Ian Thorpe

Ian Thorpe

Infobox Swimmer
swimmername = Ian Thorpe

imagesize = 190px
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fullname = Ian James Thorpe
nicknames = Thorpedo; Thorpey
nationality = AUS
strokes =
club =
collegeteam =
birthdate = birth date and age|df=yes|1982|10|13
birthplace = Sydney, New South Wales
deathdate =
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height =
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Ian James Thorpe OAM (born 13 October 1982 in Sydney, New South Wales), also known as the "Thorpedo" or "Thorpey", is a former Australian freestyle swimmer. He has won five Olympic gold medals, the most won by any Australian, and in 2001 he became the first person to win six gold medals in one World Championship. [Hunter (2004), pp. 274–275.] In total, Thorpe has won eleven World Championship golds, the second-highest number of any swimmer.cite web | url = http://www.grandslamint.com/PlayerProfile/PlayerProfile.aspx?p=3&id=7 | title = Ian Thorpe | publisher = Grand Slam International | accessdate = 2006-11-14] Thorpe was the first person to have been named World Swimmer of the Year four times by "Swimming World Magazine",Hunter (2004), p. viii.] [cite news | title=Swimming World's - World Swimmers of the Year| date= 2005 |accessdate = 2006-11-14 | publisher=Swimming World Magazine | url=http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/SwimmersOfTheYear.asp] and was the Australian swimmer of the year from 1999 to 2003. His athletic achievements made him one of Australia's most popular athletes, with his philanthropy and clean image earning him further recognition as the Young Australian of the Year in 2000.

At the age of 14, he became the youngest male ever to represent Australia, [Hunter (2004), p. 75.] and his victory in the 400 metre freestyle at the 1998 Perth World Championships made him the youngest ever individual male World Champion.cite book | last= Andrews | first= Malcolm| title = Australia at the Olympics |publisher=Australian Broadcasting Corporation| location = Sydney|year=2000|pages=pp. 434–436, 487|isbn=0-7333-0884-8 ] After that victory, Thorpe dominated the 400 m freestyle, winning the event at every Olympic, World, Commonwealth and Pan Pacific Swimming Championships until his break after the 2004 Olympics.cite news| url = http://www.abc.net.au/sport/columns/200611/s1793724.htm?swimming | title = Ian Thorpe - Career at a glance| publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation | date = 2006-11-21| accessdate = 2006-11-22] Aside from 13 individual long-course world records, Thorpe anchored the Australian relay teams, numbering the victories in the 4 × 100 m and the 4 × 200 m freestyle relays in Sydney, among his five relay world records. His wins in the 200 m and 400 m and his bronze in the 100 m freestyle in Athens have made him the only male to have won medals in the 100–200–400 combination.

After the Athens Olympics, Thorpe took a year away from swimming, scheduling a return for the 2006 Commonwealth Games. However, he was forced to withdraw due to illness. Subsequent training camps were interrupted, and he announced his retirement in November 2006, citing waning motivation.cite news |first = |last = |title = Thorpe announces retirement |url = http://www.abc.net.au/sport/content/200611/s1793622.htm |publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation |date = 2006-10-21 |accessdate = 2006-11-21]

Early years

Thorpe was a large baby, weighing 4.1 kg (9.02 lb) and measuring 0.59 m (1 ft 11 in) in length at birth. He grew up in a family with a sporting pedigree in the suburb of Milperra.cite news |title = Did you know?|url =http://www.smh.com.au/news/sport/did-you-know/2006/11/21/1163871405651.html |publisher = The Sydney Morning Herald |date = 2006-11-22 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ] Thorpe's father, Ken, was a promising cricketer at junior level, representing Bankstown cricket club in Sydney's grade competition.cite news |first=Michael|last=Cowley|title = A career that sets the gold standard|url = http://www.smh.com.au/news/sport/a-career-that-sets-the-gold-standard/2006/11/21/1163871405639.html |publisher = The Sydney Morning Herald |date = 2006-11-22 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ] A talented batsman, he once topped the season's batting averages ahead of former Australian captain Bob Simpson. However, paternal pressure detracted from Ken's enjoyment, and he retired aged 26. Thorpe's mother Margaret played A-grade netball,cite news |first=Michael|last=Cowley|title = A career that sets the gold standard|url = http://www.smh.com.au/news/sport/did-you-know/2006/11/21/1163871405651.html |publisher = The Sydney Morning Herald |date = 2006-11-22 |accessdate = 2006-11-22] Hunter (2004), pp. 1–6.] but Thorpe did not seem to inherit his parents' ball skills. His elder sister, Christina, had been given medical advice that swimming would strengthen a broken wrist, so by chance, the five-year-old Thorpe followed her in taking swimming lessons. [Hunter (2004), p. 102.] Due to his unhappy experiences, Ken Thorpe maintained that enjoyment was the most important aspect of his children's participation in sport.

As a young child, Thorpe was sidelined due to a chlorine allergy. Because of this, he did not swim in his first race until age seven (at a school carnival). His allergy forced him to swim with his head out of the water; despite this ungainly technique, he won the race, primarily because of his significant size advantage. [Hunter (2004), pp. 19–22.] Thorpe gradually overcame the allergy and progressed to the captaincy of New South Wales for the Australian Primary Schools titles in 1994. He subsequently won nine individual gold medals at the State Age Short Course Championships in September of that year. [Hunter (2004), ppp. 36–39.] In 1995 he started his secondary education at East Hills Boys Technology High School, switching coaches to swim alongside his sister under the tutelage of Doug Frost. It was a busy year for his family, with Christina being selected for the national team to compete at the 1995 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships in Atlanta. Ian, now six feet tall, competed at his first National Age Championships, winning bronze medals in the 200 m and 400 m freestyle. He won all ten events at the annual State Age Championships. [Talbot (2003), pp. 302, 224–225.] [Hunter (2004), pp. 46–49.]

National debut

Thorpe competed at the 1996 National Age Championships in Brisbane, winning five gold, two silver and two bronze medals. His times in the 400 m freestyle and 200 m backstroke qualified him for the Australian Championships, which were selection events for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Frost knew that Thorpe had no realistic chance of finishing among the top two in any event, which would have meant Olympic selection at an age of only 13 years and 6 months. He sent him to Sydney anyway to gain racing experience at the senior national level. As expected, Thorpe missed selection, as he finished 23rd in the 400 m freestyle and 36th in the 200 m backstroke.Hunter (2004), pp. 65–70.] At the end of the year, he qualified for the Australian Short Course Championships. It was another chance for Thorpe to gain national selection, as they were the trials for the 1997 FINA Short Course World Championships. He qualified in second place for his first national final in the 400 m individual medley, but swam more slowly in the final to miss selection.

1997 began at the State Championships in January, where his time of 3 min 59.43 s in the 400 m took eight seconds off his personal best, and made him the first 14-year-old in Australia to cover the distance in less than four minutes. Ranked fourth in Australia for the event,Hunter (2004), pp. 72–73.] Thorpe went into the 1997 Australian Championships in Adelaide as a serious contender for national selection for the 1997 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships in Fukuoka, Japan. With a top-three finish and a specific qualifying time required, Thorpe focused on the 400 m freestyle after injuries to the 400 m freestyle Olympic medallists Kieren Perkins and Daniel Kowalski. Thorpe went on to win bronze behind 16-year-old Queenslander Grant Hackett, setting a new personal best of 3 min 53.44 s. It was a new world age record and the first of many battles with Hackett.

Aged 14 years and 5 months, Thorpe became the youngest male ever to be selected for the Australian team, surpassing John Konrads' record by one month.cite news | title=Ian Thorpe: On course to sink Athens opposition | date= 2004 |accessdate = 2006-11-14 | publisher=ABC | url=http://abc.net.au/olympics/2004/profiles/ianthorpe.htm] Frost cited Thorpe's selection as a cause for his eventual focus on freestyle. Thorpe continued his good form at the National Age Championships when he contested all twelve events, winning ten individual gold and two bronze medals, and setting six national records in the process.Hunter (2004), pp. 73–76.]

Early International career

International debut

In June, two months before the 1997 Pan Pacific Championships, Thorpe required an appendix operation, causing him to miss two weeks of training. [Hunter (2004), p. 82.] Thorpe came fourth in his heat of the 200 m freestyle after achieving a personal best of 1 min 51.46 s. Despite not qualifying for the final, he earned selection for the 4 × 200 m freestyle relay team. There he and his team of Michael Klim, Ian van der Wal and Hackett claimed silver, making him the youngest ever Pan Pacific medalist. In his first individual final at international level, Thorpe came from fifth at the 300 m mark to claim silver in the 400 m freestyle behind Hackett in a time of 3 min 49.64 s. Andrews (2000), pp. 191–192.] His finishing burst was to become a trademark, and his time would have given him silver at the Atlanta Olympics. [Hunter (2004), p. 75.] In October 1997, a few days before his fifteenth birthday, Thorpe competed in qualifying trials in Brisbane for the 1998 World Aquatics Championships. Thorpe gained selection for the Championships in Perth in January by finishing fourth and second respectively in the 200 m and 400 m freestyle, setting new personal best times in both events. [Hunter (2004), pp. 91–92.]

1998 World Aquatics Championships

Thorpe's first international appearance in his home country, at the 1998 World Championships in Perth, began with the 4 × 200 m freestyle relay. Swimming the third leg after Klim and Hackett, Thorpe broke away from 200 m butterfly Olympic champion Tom Malchow to set a split time of 1 min 47.67 s, the same as Klim's winning time in the 200 m final. By the end of Thorpe's leg, the Australians were two seconds ahead of the world record pace, and three seconds ahead of the Americans, having extended the lead by two body lengths. Although anchorman Kowalski finished outside the world record, it was the first time that Australia had won the event at the global level since 1956. Thorpe was ranked fourth in the world before the 400 m final, which Hackett led from the outset. Hackett established a comfortable 2.29 s lead over Thorpe by the 300 m mark, and although Thorpe reduced the margin to 1.53 s at the 350 m mark, Hackett lead until Thorpe passed him on the final stroke. Thorpe's time was the fourth fastest in history and made him the youngest ever male individual world champion. [Hunter (2004), pp. 96–102.]

As a result of the media attention generated by his win on home soil, Thorpe received multiple offers for television commercials and was often surrounded by autograph hunters. He became a high-profile supporter of the Children's Cancer Institute, after his sister Christina's future brother-in-law Michael Williams became gravely ill with cancer. [Hunter (2004), pp. 95–102.]

1998 Commonwealth Games

Thorpe's next competition was in March at the Australian Championships in Melbourne, which were selection trials for the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Malaysia. Thorpe's improvement continued when he defeated Klim in the 200 m freestyle in 1 min 47.24 s, faster than Klim's winning time at the World Championship two months earlier. Thorpe's time was a Commonwealth record and with it, he secured his first national title. He then claimed the 400 m freestyle title from Hackett and clocked 50.36 s in the 100 m freestyle. His time earned silver in his first 100 m race at the national level, gaining him Commonwealth selection in three individual events. [Hunter (2004), pp. 110–113.]

Thorpe's rise continued when the Australians arrived in Kuala Lumpur during September for the Commonwealth Games. Thorpe's first event was the 200 m freestyle, where he led throughout to record a time just one hundredth of a second outside Giorgio Lamberti's world record. He then combined with Klim, Kowalski and Matt Dunn in the 4 × 200 m freestyle relay to break the world record of the Unified Team set in 1992 by 0.09 s. [cite news |first = |title = 1998 Commonwealth Games |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/636.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 1998-09-25 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] Thorpe's run ended when a personal best of 50.21 s in the 100 m freestyle was only sufficient for fourth place, but he returned to victory with the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay team. He claimed a fourth gold in the 400 m freestyle, setting another personal best, just 0.55 s slower than Kieren Perkins' 1994 mark. [cite news |first = |title = 1998 Commonwealth Games: Day 4 |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/637.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 1998-09-26 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] [Hunter (2004), pp. 121–123.]

Thorpe left school at the end of year after completing Year 10. His decision caused concerns that concentrating on swimming alone could lead to burn out. Thorpe disagreed, pointing to his informal search for knowledge, stating that "Swimming is a small part of my life". His impact in the swimming community was acknowledged when he became the youngest male swimmer to be named by "Swimming World Magazine" as the World Swimmer of the Year.Hunter (2004), pp. 130–133.]

World record breaking phase

1999 began with heavy media expectations that Thorpe would inevitably break both 200 m and 400 m world records, given his continuing physical growth. The first opportunity came in late March at the 1999 Australian Championships in Brisbane, which doubled as a selection event for the 1999 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships. Thorpe again won the 400 m, but Perkins' record eluded him, this time by just 0.05 s. Hackett turned the tables in the 200 m event, passing Thorpe in the final 50 m to win Thorpe's title. Although both were outside Lamberti's mark, Hackett went on to break it the following night in a relay event. [cite news |first = |title = Hackett Breaks 200 m Freestyle World Record |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/817.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 1999-03-24 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] Thorpe finished the Championships by continuing his improvement in the 100 m freestyle, posting a time of 49.98 s, his first under the 50 s barrier. The Australian team then travelled to Hong Kong for the 1999 FINA Short Course World Championships, where Thorpe broke Lamberti's mark in the 200 m freestyle, the longest standing world record at the time. [Hunter (2004), pp. 137–139.] This was the start of a three year phase where Thorpe was to set his 13 individual long course world records. He led the men's relay team to unprecedented success in relay events, scoring historic victories over the Americans. Thorpe was to peak in 2001 when he became the first person to win six gold medals at one world championships, setting three world records and helping Australia top the medal tally at a global meet for the first time since 1956. In this period, he was named by "Swimming World" as its "Swimmer of the Year" three times.

1999 Pan Pacific Championships

The 1999 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships were held in August at Sydney Olympic Park, and were viewed as a rehearsal for the 2000 Summer Olympics to be held in the same venue. With Thorpe expected to deliver world records at his first international meet in Sydney, the event was shown live on Australian television for the first time. The opening night saw him pitted against Hackett and South Africa's Ryk Neethling in the 400 m freestyle final. The trio reached the 200 m mark in a group, on world record pace, before Thorpe broke away, recording a split time 1.86 s ahead of world-record pace at 300 m. He extended his lead to four body lengths by the 350 m mark and finished in a time of 3 min 41.83 s, cutting almost two seconds from the world record, and covering the second half in almost the same time as the first.cite news |first = Stephen J.|last= Thomas|title = 1999 Pan Pacific Championships: Day 1 |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/981.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 1999-08-22 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] Talbot reacted to the performance by dubbing Thorpe as "the greatest swimmer we've [Australia] ever had", whilst four-time American Olympic gold medalist Rowdy Gaines, commentating for NBC, said "..he went into a balls-out sprint at 250 - and I have never seen anything like that...I have been around swimming a long time and it's the most amazing swim I've ever seen, hands down." A formula used by the International Swimming Statisticians Association to compare world records in different events gave his performance the highest score of all current world records. Thorpe promptly donated the A$25,000 prizemoney for breaking the first world record in the pool to charity. Later the same night, Thorpe anchored the Australians to a historic victory in the 4 × 100 m freestyle final, the first time the United States had lost the event. Thorpe set an Australian record relay split of 48.55 s. Even taking into account a 0.6–0.7 s for a flying relay start, his split time was almost 1 s faster than his individual best of 49.98 s. It was to be the first of many occasions in which he would anchor the Australian relay teams to victory over the Americans, with splits consistently faster than his equivalent individual times. The following night, in the semi-finals of the 200 m freestyle, Thorpe broke Hackett's world record by 0.33 s, clocking 1 min 46.34 s. [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last= Thomas|title = 1999 Pan Pacific Championships: Day 2 |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/984.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 1999-08-23 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] The next day in the final, he again broke the record, lowering it to 1 min 46.0 s. [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last= Thomas|title = 1999 Pan Pacific Championships: Day 3 |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/985.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 1999-08-24 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] He finished his competition by leading off the 4 × 200 m freestyle team with Klim, Hackett and Bill Kirby to victory. Their time lowered their own world record by more than three seconds, completing Thorpe's fourth world record in four nights. [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last= Thomas|title = 1999 Pan Pacific Championships: Day 4 |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/989.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 1999-08-25 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] [Hunter (2004), pp. 147–157.]

Immediately after the Pan Pacific Championships, Thorpe's management announced his signing to Adidas for an undisclosed six-figure sum, stating that he would race in their new bodysuit. This presented a dilemma, as the national team was sponsored and wore outfits designed by Speedo, leading to months of protracted discussions and uncertainty. [Hunter (2004), pp. 162–166.] To compound his commercial difficulties, Thorpe had an uncertain end to the sporting year when, in October, he broke a bone in his ankle whilst jogging. [cite news |title = Thorpedo Torpedoed |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1043.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 1999-10-21 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] However his performance throughout the year were recognised when he was again named as the World Swimmer of the Year by "Swimming World", and by Swimming Australia as its Swimmer of the Year. In a wider arena, he was named Young Australian of the Year, ABC Sports Star of the Year, and Male Athlete of the Year at the Australian Sports Awards. [Hunter (2004), pp. 170–173.] [cite news |title = Thorpe, Heyns Named 1999 World Swimmers of the Year |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1101.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 1999-12-07 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ]

2000 Olympic build-up

Thorpe started 2000 looking to add a third individual event to his Olympic schedule . He explored his options by contesting the 1500 m freestyle at the New South Wales Championships in January, which he won. Thorpe embarked on a European FINA World Cup tour in order to hone his racecraft, but this was overshadowed by comments made by German head coach Manfred Thiesmann accusing him of using steroids. Talbot (2003), p. 156.] Thorpe's difficulties heightened at the subsequent German leg of the tour in Berlin, when a standoff over a drug-test arose when officials wanted to take an unsealed sample due to lack of containers. After the standoff was resolved, [cite news |title = Thorpe's Stand Vindicated|url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1235.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-02-03 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] Thorpe proceeded to cut more than 1.5 s from his world short course record in the 200 m freestyle. [cite news |title = 2000 FINA World Cup IX: World Record For Krayzelburg |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1203.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-03-01 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] Given the context of the race, Thorpe rated it as his best-ever performance, ahead of his victories at Olympic and World level. [cite news |first=Michael|last=Cowley|title = Only now does he realise just how good he was|url =http://www.smh.com.au/news/sport/only-now-does-he-realise-just-how-good-he-was/2006/11/21/1163871405610.html
publisher = The Sydney Morning Herald |date = 2006-11-22 |accessdate = 2006-11-22
] On returning from Europe, Thorpe faced further uncertainty until he was granted permission to wear his Adidas suit instead of the Australian uniforms provided by Speedo. [Hunter (2004), pp. 175–191.]

With the past uncertainties resolved, Thorpe proceeded to the Olympic selection trials at Sydney Olympic Park in May 2000. He again broke his 400 m world record on the first night of racing, lowering it to 3 min 41.33 s to earn his first Olympic selection. [cite news |first=Stephen J.|last= Thomas|title = Aussie Trials Day One: The Thorpedo Strikes Again |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1455.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-05-13 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] The following day, he lowered his 200 m world record in the semi-finals to 1 min 45.69 s, [cite news |first=Stephen J.|last= Thomas|title = Aussie Trials Day 2: Thorpe lowers the 200 free world record, Huelgill breaks the 50 fly mark |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1456.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-05-14 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] before lowering it again to 1 min 45.51 s in the final. [cite news |first=Stephen J.|last= Thomas|title = Thorpe Does It Again--3 Days, 3 World Records |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1457.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-05-15 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] His attempt to secure a third individual berth failed after he finished fourth in the final of the 100 m and withdrew from the 1500 m. [cite news |first=Stephen J.|last= Thomas|title = Aussie Trials Day 5: Susie O'Neill Finally Breaks Mary T's 200 Fly Record |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1461.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-05-15 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] [ Hunter (2004), pp. 192–195.]

2000 Summer Olympics

Entering the Olympics, the Australian public expected Thorpe to deliver multiple world records and gold medals as a formality; Sydney's "Daily Telegraph" posted a front-page spread headlined "Invincible". Thorpe cruised through the heats of the 400 m on the first morning of competition, posting a new Olympic record and shortening bookmakers' odds to 50–1. [cite news |first=Phillip|last= Whitten|title =Olympic Day 1 Prelims - Complete |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1781.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-09-16 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] By the time the final was held that night, the pressure had intensified — the host nation had yet to win its first gold medal. Thorpe led throughout, and although Italy's Massimiliano Rosolino was within a body length at the 300 m mark, Thorpe's finishing kick extended the final margin to three body lengths. This set a new world record of 3 min 40.59 s.cite news |first=Phillip|last= Whitten|title = Olympics - Day 1 Finals (Complete) |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1784.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-09-16 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] Secret tests carried out by the Italian Olympic Committee prior to the Olympics later showed that Rosolino had abnormal levels of human growth hormone. [cite book | last= Mullen | first= P.H.| title=Gold in the Water: the true story of ordinary men and their extraordinary dream of Olympic glory | pages=326|location=New York | publisher=Thomas Dunne Books|year=2001|isbn=0-312-31116-8 p319] Rosolino aside, Thorpe had left bronze medallist Klete Keller fifteen metres in arrears. [Hunter (2004), pp. 210–217.]

Thorpe lined up later in the night alongside Klim, Chris Fydler and Ashley Callus to anchor the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay, an event which the Americans had never lost at Olympic level. The third leg ended with Australia only an arm's length ahead of the United States. Thorpe timed his dive much better than Gary Hall Jr., and surfaced a body length ahead. Hall's sprinting ability allowed him to open a lead by the final turn, but Thorpe's finishing kick overhauled him in the final metres, sparking wild celebrations amongst the partisan crowd. It evoked an uncharacteristic celebration from Thorpe, who immediately jumped out of the pool, screaming and hugging his ecstatic teammates. He even went as far as playing air guitar to mock Hall's pre-race claim that the Americans would "smash" the Australians "like guitars". [Hunter (2004), pp. 218–225.] [Talbot (2003), pp. 194–195.]

When Thorpe broke the 200 m freestyle Olympic record in the heats the following morning, [cite news |first=Phillip|last= Whitten|title = Olympic Prelims: Day Two |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1789.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-09-17 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] his main rival Pieter van den Hoogenband of the Netherlands conceded defeat. However, Van den Hoogenband showed his hand in the semi-finals by cutting more than a second off his personal best, to set a new world record of 1 min 45.35 s. Thorpe qualified second and was under immense pressure to win the final the following day after his double gold on the first night. [cite news |first=Phillip|last= Whitten|title = Olympic Day 2 Finals |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1792.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-09-17 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] Van den Hoogenband started quickly and Thorpe chased him, reaching the 100 m mark just 0.04 s behind. Both swimmers turned at 150 m in identical times. As a result of starting harder than usual, Thorpe faded as Van den Hoogenband drew away to claim gold and equal his world record, stunning the home crowd. Thorpe touched in 1 min 46.83 s, the first time that he had swum slower in the final than in the qualifying rounds. [cite news |first=Phillip|last= Whitten|title = Olympic Day 3 Finals - Complete |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1799.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-09-18 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] Thorpe returned to victory when he led off the 4 × 200 m freestyle relay the following night, setting up a 10 m lead over American Scott Goldblatt in the first leg. Although Thorpe was unable to reclaim the individual world record, he, Klim, Kirby and Todd Pearson lowered their world record to 7 min 07.05 s, over five seconds ahead of the Americans — the largest winning margin in an Olympic relay for half a century. [cite news |first=Phillip|last= Whitten|title = Olympic Day 4 Finals |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1804.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2000-09-19 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] [Talbot (2003), p. 196.] Thorpe rounded off his Olympics by swimming in the heats of the 4 × 100 m medley final, and collected a silver medal when the finals quartet finished behind the Americans. Thorpe's performances as Australia's leading medalist for the Games were recognised when the Australian Olympic Committee granted him the honour of carrying the flag at the closing ceremony. [cite web |url= http://www.olympics.com.au/index.cfm?p=22 |title= Games at a Glance|accessdate=2006-11-20 |publisher= Australian Olympic Committee] At year's end, he was again named by Swimming Australia as the Swimmer of the Year, but Van den Hoogenband usurped him as the leading male swimmer chosen by "Swimming World Magazine". [Hunter (2004), pp. 226–234.]

2001 World Aquatics Championships

With the 2001 Australian Championships held in Hobart in March, Thorpe added the 800 m freestyle to his repertoire, after FINA had added the event for the 2001 World Aquatics Championships. Thorpe began his campaign by successfully defending his 400 m title with a time just 0.17 s outside his world record. [cite news |title = Aussie World Champs Trials: Thorpe Just Misses Breaking Own 400 Free World Record |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/2354.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2001-03-26 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ] The following night in the 800 m event, he drew away from Hackett in the last 100 m to break Kieren Perkins' 1994 world record by over four seconds. [cite news |first=Ian|last= Hanson|title = Aussie Nationals: Ian Thorpe Destroys World Record in the 800; Hackett Also Under Old Mark |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/2364.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2001-03-26 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ] He earned his third title by cutting 0.66 s from Van den Hoogenband's 200 m world record to set a new mark of 1 min 44.69 s. [cite news |first=Belinda|last= Dennett|title = The Thorpedo Does It Again!! New World Record in the 200 m Free |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/2371.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2001-03-27 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ] This performance made him the third male after John Konrads and Tim Shaw to hold world records over three distances simultaneously. His subsequent victory in the 100 m freestyle in a new personal best of 49.05 s made him the first since Konrads in 1959 to hold all Australian freestyle titles from 100 m to 800 m. This indicated that he could swim faster at the subsequent World Championships in Fukuoka, where he was looking to regain the ascendancy from Van den Hoogenband. [Hunter (2004), pp. 253–257.] [cite news |first=Belinda|last= Dennett|title = Aussie Nationals: Thorpe Wins Fourth Gold |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/2380.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2001-03-29 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ]

Thorpe arrived in Fukuoka having been chosen by broadcaster TV Asahi as the marketing drawcard of the event. With the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay being held after the 400 m freestyle on the first night, Thorpe appeared to be conserving energy when he reached the 200 m mark two seconds outside his world record. Although he was 0.93 s behind at the final turn, a final 50 m burst in 24.36 s saw him cut a further 0.42 s from his world record. The relay saw him dive in fractionally ahead of American Jason Lezak after Klim, Callus and Pearson had completed the first three legs. Thorpe fell behind in the early half of the leg before kicking away in the closing stages, to seal gold with his fastest-ever relay split of 47.87 s. [cite news |first=Craig|last= Lord|title = Thorpe Sets WR, Wins Two Gold on First Day of Competition at World Champs |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/2724.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2001-07-22 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ] In the 800 m final, he shadowed Hackett for the first 750 m, staying within a body length. He then broke clear to win by a body length, lowering his world record by over two seconds. [cite news |first=Craig|last= Lord|title = Thorpe, Phelps Set World Records; Haley Cope Wins in an Upset |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/2732.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2001-07-24 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ] The 200 m freestyle rematch with Van den Hoogenband provided Thorpe with a chance to rectify his strategy from the Olympics; this time he allowed the Dutchman to lead through the first 100 m. Thorpe pulled even at the 150 m mark and then broke away towards the finishing wall two body lengths clear. He lowered his world record to 1 min 44.06 s in the process, prompting Van den Hoogenband to raise his arm aloft. [cite news |first=Craig|last= Lord|title = The Thorpedo Strikes Again--Another Awesome World Record |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/2736.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2001-07-25 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ] Thorpe's winning streak was interrupted in the 100 m freestyle when his personal best of 48.81 s placed him fourth, but he returned to form in the 4 × 200 m freestyle relay. Anchoring the team of Klim, Hackett and Kirby, the Australians lowered their world record time by more than two seconds, leaving the Italians more than six seconds in arrears. [cite news |first=Craig|last= Lord|title = Aussies Smash 800 Relay WR; USA Celebrates with Wins by Ervin, Peirsol, Bowen |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/2754.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2001-07-27 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ] Having overtaken Klim as Australia's leading 100 m freestyle swimmer, Thorpe was entrusted with anchoring the 4 × 100 m medley relay team. After Matt Welsh, Regan Harrison and Geoff Huegill had finished their legs, Thorpe's change left him half a body length behind the new 100 m world champion Anthony Ervin of the United States. The Americans were expected to win, and with his typically slow start, Thorpe turned a body length behind with 50 m remaining. With an American victory seeming inevitable, Thorpe managed to accelerate and deprive Ervin of the lead in the last 5 m. [cite news |title = FINALS Results: 28 July |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/2761.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2001-07-28 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ] This made Thorpe the only swimmer to have won six gold medals at a World Championships, and formed the basis for Australia's gold medal win over the United States 13–9. It was also the first time since the 1956 Summer Olympics that Australia had topped the medal tally at a global meet. [Hunter (2004), pp. 264–275.] Thorpe's achievements led to predictions that he could match Mark Spitz's seven gold medals at the 1972 Summer Olympics, which he played down. [cite news |title = Thorpe targets drug cheats|url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/tv_and_radio/1921956.stm |publisher = British Broadcasting Corporation |date = 2006-04-12 |accessdate = 2006-11-22]

2002 Commonwealth Games and Pan Pacific Championships

Thorpe began competition in 2002 at the Australian Championships in Brisbane in March, which were used to select the team for the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester and the 2002 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships. After his record six gold medals in Fukuoka, the meet was surrounded by further expectations of world records and speculation that he would match Spitz's seven gold medals. His winning time in the 400 m was the second fastest in history, but such was the expectation on him that his failure to break a world record was the talking point. He claimed the 100 m and 200 m events in times outside his best, making it the first time that he had failed to break a world record at a major meet since 1999.cite news |first = Phillip|last = Whitten|title = 2002 Year in Review |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/2002_year_in_review.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2006-12-30 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] He also experimented by adding the 100 m backstroke to his repertoire, placing second. This earned him a Commonwealth spot in a seventh event, leading to further media speculation that he could match Spitz. [Hunter (2004), pp. 289–292.] By this time, Thorpe's relationship with Frost was beginning to unravel. Thorpe had always insisted that his swimming was about enjoyment and improving himself in setting faster times, rather than victory or defeat. This contrasted with Frost, who had a more aggressive and combative mindset, often making bold public statements. Thorpe ignored Frost's advice and bulked up his upper body by a further 5 kg to 105 kg, making him the heaviest elite swimmer in history. His reasoning that the strength gains would outweigh any loss in flexibility raised concerns over his physiological strategy. [Talbot (2003), pp. 228–229.] On the first night in Manchester, Thorpe again lowered his 400 m mark by 0.09 s to 3 min 40.08 s, before anchoring the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay team to another gold.cite news |title = Thorpe's six of the best |url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport3/commonwealthgames2002/hi/swimming/newsid_2166000/2166261.stm | publisher = British Broadcasting Corporation |date = 2006-08-02 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] Prior to the 200 m final, Thorpe was seen arguing with Frost in the warm-up area. Thorpe won, but was unusually angry at having failed to lower his previous best, publicly stating that he "wasn't with it" and that he had "one of the worst warm-ups ever". Thorpe did manage to lower his personal best in the 100 m freestyle to 48.73 s en route to his fourth gold, and anchored the 4 × 200 m freestyle and 4 × 100 m medley relays to comfortable victories. When he collected a silver in his first international race in the 100 m backstroke with another personal best, he was forced to rebuff media comparisons to Spitz. He emphasized personal performance, stating "I think it's a limiting attitude to be competing against other people when you can be challenging yourself". Despite Thorpe's assertion that he could not match Spitz, Frost predicted that Thorpe could win nine golds at one Olympics.Hunter (2004), pp. 297–303.] In spite of the media disappointment, Thorpe's six gold medals equaled the record set by Susie O'Neill, completing all in Games or World record time. [cite news |first = |title = Lenton Staring at Historical Haul |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/10987.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2006-03-08 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] The Pan Pacific Championships followed in Yokohama less than a month later, with media speculation about Thorpe and Frost overshadowing the racing. Thorpe began his campaign with a victory over Hackett in the 400 m freestyle in a time five seconds outside his world record. Afterwards, he revealed that both swimmers had deliberately conserved energy for the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay later in the night. Australia subsequently won the relay, with Thorpe again overtaking Jason Lezak in the last 50 m. [cite news |first = |last = |title = Thorpe does just enough |url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/2214725.stm |publisher = British Broadcasting Corporation |date = 2006-08-24 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] He subsequently won the 200 m freestyle, and anchored the 4 × 200 m freestyle relay to victory to take his tally to four golds. [cite news |title = Thorpe on target|url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/2217302.stm |publisher = British Broadcasting Corporation |date = 2006-08-26 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] After qualifying second in the 100 m freestyle, Thorpe came from fourth at the 50 m mark win his fifth gold in a time of 48.84 s. [cite news |title = Thorpe bags fifth gold |url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/2221252.stm |publisher = British Broadcasting Corporation |date = 2006-08-26 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] Thorpe's run ended in the 4 × 100 m medley relay final, when despite setting the second fastest ever relay split of 47.20 s, Australia were defeated. [cite news |title = US sets new world best |url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/2223324.stm |publisher = British Broadcasting Corporation |date = 2006-08-29 |accessdate = 2006-11-21] [Hunter (2004), pp. 307–309.]

Menzies era

After the 2002 Pan Pacific Championships, Thorpe announced that he was splitting with Frost to train with one of his assistants, Tracey Menzies, who had no international experience. Admitting that tension existed between him and Frost, Thorpe asserted that the split was amicable. He cited waning motivation for the split, stating "I decided I either had to make the change or it was to walk away from the sport". [cite news |title = Thorpe splits with coach |url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/2253415.stm |publisher = BBC Sports |date=12 September 2002 |accessdate = 2006-11-08] The retired Talbot expressed concerns that Thorpe was making a decision whilst he was physically and emotionally drained, while other coaches felt that the new relationship would end up with making Thorpe, rather than Menzies, making the decisions. [Hunter (2004), pp. 311–313.] [Talbot (2003), pp. 232–233.] Despite a turbulent year, he was again named by "Swimming World" as its World Swimmer of the Year.

Along with the switch of coaches, Thorpe indicated that he would put more focus on improving his sprinting ability. He thus dropped the 800 m freestyle despite being the reigning world champion and record holder. During this period, his times in the 400 m and 200 m freestyle deteriorated, and both he and Menzies were criticised. The criticism continued to mount during their partnership, particularly during the build-up to the 2004 Olympics. Following his victory in the 200 and 400 events in Athens, Thorpe said that his results justified his decision, despite posting substantially faster times as a young swimmer under Frost. [Hunter (2004), pp. 389–398.]

2003 World Aquatics Championships

The first major test of Thorpe's partnership with Menzies came at the Australian Championships held in Sydney in March. Thorpe did not threaten any of his world records, completing the 400 m and 200 m freestyle more than two and one seconds respectively off his best. Despite defeating Hackett in both races to retain his titles, [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = Aussie Champs: Jones Lowers Breast Mark Again, Thorpe Unhappy With 8th Fastest 200 Free|url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/5172.asp|publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2003-03-24 |accessdate = 2006-11-20 ] he later admitted that he was "pretty disappointed" with his performances. When he tied with Ashley Callus in a time of 49.05 s, [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = Thorpe, Callus Tie in 100 m Free at Aussie Trials |url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/5182.asp| |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2003-03-25 |accessdate = 2006-11-20] he was criticised by the "The Sydney Morning Herald" which stated "The measure of Thorpe's sprinting ability is that he could only match the efforts of a virus-riddled Callus". Thorpe found some relief by setting a new Commonwealth record of 2 min 00.11 s in his first long course 200 m individual medley outing, the fifth fastest time in the past year. [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = Aussie Champs: Hackett Swims 7th Fastest 800; Thorpe Breaks Commonwealth Record in 200 IM |url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/5191.asp|publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2003-03-27 |accessdate = 2006-11-20] Thorpe attracted further criticism when he withdrew from the inaugural Duel in the Pool with a medical complaint, despite travelling overseas for commercial and charity work. [cite news |first = Tarrah Smith|last = Pollaro|title = Thorpe to skip Mutual of Omaha duel in the pool |url= http://olympic-usa.org/73_8183.htm|publisher = United States Olympic Committee |date =2003-03-28 |accessdate = 2006-11-20] [Hunter (2004), pp. 325–330.]

Thorpe arrived for the 2003 World Championships in Barcelona for his first major competition since Menzies' appointment under heavy media scrutiny following non-improvement at the Australian Championships. On the first night of competition Thorpe defeated Hackett in the 400 m freestyle in a time 2.5 s outside his world record,cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = World Champs, Day One Finals: Jenny Thompson Anchors US Women, Popov Anchors Russian Men to Gold in the 400 Free Relay |url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/5638.asp|publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2003-07-20 |accessdate = 2006-11-20] making him the first to win three world titles in the same event. After his relatively slow 400 m, he was again under pressure in the 200 m freestyle after Van den Hoogenband led at the 100 m mark ahead of world record pace. Thorpe managed to respond and retain his world title, [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = Phelps Sets World Record, Three Championship Marks Tumble |url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/5653.asp|publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2003-07-22 |accessdate = 2006-11-20] and gained some relief after his sprint training yielded his first medal in the 100 m freestyle at a global competition; he finished third in 48.77 s. [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = World Champs, Day 5 Finals: Two World Records and 3 Championship Records Set, Popov Upsets Hoogie to Highlight Day 5 |url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/5665.asp|publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2003-07-24 |accessdate = 2006-11-20 ] In all three freestyle events however, he had swum slower than his times under Frost. He ended his individual campaign on a promising note with his experiment with the 200 m individual medley, setting a new personal best of 1 min 59.66 s to claim silver. [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = Michael Does It Again, Destroys 200 IM Mark |url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/5669.asp|publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2003-07-24 |accessdate = 2006-11-20] Thorpe again anchored the 4 × 200 m freestyle team to retain the world title along with Hackett, Nicholas Sprenger and Craig Stevens, with a reduced margin over the Americans, who finished less than two seconds in arrears. [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = World Champs, Day 4 Finals: Phelps, Aussie 800 Free Relay Take Gold; Kitajima Lowers Championship Mark Again in 200 Breaststroke |url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/5660.asp|publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2003-07-24 |accessdate = 2006-11-20] Michael Klim's injuries left the relay teams weakened, with Thorpe anchoring the 4 × 100 m freestyle team to fourth, [Hunter (2004), pp. 337–342.] At the end of a difficult year in the water, his standing had fallen in the eyes of "Swimming World", who rated him fourth in the world. He was again named as Australian Swimmer of the Year, jointly with Hackett. [Hunter (2004), pp. 346–347.]

2004 Summer Olympics

After his feats at the 2003 World Championships, Speedo had generated significant media publicity by offering Michael Phelps US$1 million if he could match Spitz's seven golds. Thorpe was adamant that this was impossible, and scrapped his seventh event, the 200 m individual medley from his Olympic program. [Hunter (2004), pp. 349–350.] In late March 2004 at the Australian Championships in Sydney, Thorpe overbalanced whilst on the blocks in the heats of the 400 m freestyle and fell into the water, resulting in his disqualification and ending the defense of his Olympic 400 m title. This resulted in a large debate among the swimming and public community as to whether Thorpe should be given an exception to Australia's policy of selecting the first and second place getters, with Prime Minister of Australia John Howard describing the situation as a "tragedy". [cite news |first = Mark|last = Bannerman|title = Thorpe's tumble divides nation |url = http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2004/s1076520.htm |publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation |date = 2004-03-29 |accessdate = 2006-11-14] Despite the intense media spotlight, Thorpe managed to win the 100 m and 200 m freestyle events to ensure his selection for Athens. Craig Stevens, who had claimed the second qualifying position in the 400 m event, subsequently faced immense public pressure to relinquish his position to Thorpe, and later did so in a television interview for which he was paid. This generated ethical debate as to whether Stevens' decision had been bought, and criticism against Thorpe. [cite news |first = Mark|last = Bannerman|title = Stevens announcement raises financial questions for world sport |url = http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2004/s1095187.htm |format = The 7.30 report, transcript |publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation |date = 2004-04-29 |accessdate = 2006-11-14] [Hunter (2004), pp. 354–359.]

The pressure in the lead-up was further compounded by the media attention surrounding Phelps, who had decided that the 200 m freestyle would be one of the events in his quest for eight gold medals. This prompted many media outlets to label the race between Thorpe, Van den Hoogenband, Phelps and Hackett as "The Race of the Century". With the press spotlight growing, Thorpe tried to avoid media attention, resulting in a few terse media events. [Hunter (2004), pp. 377–380.] Thorpe's increasing focus on the 100 m event, coupled with the media pressure, resulted in speculation that he was vulnerable to Hackett in the 400 m event. Thorpe made a slow start in the final, reaching the 100 m mark one second outside world record pace. In a topsy-turvy performance at irregular pace, there were multiple changes of lead before Thorpe established a body-length lead by 350 m. He was closed down by Hackett, holding on by only 0.26 s in a time three seconds outside his own world record. Thorpe appeared to shed tears in an uncharacteristic sign of emotion, admitting that the controversy surrounding the event had taken a toll on him, but denying that any liquid had left his eyes. [cite news |title = Thorpe, Hackett quinella 400 m free |url= http://www.abc.net.au/sport/content/200408/s1176720.htm|publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation |date =2004-08-15 |accessdate = 2006-11-16] [Hunter (2004), pp. 384–388.]

With Klim recently returning from a two-year injury layoff, and Callus ill, Thorpe could only anchor Australia to sixth in the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay. [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = South African Men Take a Historic Relay Victory in 400 free– Smash World Record |url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/7821.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2004-08-15 |accessdate = 2006-11-16] The 200 m began with Van den Hoogenband again attacking immediately, reaching the 100 m mark more than a second under the world record split, with Thorpe half a body length behind. Thorpe gradually reduced the lead before passing Van den Hoogenband in the last 50 m to win "The Race of the Century" by half a body length, in a new Olympic record of 1 min 44.71 s. [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = The Thorpedo Triumphs over Hoogie in the “Race of the Century”, Phelps Takes the Bronze |url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/7839.asp|publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2004-08-16 |accessdate = 2006-11-16] Having achieved what had eluded him four years earlier, Thorpe reacted emotionally, immediately tearing off his cap, punching the air and screaming. [cite news |first = |last = |title =Thorpe makes history in 200 m free |url= http://www.abc.net.au/sport/content/s1178025.htm|publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation |date =2004-08-17 |accessdate = 2006-11-16] The next day saw six years of Australian victory in the 4 × 200 m freestyle relay ended when Hackett, Klim and Sprenger had put Thorpe into the final leg 1.48 s behind Keller. Thorpe gradually reduced the margin but was unable to pass Keller in the last lap, the United States touching 0.13 s earlier. [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = USA Downs Aussies in 800 Freestyle Relay in American Record 7:07.33 Italy Takes the Bronze |url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/7865.asp|publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2004-08-17 |accessdate = 2006-11-16] [cite news | title =US too good in 4×200 m relay |url= http://www.abc.net.au/sport/content/200408/s1178894.htm|publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation |date =2004-08-18 |accessdate = 2006-11-16] Thorpe found himself on the other side of a close result when he qualified last for the 100 m freestyle by 0.01 s. He capitalised in the final by coming from sixth at the 50 m mark to win bronze medal in a personal best of 48.56 s, [Hunter (2004), pp. 389–398.] [cite news |title = Van den Hoogenband wins 100 |url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/olympics_2004/swimming/3577798.stm |publisher = BBC |date = 2004-08-18 |accessdate = 2006-11-16 ] making him the only person to medal in the 100-200-400 combination in Olympic history. After the Athens Olympics, Thorpe took a break from competitive swimming, skipping the 2005 World Aquatics Championships.

2006: Attempted return and retirement

Thorpe returned to competition at the State Championships in December 2005 in the 200 m, stating his intention to retire after the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. [cite news |title = Thorpe Not Planning Beyond 2008 |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/10697.asp | publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2006-01-27 |accessdate = 2006-11-14] He also announced that with a view to concentrating on the 100 m freestyle, he had dropped his pet event, the 400 m freestyle, despite the urging of national coach Alan Thompson to swim the event. [cite news |first = |last = |title = Aussie Expectations Are High for Commonwealth Games |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/10507.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2006-01-02 |accessdate = 2006-11-14 ] Thorpe qualified for the 2006 Commonwealth Games in February 2006 by winning the 100 m and 200 m freestyle in times of 49.24 s and 1 min 46.42s respectively. Thorpe expressed disappointment with his performances, speculating that he may have misjudged his new training schedule and anticipating further improvement. [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = Australian Commonwealth Games Trials: Day Two Finals: Flash! Lenton Regains World Record in the 100 Freestyle; Thorpe Makes A Successful Return in the 200 Free |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/10754.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2006-01-31 |accessdate = 2006-11-14] [cite news |first = Stephen J.|last = Thomas|title = Australian Commonwealth Games Trials: Day Four Finals: Schipper Breaks Commonwealth Record to Win 100 Fly; Thorpe Gets the Job Done in 100 Freestyle to Take Fifth Title |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/10771.asp |publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date = 2006-02-02 |accessdate = 2006-11-14 ] This was prevented when Thorpe announced that he had withdrawn from the 2006 Commonwealth Games due to bronchitis, which had stopped him from training. [cite news | title = Thorpe is Out of Commonwealth Games|url= http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/10981.asp|publisher = Swimming World Magazine |date =2006-03-07 |accessdate = 2006-11-14] [Cite web|url=http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,18377317-2,00.html|title=Illness forces Thorpe to stand down|publisher=News Limited|accessdate=2006-03-07] The illness that floored Thorpe was later diagnosed as a strain of glandular fever, [cite news |first =Jim|last = Wilson|title = Ian Thorpe turns to gymnastics|url= http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,20532859-14641,00.html| publisher = Herald Sun |date = 2006-10-06 |accessdate = 2006-11-14] and after a further delay due to a broken hand, he moved to the United States in July to work with Dave Salo. Further disruption followed when Thorpe was forced to switch coaches due to ongoing media attention. [cite news |first = Nicole|last = Jeffery|title = City of Angels full of answers for Thorpe |url = http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,20525791-2722,00.html| publisher = The Australian |date = 2006-10-05 |accessdate = 2006-11-10] His stay was constantly surrounded by rumours that he was suffering from ill discipline, fuelling speculation that his international career was on the decline. [cite news |first = Rebecca|last = Wilson|title = Thorpe - Me, LA and gay rumours|url= http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,20186448-661,00.html|publisher = Herald Sun |date = 2006-08-20 |accessdate = 2006-11-24 ] [cite news |first = |last = |title = Thorpe fitness weighs on Australian minds|url= http://www.eurosport.com/swimming/sport_sto937705.shtml|publisher = Reuters |date = 2006-08-04 |accessdate = 2006-11-10 ]

Upon his return to Australia, he withdrew from the selection trials for the 2007 World Aquatics Championships, Thorpe announced his retirement from competition on 21 November and discussed his future plans. [cite news | title=Ian Thorpe quits swimming | date=2006-11-21 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 | publisher=news.com.au | url=http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,20795172-2,00.html] Thorpe noted that he had been contemplating retirement for some time, but was afraid of the future as swimming had given him a "safety blanket". Thorpe stated that he retired despite reaching higher levels of fitness, noting "As I got fit, physically fit, my mind also got fit", which he said had allowed him to reach his decision. He was close to tears when thanking the Australian public, but declared that his retirement was a "joyous" occasion of celebration. [cite news | first=Nicole|last=Jeffery|title=Thorpe looks up from black line | date=2006-11-22 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 |url=http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,20799039-2722,00.html|publisher =The Australian]


Thorpe's success has been attributed to a work ethic, mental strength, powerful kick, ability to accelerate and having a physiology suited to swimming. This led former Australian head coach Don Talbot to label him as "the greatest swimmer the world has seen". Although "Swimming World" labelled his technique as "extraordinary" and "superior",cite news |title = World Cup VIII: German Coach Accuses Thorpe of Doping |url = http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/1192.asp |publisher = Swimming World magazine |date = 2000-02-03 |accessdate = 2006-11-21 |language = ] Talbot disagreed, stating his belief that Thorpe has placed too much of the workload on his kick at the expense of his arms. Talbot also cited Thorpe's ability to manage his workload and his day-to-day recovery between races during a meet, which he believed was deficient. [Talbot (2003), pp. 221–229.] He was known for his trademark six-beat kick to power away to victory in the closing stages of races, attributed to his unusually large size 17 feet. [cite news | first=Christopher|last=Clarey|title=Ian Thorpe, Australian hero, throws in the towel | date=2006-11-21 |accessdate = 2007-04-26 |url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/11/21/sports/SWIM.php|publisher =International Herald Tribune]

Following his retirement, head coach of the US men's swimming team Bob Bowman, who coaches Michael Phelps, stated that Thorpe was "the greatest middle-distance swimmer of all time and he's the greatest relay swimmer I have seen". He also further cited Thorpe's ability to raise the profile of the sport and popularise it, noting that Phelps' public image was itself modelled on Thorpe's. Australian Olympic Committee president John Coates stated that "In 50 years from now Australians will still marvel at the feats of Ian Thorpe", paying tribute to his work for the Olympic movement. Dawn Fraser, the first person to win an Olympic event three times, said that Thorpe was the "greatest swimmer in the world as far as freestyle swimming is concerned", lamenting that he would not be attempting a hat-trick of 400 m titles. [cite news | first=Nicole|last=Jeffery|title=World bids adieu to pool pioneer | date=2006-11-22 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 |url=http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,20799152-2722,00.html|publisher =The Australian] [cite news | first=Christopher|last=Clarey|title=Ian Thorpe, Australian hero, throws in the towel | date=2006-11-21 |accessdate = 2007-04-26 |url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/11/21/sports/SWIM.php|publisher =International Herald Tribune]

Allegations of drug use

Thorpe's success has often led to allegations by critics that he had been using illegal performance-enhancing steroids and banned substances. In 2000, prior to the Olympics, he was accused by both the head coach and captain of Germany's swimming team, asserting that Thorpe's physical attributes were a symptom of drug use and that his ability to exceed previous records suspected of being drug-fuelled made his feats worthy of suspicion. Talbot (2003) p. 156.] In 2007, the French newspaper "L'Équipe", claimed that Thorpe showed "abnormal levels" of two banned substances in a doping test. [Cite news |url=http://www.lequipe.fr/Aussi/breves2007/20070330_183027Dev.html |title=Natation - Dopage - Une affaire Thorpe ? |publisher=L'Équipe |language=French |date=2007-03-30] [Cite news |url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/03/30/ap/sportsline/main2630494.shtml |title=L'Equipe: Thorpe Doping Test 'Abnormal' |author=AP |publisher=CBS News |date=2007-03-30] The Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA) later confirmed that they had investigated Thorpe and dismissed the result. [cite news |url = http://www.theage.com.au/news/swimming/thorpe-likely-to-be-cleared/2007/04/05/1175366408414.html |title = Thorpe likely to be cleared |publisher= The Age |date = 2007-04-06 |accessdate= 2007-04-20] Thorpe denied the rumours in a press conference. [Cite news |url=http://www.abc.net.au/sport/content/200704/s1886783.htm |title=Thorpe maintains innocence, vows to clear name |work=Online News |publisher=Australian Broadcast Corporation |date=2007-04-01 |accessdate=2007-04-02] Thorpe has himself been prominent in the campaign against drug use. He has called for the introduction of blood testing, promising to surrender a blood sample for retrospective tests and repeatedly criticised FINA for allegedly inadequate drug-testing procedures. [cite news |first = |last = |title = Hall backs Thorpe over drug use claims |url = http://www.abc.net.au/sport/content/200408/s1168739.htm |publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation |date = 2004-08-04 |accessdate = 2006-11-10 ] The Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority has cleared Thorpe of any wrong-doing [ [http://www.news.com.au/adelaidenow/story/0,22606,22339448-5006301,00.html News.com.au - Swin star Thorpe cleared over drug allegations] ] and FINA has dropped its investigation and closed the case.cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Thorpe in clear over drugs test | date=2007-11-07 | publisher= | url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/swimming/7082485.stm | work =BBC Sport | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-07 | language = ]

Personal life

Thorpe is one of the most prominent and popular sportsmen in Australia. Despite competing in a sport where the vast majority of international athletes live below the poverty line, marketing surveys have consistently shown Thorpe to be the most sought-after Australian athlete for sponsorship deals, surpassing footballers who compete on a weekly basis in much larger stadia.Hunter (2004), pp. vii–viii.] Aside from his swimsuit sponsor Adidas, Thorpe is sponsored by Australian corporate giants such as Qantas, Telstra and the Seven Network.cite news |first = Chloe|last = Saltau|title = The magnetic Mr Thorpe |url = http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/07/27/1059244481899.html|publisher = The Age |date = 2003-07-28 |accessdate = 2006-11-16 ] [Hunter (2004), pp. 90, 140, 168.] In spite of his popularity as an athlete, his demeanour is often described as being quiet and mild-mannered. Known for his long-standing interest in fashion, he serves as an ambassador for Armani, and has his own line of designer jewellery and underwear. Such interests have often led to speculation that Thorpe might be homosexual, with his picture having been featured prominently on gay websites. In 2002 he finally denied this rumour in a radio interview, asserting that he was heterosexual. He added that he was flattered by the rumours, stating that being part of a minority group showed "strength in your character". [cite news |first = Jacquelin|last = Magnay|title = Thorpe straight as the line on the bottom of the pool |url = http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/11/17/1037490052340.html |publisher = The Sydney Morning Herald |date = 2002-11-18 |accessdate = 2006-11-10 ] [Hunter (2004), pp. 318–320.]

Thorpe's interests in fashion and culture resulted in him making frequent visits to New York City (which he describes as a second home), often for obligations with Armani. He was present at the World Trade Center the morning of September 11, 2001, having stopped there on his morning jog before returning to his hotel. It was during this September trip that he was invited to be interviewed on "The Tonight Show with Jay Leno", which was notable due to the relative lack of interest in competitive swimming in America compared to other major sports. [Hunter (2004), pp. 280–281.] He later became a spokesperson for the unsuccessful New York city bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics, even promising to defer his retirement to compete in 2012, if New York were to be successful. [cite news |first = Jacquelin|last = Magnay|title = Ian Thorpe 'to rescue NY Olympic dream' |url = http://www.theage.com.au/news/sport/ian-thorpe-to-rescue-ny-olympic-dream/2005/07/04/1120329384268.html |publisher = The Age |date = 2005-07-05 |accessdate = 2006-11-10 ] Thorpe's interests have also seen him involved in television, starring in a reality television show in 2002 called "Undercover Angels", which imitated the "Charlie's Angels" series. The show involved Thorpe directing three young women who performed good deeds for people in need. Although it attracted more than a million viewers, it was widely panned by critics. [Hunter (2004), pp. 294–295.] He has also appeared as an extra in the American sitcom "Friends". [Hunter (2004), p. 244.]

Thorpe is widely popular in Asia, and Japan in particular. He was identified in 2000 by TV Asahi as the swimmer likely to be the most successful at the forthcoming 2001 Fukuoka World Championships, and was selected to be its marketing figurehead. He visited Japan before the Championships to promote Asahi in a series of television events, [Hunter (2004), pp. 236, 249, 257–260.] and upon his return for the competition itself, he was mobbed at the airport by youthful crowds 25 m deep, with hundreds camping outside the Australian team hotel. He was also praised by older sections of Japanese society as a role model for youth, due to what they interpreted as his humility and work ethic. [Hunter (2004), pp. 264–265, 275–276.] In 2002, in the wake of the tourism slump after the September 11 terrorist attacks, he agreed to be a tourism ambassador for the Australian Tourism Commission in Japan. The high-profile campaigning included a meeting with then Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, resulting in an upturn in Japanese tourism to Australia which was credited to Thorpe. [Hunter (2004), pp. 292–293.] [cite news |first = Paul|last = McIntyre|title = Seafood campaign tests Thorpe's pulling power |url = http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/07/1089000223836.html?from=storylhs |publisher = The Sydney Morning Herald |date = 2004-07-08 |accessdate = 2006-11-16 ] [cite web | last= Hockey | first= Joe| authorlink= Joe Hockey |title=Ian Thorpe - Australia's First Holiday Ambassador in Japan |url = http://minister.industry.gov.au/index.cfm?event=object.showContent&objectID=EDC62CAE-FB97-40EE-B7B30CFAA2CC7A91 |publisher = Government of Australia |date = 2002-02-25 |accessdate = 2006-11-22 ] In 2005 the Yakult company in Japan released a 'Thorpedo' energy drink, featuring a picture of Thorpe on the bottle. [cite web |title=Yakult to sell Ian Thorpe sports drink |url = http://www.japantoday.com/jp/news/358607 |publisher = Japan Today|date=2005 |accessdate = 2006-03-22 ] This was part of an equity deal with the So Natural food group in which Thorpe was offered a 5% stake in the company, initially worth A$1.1m, in return for the use of his name and image on their products. The 15-year deal covers markets across East and Southeast Asia and could expand Thorpe's share in the venture to 50% depending on its commercial success. [cite news |first = Paul|last = McIntyre|title = Seafood campaign tests Thorpe's pulling power |url = http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/07/1089000223836.html?from=storylhs |publisher = The Sydney Morning Herald |date = 2004-07-08 |accessdate = 2006-11-16 ] [Hunter (2004), pp. 350–351.]

More recently, Thorpe has also emerged as a philanthropist, founding the Ian Thorpe's Fountain for youth in 2000. [Hunter (2004), p. 248.] The organization raises funds for research on childhood illnesses and also sponsors a school in Beijing for orphaned children with disabilities. In addition, it works with The Fred Hollows Foundation to improve health standards and living conditions in Australian aboriginal communities. [cite web |url= http://www.hollows.org/content/TextOnly.aspx?s=168|title= Jeff McMullen|accessdate=2006-11-16 |work= The Fred Hollows Foundation] [Hunter (2004), pp. 331–333.]

ee also

* Commonwealth Games records in swimming
* List of swimmers
* Australian Olympic medalists in Swimming
* List of multiple Olympic gold medalists



* cite book
last= Hunter
first= Greg
title=Ian Thorpe: The Biography
publisher= MacMillan
isbn = 1-4050-3632-X

* cite book
last = Andrews | first = Malcolm
year = 2000
month = June
title = Australia at the Olympics
publisher = ABC Books
isbn = 0-7333-0884-8

* cite book
last = Talbot | first = Don
authorlink = Don Talbot
coauthors = Ian Heads, Kevin Berry
year = 2003
title = Talbot: Nothing But the Best
publisher= Lothian
isbn = 0-7344-0512-X

External links

*Grand Slam International profile for [http://www.grandslamint.com/PlayerProfile/PlayerProfile.aspx?p=3&id=7 Ian Thorpe]
*FINA name|id=AUS_iThorpe|name=Ian Thorpe
*Swimming Australia name|id={3AE63626-7A19-4E13-B80F-8BD989F2898C}|name=Ian Thorpe
*imdb name|id=0861669|name=Ian Thorpe
* [http://www.ianthorpesfountainforyouth.com.au/ Ian Thorpe's Fountain For Youth]

NAME=Thorpe, Ian
DATE OF BIRTH=13 October 1982
PLACE OF BIRTH=Sydney, Australia

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