier Easter Proclamation of 1916. This proclamation had not been adopted by an elected body but merely by the Easter rebels claiming to act in the name of the Irish people. Unlike the proclamation, the Declaration of Independence was followed by the establishment of some "de facto" political organs. In its crucial line the declaration pronounced that:

English Garrison

Differing meanings were given to the occupying 'English garrison'. This was the closest that the Irish Republic came to declaring war on Britain in January 1919, arguing that an invasion had taken place and therefore any military action from then on was to remove the invaders. The government in London refused to take this as a declaration of war, considering that it was worded for an Irish audience. When the Irish War of Independence started with some haphazard shootings on the same day at Soloheadbeg, Co. Tipperary, it was treated by London as a police matter. The Dáil had no claim to control the volunteers (IRA) beyond sharing the aim of Irish sovereignty until they had sworn an oath of allegiance to it in August 1920. [C. Younger, Ireland's Civil War (London 1968) p103]

700 Years

This was based on the 'apostolic succession' of revolts against the Dublin administrations, placing the pure Irish in the Gaelic world of about the 1160s. The declaration portrayed the wars and revolts of 1594–1603, 1641–50, 1689–91, 1798, 1848, 1867 and 1916 as a continuing attempt at gaining Irish self-government, with or without links to the crown.

International recognition

An important element in the 1918 Sinn Féin election manifesto was to secure recognition at the forthcoming peace conference that would end the First World War. President Wilson of the USA had suggested that the Versailles Conference would be inclusive and even-handed, but his European allies were not so welcoming and the Irish Republic was not invited to attend. Referring proudly to the 1916 Easter Rising (see above) did not help. It was only recognised by communist Russia, then a 'pariah' state which was also not invited to Versailles.


External links

*Two further official texts from Wikisource:
** ga icon
** fr icon

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Declaration of independence — Unilateral declaration of independence redirects here. For the specific Rhodesian document, see Unilateral Declaration of Independence. This article is about the type of document. For the first document to be generally called such, see United… …   Wikipedia

  • Declaration of Independence (Israel) — Infobox document document name=Declaration of Independence|location of document= Tel Aviv writer=First Draft: Zvi Berenson Second Draft: Moshe Shertok David Remez Felix Rosenblueth Moshe Shapira Aharon Zisling Third Draft: David Ben Gurion Yehuda …   Wikipedia

  • Israeli Declaration of Independence — Declaration of Independence Location Tel Aviv Authors …   Wikipedia

  • Irish Declaration of Independence — The Declaration of Independence (Irish: Forógra na Saoirse, French: Déclaration d Indépendance) was a document adopted by Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament of the Irish Republic, at its first meeting in the Mansion House, Dublin, on 21… …   Wikipedia

  • International reaction to the 2008 declaration of independence by Kosovo — Kosovo s declaration of independence from Serbia was enacted on 17 February 2008 by a unanimous quorum fact of the Kosovar Parliament, with 109 in favour and 0 in opposition, but all 11 representatives of the Serb minority boycotted the… …   Wikipedia

  • Serbia's reaction to the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence — On 12 February 2008, the Government of Serbia instituted an Action Plan to combat Kosovo s anticipated independence, which stipulated, among other things, recalling the Serbian ambassadors for consultations in protest from any state recognising… …   Wikipedia

  • Ireland — • Ireland lies in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain . . . Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Ireland     Ireland     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen — Not to be confused with Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1793. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was approved by the National Constituent Assembly of France, 26 August 1789. The Declaration of the Rights of… …   Wikipedia

  • Ireland — Irelander, n. /uyeur leuhnd/, n. 1. John, 1838 1918, U.S. Roman Catholic clergyman and social reformer, born in Ireland: archbishop of St. Paul, Minn., 1888 1918. 2. Also called Emerald Isle. Latin, Hibernia. a large western island of the British …   Universalium

  • Independence/Democracy — Infobox European Parliament group name = Independence/Democracy title = Independence/Democracy imagecaption = I/D logo from=20 July 2004 to=present englishabbr = IND/DEM frenchabbr = IND/DEM formalname = Independence/Democracy Group in the… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”