United States Life-Saving Service

United States Life-Saving Service

The United States Life-Saving Service was a United States government agency that grew out of private and local humanitarian efforts to save the lives of shipwrecked mariners and passengers. It began in 1848 and ultimately merged with the Revenue Cutter Service to form the United States Coast Guard in 1915.

Early years

Formal federal government involvement in the life saving business began in 1848 with the signing of the Newell Act, which was named for its chief advocate, New Jersey Representative William A. Newell. Under the Newell Act, the United States Congress appropriated $10,000 to establish unmanned life saving stations along the New Jersey coast south of New York Harbor and to provide "surf boats, rockets, carronades and other necessary apparatus for the better preservation of life and property from ship- wrecks...." That same year the Massachusetts Humane Society also received funds from the United States Congress for life saving stations on the Massachusetts coastline. Between 1848 and 1854 other stations were built and loosely managed.

The stations were administered by the United States Revenue Marine (later renamed the United States Revenue Cutter Service). They were run with volunteer crews, much like a volunteer fire department.

In September 1854, a category 4 hurricane, the Great Carolina Hurricane of 1854, swept through the East Coast of the United States, causing the deaths of many sailors. This storm highlighted the poor condition of the equipment in the life saving stations, the poor training of the crews and the need for more stations. Additional funds were appropriated by Congress, including funds to employ a full-time keeper at each station and two superintendents.

Still not officially recognized as a service, the system of stations languished until 1871 when Sumner Increase Kimball was appointed chief of the Treasury Department's Revenue Marine Division. One of his first acts was to send Captain John Faunce of the Revenue Marine Service on an inspection tour of the life saving stations. Captain Faunce's report noted that "apparatus was rusty for want of care and some of it ruined."

Kimball convinced Congress to appropriate $200,000 to operate the stations and to allow the Secretary of the Treasury to employ full-time crews for the stations. Kimball instituted six-man boat crews at all stations, built new stations, and drew up regulations with standards of performance for crew members.

By 1874, stations were added along the coast of Maine, Cape Cod, the Outer Banks of North Carolina, and Port Aransas, Texas. The next year, more stations were added to serve the Great Lakes and the Houses of Refuge in Florida. In 1878, the network of life saving stations were formally organized as a separate agency of the United States Department of the Treasury, called the Live-Saving Service.

Formal structure

The stations of the Service fell into three categories: lifesaving, lifeboat, and houses of refuge. Lifesaving stations were manned by full-time crews during the period when wrecks were most likely. On the East Coast, this was usually from November to April, and was called the "active season." By 1900, the active season was year-round. Most stations were in isolated areas and crewmen had to perform open beach launchings. That is, they were required to launch their boats from the beach into the surf.

Before 1900, there were very few recreational boaters and most assistance cases came from ships engaged in commerce.

Nearly all lifeboat stations were located at or near port cities. Here, deep water, combined with piers and other waterfront structures, allowed launching heavy lifeboats directly into the water by marine railways on inclined ramps. In general, lifeboat stations were on the Great Lakes, but some lifesaving stations were in the more isolated areas of the lakes. The active season on the Great Lakes stretched from April to December. An exception was the nation's first rescue center on the inland waterways, the United States Life Saving Station #10, established in 1881 at the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville, KY, on the Ohio River.

Houses of refuge made up the third category of Life Saving Service units. These stations were on the coasts of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. A paid keeper and a small boat were assigned to each house, but the organization did not include active manning and rescue attempts. It was felt that along this stretch of coastline, shipwrecked sailors would not die of exposure to the cold in the winter as in the north. Therefore, only shelters would be needed.

Merger to create Coast Guard

On January 28, 1915, President Woodrow Wilson signed the "Act to Create the Coast Guard," merging the Life-Saving Service with the Revenue Cutter Service to create the United States Coast Guard. By the time the act was signed there was a network of more than 270 stations covering the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico Coasts, and the Great Lakes.

See also

*United States Coast Guard
*Revenue Cutter Service
*Houses of Refuge in Florida
*Dunbar Davis
*Joshua James (lifesaver)
*Pea Island Life-Saving Station
*Seatack, Virginia
*Norwegian Lady StatuesChicamacomico Life-Saving Station Historic Site: www.chicamacomico.net

Additional reading

*Noble, Dennis L., "That Others Might Live: The U.S. Life-Saving Service", 1878-1915. ISBN 1557506272.
*Wreck & Rescue: The Journal of the U.S. Life-Saving Service Heritage Association, 1996- .

External links

* [http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/57kinnakeet/57kinnakeet.htm "Little Kinnakeet Lifesaving Station: Home to Unsung Heroes," a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan]
* [http://www.uslife-savingservice.org/ The U.S. Life-Saving Service Heritage Association]
* [http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-cp/history/Homeland_Security_Baldinelli.html The U.S. Coast Guard's Assignment to the Department of Homeland Security]
* [http://www.mychatham.com/capecodlifesavers.html Lifesaving on the Cape Cod Coast]
* [http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-cp/history/h_USLSS.asp A Legacy: The United States Life-Saving Service] ]
* [http://www.uscg.mil/history/h_index.asp U.S. Coast Guard history.]
* [http://www.stormwarriorsvideo.com/ Life Saving Service along Lake Superior]
* [http://www.lifesavingservice.org/ U.S.L.S.S. Living History Association]


* "This article contains information created by the United States Coast Guard and is in the public domain."

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • United States Life-Saving Service — L United States Life Saving Service était un organisme gouvernemental des États unis né d efforts humanitaires privés et locaux pour sauver la vie des naufragés et des personnes en train de se noyer. Il a ouvert en 1848 et a finalement fusionné… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • United States Revenue Cutter Service — The United States Revenue Cutter Service was established by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in 1790 as an armed maritime law enforcement service. Throughout its entire existence the Revenue Cutter Service operated under the authority …   Wikipedia

  • United States Coast Guard — portal Active 4 August 1790–present …   Wikipedia

  • United States Armed Forces — United States Joint Service Color Guard on parade at Fort Myer, Virginia. Service branches …   Wikipedia

  • United States Coast Guard — US Coast Guard Armoiries de l USCG Le United States Coast Guard (USCG), le corps des garde côtes des États Unis, est un organisme fédéral à qui est dévolue l action de l état en mer (application de la loi en mer et des règlements maritimes,… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • UNITED STATES OF AMERICA — UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, country in N. America. This article is arranged according to the following outline: introduction Colonial Era, 1654–1776 Early National Period, 1776–1820 German Jewish Period, 1820–1880 East European Jewish Period,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • History of the United States Coast Guard — The history of the United States Coast Guard goes back to the Revenue Cutter Service, which was founded on August 4, 1790 as part of the Department of the Treasury. The Revenue Cutter Service and the United States Life Saving Service were merged… …   Wikipedia

  • Klipsan Beach Life Saving Station — Infobox nrhp | name =Klipsan Beach Life Saving Station nrhp type = caption = location= Klipsan Beach, Washington lat degrees = 46 lat minutes = 27 lat seconds = 52.89 lat direction = N long degrees = 124 long minutes = 3 long seconds = 8.77 long… …   Wikipedia

  • Pea Island Life-Saving Station — was a life saving station on Pea Island, one of the Outer Banks of North Carolina. It was the first life station in the country to have an all black crew, and it was the first in the nation to have a black man as a commanding… …   Wikipedia

  • Chicamacomico Life-Saving Station — U.S. National Register of Historic Places …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”