Plasmodium species infecting reptiles

Plasmodium species infecting reptiles

Over 90 species and subspecies of "Plasmodium" infect lizards. They have been reported from over 3200 species of lizard but only 29 species of snake. Three species - "P. pessoai", "P. tomodoni" and "P. wenyoni" - infect snakes. These species belong to the subgenera "Asiamoeba", "Carinamoeba", "Lacertaemoba", "Paraplasmodium" and "Sauramoeba".Schall J.J. (2000) Transmission success of the malaria parasite "Plasmodium mexicanum" into its vector: role of gametocyte density and sex ratio. Parasitol. 121 (6):575-580] Additionalspecies continue to be described. Perkins S.L., Austin C. (2008) Four new species of Plasmodium from New Guinea lizards: Integrating morphology and molecules. J. Parasitol. ]

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regnum = Protista
phylum = Apicomplexa
classis = Aconoidasida
ordo = Haemosporida
familia = Plasmodiidae
genus = "Plasmodium"
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = "Plasmodium achiotense" "Plasmodium aeuminatum" "Plasmodium agamae" "Plasmodium arachniformis" "Plasmodium attenuatum" "Plasmodium aurulentum" "Plasmodium australis" "Plasmodium azurophilum" "Plasmodium balli" "Plasmodium basilisci" "Plasmodium beebei" "Plasmodium beltrani" "Plasmodium brumpti" "Plasmodium brygooi" "Plasmodium chiricahuae" "Plasmodium circularis" "Plasmodium cnemaspi" "Plasmodium cnemidophori" "Plasmodium colombiense" "Plasmodium cordyli" "Plasmodium diminutivum" "Plasmodium diploglossi" "Plasmodium egerniae" "Plasmodium fairchildi" "Plasmodium floridense" "Plasmodium gemini" "Plasmodium giganteum" "Plasmodium gologoense" "Plasmodium gracilis" "Plasmodium guyannense" "Plasmodium heischi" "Plasmodium holaspi" "Plasmodium icipeensis" "Plasmodium iguanae" "Plasmodium josephinae" "Plasmodium kentropyxi" "Plasmodium koreafense" "Plasmodium lacertiliae" "Plasmodium lainsoni" "Plasmodium lepidoptiformis" "Plasmodium lionatum" "Plasmodium loveridgei" "Plasmodium lygosomae" "Plasmodium mabuiae" "Plasmodium mackerrasae" "Plasmodium maculilabre" "Plasmodium marginatum" "Plasmodium mexicanum" "Plasmodium megalotrypa" "Plasmodium michikoa" "Plasmodium minasense" "Plasmodium minuoviride" "Plasmodium pelaezi" "Plasmodium pessoai" "Plasmodium pifanoi" "Plasmodium pitmani" "Plasmodium rhadinurum" "Plasmodium sasai" "Plasmodium saurocaudatum" "Plasmodium scorzai" "Plasmodium siamense" "Plasmodium robinsoni" "Plasmodium sasai" "Plasmodium scorzai" "Plasmodium tanzaniae" "Plasmodium tomodoni" "Plasmodium torrealbai" "Plasmodium tribolonoti" "Plasmodium tropiduri" "Plasmodium uluguruense" "Plasmodium uzungwiense" "Plasmodium vacuolatum" "Plasmodium vastator" "Plasmodium volans" "Plasmodium wenyoni" "Plasmodium zonuriae"

Host records

*"P. agamae" - the rainbow lizard ("Agama agama")
*"P. attenuatum" - "Ameiva ameiva"
*"P. arachniformis" - chameleons
*"P. aurulentum" - neotropical forest gecko ("Thecadactylus rapicaudus")
*"P. azurophilum" - anole lizards ("Anolis gingivinus", "Anolis gundlachi", "Anolis sabanus")
*"P. bailli" - Anolis lizards ("Anolis limifrons", "Anolis lionotus" and "Anolis poecilopus")
*"P. basilisci" - the strpped basilisk ("Basiliscus vittatus")
*"P. beebei" - the gecko ("Gonatodes taniae")
*"P. brygooi" - short-horned chameleon ("Chamaeleo brevicornis")
*"P. chiricahuae" - fence lizard ("Sceloporus jarrovi")
*"P. circularis" - Australian skink ("Egernia stokesii")

*"P. cnemaspi" - African gecko ("Cnemaspis africana")

*"P. cnemidophori" - "Ameiva ameiva"
*"P. colombiense" - Anolis lizard ("Anolis auratus")
*"P. diploglossi" - Anguid lizard ("Diploglossus fasciatus")
*"P. draconis" - the flying lizard ("Draco volans")
*"P. egerniae" - the land mullet ("Egernia major")
*"P. fairchildi" - Anolis lizard ("Anolis cupreus")
*"P. floridense" - anole lizards ("Anolis biporcatus", "Anolis carolinensis", "Anolis frenatus", "Anolis gingivinus", "Anolis gundlachi", "Anolis limifrons", "Anolis pentaprion", "Anolis sabanus" and "Anolis sagrei")
*"P. giganteum" - the rainbow lizard ("Agama agama"), the African tropical lizard ("Agama cyanogaster") Southgate B.A. (1970) "Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) giganteum" in "Agama cyanogaster": a new host record. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 64(1):12-13]
*"P. gologoense" - chameleons

*"P. gracilis" - skink ("Tribolonotus gracilis")
*"P. guyannense" - the iguanid lizard ("Plica plica")
*"P. heischi" - skinks ("Mabuya striata") Garnham P.C., Telford S.R. Jr. (1984) A new malaria parasite "Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) heischi" in skinks ("Mabuya striata") from Nairobi, with a brief discussion of the distribution of malaria parasites in the family "Scincidae". J Protozool. 31(4):518-521.]
*"P. holaspi" - African flying lizard ("Holaspis guentheri")
*"P. iguanae" - "Iguana iguana iguana"

*"P. kentropyxi" - teiid lizard ("Kentropyx calcarata")
*"P. lacertiliae" - crocodile skink ("Tribolonotus" species)
*"P. lainsoni" - the gecko ("Phyllodactylus ventralis")
*"P. lepidoptiformis" - teiid lizard ("Kentropyx calcarata")
*"P. lionatum" - the flying gecko ("Ptychozoon lionatum")

*"P. loveridgei" - African gecko ("Lygodactylus picturatus")
*"P. lygosomae" - skink ("Lygosoma moco")
*"P. mabuiae" - African skink ("Mabuya quinquetaeiata")
*"P. mackerrasae" - Australian skinks ("Egernia cunninghami", "Egernia stokesii" and "Egernia striolata")
*"P. maculilabre" - African skink ("Mabuya" species)
*"P. marginatum" - Anolis lizard ("Anolis frenatus")
*"P. mexicanum" - fence lizards ("Sceloporus occidentalis")
*"P. michikoa" - chameleons
*"P. minasense" - African skink ("Mabuya agilis")
*"P. minasense anolisi" - Anolis lizards ("Anolis cybotes", "Anolis distichus", "Anolis frenatus" and "Anolis limifrons")
*"P. minasense calcaratae" - teiid lizard ("Kentropyx calcarata")
*"P. minasense capitoi" - Anolis lizard ("Anolis capito")
*"P. minasense carinii" - iguanid lizard ("Iguana iguana")
*"P. minasense diminutivum" - dwarf tegu lizard ("Ameiva ameiva")
*"P. minasense minasense" - African skink ("Mabuya mabouya")
*"P. minasense plicae" - olive tree runner lizard ("Plica umbra")
*"P. minasense tegui" - blue tengu lizard ("Tupinambis teguixin")
*"P. pelaezi" - the iguanid lizard ("Urosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus")
*"P. pessoai" - snakes ("Spilotes pullatus" and "Lachesis muta")
*"P. pifanoi" - the green ameiva lizard ("Ameiva ameiva") and a teiid lizard ("Kentropyx calcarata")
*"P. pitmani" - African skink ("Mabuya" species)
*"P. rhadinurum" - Iguana iguana iguana
*"P. robinsoni" - the Parson's Chameleon ("Chamaelo parsoni crucifer")
*"P. sasai" - Japanese lacertids ("Takydromus tachydromoides" and "Takydromus smaragdinus")
*"P. saurocaudatum" - the many-lined sun skink ("Mabuya multifasciata")
*"P. scorzai" - the gecko "Phyllodactylus ventralis"
*"P. siamense" - lizards. Telford S.R. (1986) "Fallisia" parasites ("Haemosporidia: Plasmodiidae") from the flying lizard, "Draco maculatus" ("Agamidae") in Thailand. J. Parasitol. 72(5):766-769]
*"P. tanzaniae" - chameleons
*"P. tomodoni" - snakes
*"P. torrealbai" - Anolis lizards
*"P. tribolonoti" - skinks ("Tribolonotus gracilis")
*"P. tropiduri" - iguanid lizard ("Tropidurus torquatus"), Anolis lizards ("Anolis biporcatus","Anolis cybotes", "Anolis frenatus", "Anolis limifrons", "Anolis lionotus", "Anolis pentaprion" and "Anolis poecilopus"), teiid lizard ("Kentropyx calcarata")
*"P. tropiduri aquaticum" - Anolis lizards ("Anolis lionotus" and "Anolis poecilopus")
*"P. tropiduri panamense" - Anolis lizard ("Anolis biporcatus")
*"P. tropiduri tropiduri" - "Tropidurus hispidus"
*"P. robinsoni" - the red-headed rock agama lizard ("Agama agama")

*"P. uluguruense" - African gecko ("Hemidactylus platycephalus")
*"P. uzungwiense" - chameleons
*"P. vacuolatum" - the rainforest lizard ("Plica umbra")

*"P. vastator" - the flying lizard ("Draco volans")
*"P. volans" - the flying lizard ("Draco volans")
*"P. wenyoni" - snakes


*"P. fairchildi" - "P. fairchildi fairchildi" and "P. fairchildi hispaniolae"
*"P. lygosomae" - "P. lygosomae nucleoversans" and "P. lygosomae nucleoversans"
*"P. minasense" - "P. minasense anolisi", "P. minasense capitoi", "P. minasense carinii",

*"P. minasense diminutivum", "P. minasense minasense", "P. minasense plicae", and "P. minasense tegui". Telford S.R. Jr. (1979) A taxonomic revision of small neotropical saurian Malarias allied to "Plasmodium minasense". Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 54(4):409-422] An additional subspecies "P. minasense calcaratae" has also been described.Telford S.R. Jr., Telford S.R. 3rd. (2003) Rediscovery and redescription of "Plasmodium pifanoi" and description of two additional "Plasmodium" parasites of Venezuelan lizards. J. Parasitol. 89(2):362-368]

*"P. traguli" - "P. traguli traguli" and "P. traguli memmina".

*"P. tropiduri" - "P. tropiduri aquaticum", "P. tropiduri panamense" and "P. tropiduri tropiduri". Telford S.R. Jr. (1979) A taxonomic reconsideration of some "Plasmodium" species from iguanid lizards. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 54(2):129-144]


Compared with those known for the species infecting humans, few vectors are known for these species.
*"P. agamae" - "Lutzomyia" or "Culicoides" species
*"Culex fatigans" - "P. rhadinurum"
*"Aedes aegypti" - "P. rhadinurum"


*"P. floridense" is closely related to "P. tropiduri" and "P. minasense"


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